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Families from Mlynov and Mervits



KehilaLinks



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Israel Jacob and Rivkah (Gruber) Demb. Courtesy of Ted Fishman.
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The Demb Children from Mlynov. Contributions from Demb descendants.
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Shiman and Anna (Fishman) Goldseker. Courtesy of Audrey Goldseker Polt.
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The Family of Shiman and Anna Goldseker 1906.[1] Courtesy of Audrey Goldseker Polt.
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Toba, wife of Berel Fishman (no photo). Courtesy of Audrey Goldseker Polt.
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The Children of Berel and Toba Fishman. Courtesy of Audrey Goldseker Polt and Irene Siegel.
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Tsodik and Pearl Malka (Demb) Shulman. Courtesy of Ted Fishman and Howard Schwartz.
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Four generations of the Shulman family [2], circa 1917. Courtesy of Howard Schwartz.

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The Family of Moshe and Goldie Herman. Courtesy of Debra Weinberg and Lynne Sandler.
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Schwartz Brothers, Chaim, Morris and Israel. Courtesy of Howard Schwartz, Audrey Goldseker Polt and Myra Schein.
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Chaim Schwartz and Yetta (Demb) Schwartz. Courtesy of Howard Schwartz.

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Because of the paucity of data contemporaneous with the lives of those living in Mlynov, we have to exercise other ways to imagine what life may have been like when our ancestors lived there. All of the first hand accounts of life in Mlynov or Mervits, including those in the memorial book, come from memoirs of people thirty to fifty years after they lived there. And while they are invaluable recollections of the place and life there, they are after the fact and are recollections tinged by the challenging history that happened afterwards.

One of the best ways to reimagine life in Mlynov and Mervits, therefore, is to grasp what we do know about the families who lived there and left there once upon a time. When doing so, what is striking is the robust interconnectedness of all the families. Every family it seemed had married every other one. When you realize that these townlets were smaller than typical American high schools today, it makes perfect sense that this deep intermingling occurred. Whom else would they marry? I have found three first cousin marriages among the families I have researched as well as marriages between an uncle and a niece, a child and her uncle's brother, a boy and his aunt's niece, and so on. The interconnectedness across families was deep and pervasive.

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The following summaries of families from Mlynov and Mervits have been collected both to honor our ancestors from these villages and to provide a window into what life was like when they were there. They include the Dembs, Faxes, Fishmans, Goldsekers, Hermans, Hurwitz / Rivitzes, Schuchmans, Schwartzes, Shulmans, among others to be added.

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Mobility in Mlynov and Mervits

Not only were Mlynov and Mervits small, but there was much less general mobility than today. In the 19th century, trains were starting to connect the nearby cities of Dubno and Rivne which Mlynov residents visited occassionally to purchase nice goods for the Jewish holidays, or to catch a train to a port when visiting or emigrating to the US. The reliance on horse and wagon and walking made such trips infrequent, except for those engaged in commerce. Reflections in the Memorial book refer to coachmen who used to transport grain from Mlynov's mill to Dubno and other neighboring towns and bring groceries from surrounding towns back to Mlynov. Market days may also have been a source of local mobility. "They occurred once a week and hundreds of people, mostly farmers from the area and Jewish businessmen would come to the market square. A large variety of items were sold, such as tools, supplies, food and drinks. Some Jewish families made their weekly earnings from this one single day at the market."[3] It is not surprising, giving the small nature of the towns, and the limits on mobility, that so many of the marriages of young men and women took place with others they knew from Mlynov and Mervits. The young people from the townlet of Mervits socialized with their counterparts in Mlynov leading eventually to marriages like that of Ben Fishman from Mervits, who married Clara Shulman, from Mlynov. Subsequent DNA tests seem to bear out the interrelatedness of many Mlynov descendants who don't otherwise appear in the same family trees.

Still, we do find some marriages between Mlynov born individuals and those in other towns and villages and we do see some mobility of families from these towns. Moshe Gruber, for example, left Mlynov and travelled to yeshivot (centers of learning) in Ludmir (Volodymyr-Volynskyi) to find a learned scholar to marry his daughter Rivkah. Pearl Malka Demb married Tsodik Shulman from Lithuania who, the family suspects, may have been passing through Mlynov when serving in the Russian army. Pearl's younger sister, Mollie Demb, married Samuel Roskes who came from the town of Lutsk and Ida Rivitz married Getzel Fax from Demydivka.

In the next generation, we find what appears to be increased mobility. By 1902, David and Bessie Rivitz's oldest daughter, Gulza, for example, had moved with her husband Leizor Mazuryk (Louis Mazer) to Berestechko for commerce opportunities closer to the Austria-Hungary border. Simha Gruber, with his two sons, Samuel and Nathan, were in Novohrad-Volyns’kyi presumably for business around 1912, and Simha's brother, Motel Demb, apparently settled there and married a local girl. For his part, Simha, apparently was in Berdichev (today Berdychiv, Ukraine) in 1912, but back in Mlynov by 1913. This mobility likely exposed Mlynov Jews to a variety of the impulses shaping Jewry during the period of the Tsarist regime. For example, by 1897, Berdichev, which Simha visited in 1913, already had a population of 53,728, and 41,617 (about 80%) were Jewish. To a Mlynov born son, this must have felt like going to London or New York. Berdichev thus crystalized some of the key conflicts in the Jewish community of the time being the center of conflict between Hasidic and enlightenment-oriented Mitnagdim (Oppposers).[4]

Traditional religious education was also a source of mobility during the period. For example, Mendel Teitelman from Mervits describes studying in the yeshiva in Baranovitch (today Baranavichy, Belarus) during WWI when the Germans occupied the city during an offensive on the Eastern Front. Mendl was moved, along with his friend Simha Zutelman, to army barracks near Ostrov where they were assigned to heavy labor parties supporting local noblemen for the duration of the War. Before the War, he recalls, having studied in a yeshiva in Rovno and Stolpts as well.[5] One can get a sense of mobility at this time, from the distances of the various towns that people from Mlynov and Mervits mention and visited.

Known Mobility of Mlynov / Mervits Villagers

Name of City/Town Contemporary Town Name KM from Mlynov Miles from Mlynov Driving Time Today Details
Stolpts Stowbtsy, Belarus 46 290 5.5 hrs Mendel Teitleman from Mervitz studied in yeshiva here before 1914.
Baranovitch Baranavichy, Belarus 409 254 5 hrs Mendel Teitleman from Mervitz studied in yeshiva here in WWI when Germans occupied the city.
Novograd Novohrad-Volyns’kyi 150 99 2 hrs Simha Gruber, his two sons, Nathan and Samuel, were here in 1912 possibly for business. Simha's brother Motel Demb married a local girl and had a child here.
Berdichev Berdychiv, Ukraine 288 179 4 hrs Simha Gruber was here in 1912 and back in Mlynov by 1913.
Ludmir Volodymyr-Volynskyi 113 70 1 hr Moshe Gruber brough back Israel Demb from here to marry his daughter Rivkah.
Berestechko Berestechko 38 23 48 min The oldest daughter of David and Pesse (Demb) Rivitz, Gulza Mazuryck moved here with her husband before 1902.
Rovno Rivne, Ukraine 94 58 40 min The Shulmans from Mlynov were living here after WWI.
Lutsk Lutsk, Ukraine 36 22 37 min Mollie Demb from Mlynov married Sam Roskes from Lutsk before 1901.
Demydivka Demydivka, Ukraine 23 14 25 min Getzel Fax was from Demydivka and married Ida Rivitz from Mlynov. They were the pioneers to Baltimore.
Dubno Dubno, Ukraine 19 22 49 min Clara Fram reports that her father left for America and returned from Dubno and Dubno was where her mother went to purchase nice things for the holidays.

We can assume that mobility was motivated by a variety of factors: commerce opportunities elsewhere that drew young families away, traditional education in the yeshivas, WWI which led to an evacuation of Mlynov at one point, and probably by the internal turmoil in Russia during its first revolution which reached as far as Mlynov. Russia also pursued a policy of "selective integration" and Jews who pursued higher education were able to move beyond the pale to large cities such as St. Petersburg.[6] For the most part, the impact of these larger macro trends in Russian history on the residents of Mlynov and Mervits has to be inferred and imagined since so little is left of contemporaneous accounts or records.

For this reason, one important window into life in Mlynov before WWI and WWII is by understanding who married whom, who stayed and who left, and when. Many were lucky enough to leave when they did in the first European Jewish migration from Russia to the United States, between 1890 and 1914. Another wave followed after WWI between 1920–1929. The migration to Palestine appears to have picked up speed in the 1920s due in part to dislocation and violence from WWI experiences, the growing popularity of Zionism, and the quotas imposed on immigration to the United States, which drastically reduced immigration from Eastern Europe!

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THE DEMB / GRUBER FAMILY

When Rivkah Gruber was eleven years old, and was of marrying age, her father Moshe Gruber left Mlynov and "traveled to various Yeshivohs [centers of learnings] to find the proper scholar for her to marry. From the town of Ludmir (today "Volodymyr-Volynsky", 68 miles away), he brought a fifteen year old scholar named Israel Jacob Demb and, according to the prevailing custom, promised perpetual support for him and his growing family."

This story was recorded by Rivkah's granddaughter, Clara Fram, who was born in Mlynov in 1902 and recorded her memories in 1981 in Baltimore.[7] Clara recalls that her grandmother had been "an only child of wealthy parents;" and Rivkah's father, Moshe Gruber, owned a brass and copper foundry, employing about two hundred laborers." The size of the foundry may be exaggerated in Clara's memory, who left Mlynov when she was about seven-years-old, since there is at least one external source that mentions an iron-casting shop in Mlynov employing 60 people in 1903–1904.[8] In any case, Moshe Gruber was apparently wealthy enough to support a son-in-law who would study full time and apparently didn't think there was a local boy good enough for his daughter in Mlynov.


Israel Jacob Demb and Rivkah became the patriarch and matriach of the Demb family and had nine children: Six of the nine immigrated to Baltimore between 1909-1921. By 1930, there were thirty Demb descendants living in Baltimore.

The Demb children who migrated were: Pesse Demb (later Bessie Hurwitz) (1864–1939) and her husband David (Rivitz) Hurwitz (1867–) and five children, Yenta Demb (1870–1962) and her husband Chaim (Hyman) Schwartz (1865–1933) and three sons (Benjamin, Norton and Paul), Pearl Malka Demb and her husband Tsodik Shulman (1863–1947) and five of their seven children and their families, Motel Demb (Max Deming) (1871–1929) and his wife Freida Korusnia (1881–1966) and one of their children, and Aaron Demb (1876–1970) and his wife and two sons.

Simha (Demb) Gruber (1864–1913) remained in Europe and apparently remarried. Family oral tradition speculates that he was given his mother's maiden name of Gruber instead of Demb to avoid conscription in the Russian military. The three children from Simha's first wife, Chava, all immigrated to Baltimore. They were Malka ( Mollie Gruber) Herman, Nathan Gruber and Samuel Gruber.

According to oral traditions from the Herman family, the oldest daughter Malka (Mollie) Gruber:

left home when, after her mother died when she was 13, her father married his second wife, Chaindel. Mollie did not get along with her stepmother. It is unknown whether there were children by the second marriage [ed note: a photo from the Gruber clan suggests there might have been]. Mollie went to Berdichev where she worked in a dress factory sewing sequins unto dresses. She later was back in Mlynov and married Israel Herman (see Herman family below) and they had their first child there.

We don't know much about the other two Demb children. One of the nine, Edle, died young, in a possible drowning, and there is no family information beyond the name of Hannah about another daughter.

I recently discovered and connected with descendants of a Gruber family in Mlynov who were Holocaust survivors and are living in Israel. We do not yet know how they are related to Moshe Gruber. They will be discussed under the Teitelman Family.

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THE FAX /FOX (originally FUCHS) and RIVITZ FAMILIES, PIONEERS TO BALTIMORE

Getzel ("Eliakim Getzel") and Ida (born "Chaia" Rivitz) Fax (originally "Fuchs") are the first known Mlynov family to leave for the US in the early 1890s. Their addresses at 818 and 836 E. Pratt Street in Baltimore, next to what is now the Star-Spangled Banner House, became the launching pad for the first wave of Mlynov immigrants to that city, between 1890–1910. Thus far, I have not found any Mlynov resident who immigrated to the US before Getzel and Ida, and almost all the Mlynov to Baltimore immigrants in the first wave of immigration stayed for a while at their home. Getzel and Ida's son, Joseph Fax, was the first descendant from a Mlynov family to be born in Baltimore and he went on to become a well-respected lawyer who ran for city council in 1919.


Getzel Fax was born in 1862 in the small town of Demydivka, which is 24 km (24 minutes driving today) southwest of Mlynov on the road to Berestechko. His brother Sam (Fox), also an immigrant to Baltimore, was born quite a bit later in 1883. We don't know how Getzel met his wife Chaia (Ida) Rivitz, who was born in 1867 and living near Mlynov. Perhaps he was in Mlynov one market day during business or staying at the inn that the Rivitz family ran outside of Mlynov.

Ida, for her part, was born during a lengthy journey of her parents, Mordechai and Zecil (also "Lisel") Rivitz, from Sevastopol in the Crimea back to Mlynov. Her niece, Clara Fram, recounts the story of how Ida's parents (and Clara's paternal grandparents) first met: Mordechai Rivitz had been conscripted into the Tsar's army at the age of seven and released after fifteen years in Sevastopol, near the Turkish capital of Constantinople. There "at age 22, he met a young Jewish orphan girl, the owner of a wine cellar. He married her, and began making plans to bring her to his home town in the Ukraine." It took them 2 1/2 years to get there, during which time Ida Rivitz was born.[9]

Back in Mlynov, Ida's brother (and Clara's father) David Rivitz was born. Clara recounts that the family lived in the countryside not far from Mlynov and had a variety of means on their property to produce a living, including "an inn where travelers could stop and be refreshed," "a distillery making vodka," "cattle," and farming. It should be noted that Jews were known to dominate the liquor trade during the Russian period, and were blamed at times for the debauchery of Russian peasants on that account.[10]

David grew up and went to school ("cheder") in Mlynov and there met and fell in love with Pesse Demb (later Bessie Hurwitz), the beautiful eldest, daughter of one of the town's scholars, Israel Jacob Demb, and his wife Rivkah (Gruber) Demb, daughter of the well-to-do Moshe Gruber. According to Clara, it was an unlikely match because Bessie's father, Israel Demb, would have preferred a scholar for his eldest daughter. But Israel was himself supported by the foundry business of his father-in-law, Moshe Gruber, and the business had started to decline and could not support another non-working scholar. Clara explains, "By the time my father and my mother saw each other in Cheder, though he [i.e., Pesse's father, Israel Jacob Demb] would have desired a scholarly bridegroom for his beautiful and accomplished Pesse, my grandfather did not object to her marrying into the Rivitz family that was well-off in their Possessia."[11]

In 1891, after Tsar Alexander II was assassinated, the Rivitz family had to sell their property outside Mlynov and moved back into town. This loss is what triggered Getzel and Ida Fax to leave for Baltimore. Being such a small town, word must have spread fast about the pending migration. Over the next twenty years, many Mlynov families followed the Faxes to Baltimore and lived with them until they got on their feet.

Getzel and Ida had three children. Their oldest child, Theresa (also Teresa) Fax, born around 1880, arrived in Baltimore in 1891 (probably with her mother) where she married Israel Goodman and they had their first child, Rose, in that city in 1898.[12] Theresa and Israel Goodman went on to have an additional eight children in Baltimore.

As noted earlier, Getzel and Ida's son Joseph Fax, born in 1894 in Baltimore, was the first child of a Mlynov immigrant to be born in Baltimore. He went on to be a prominent Baltimore attorney and represented a number of lantzmen in real estate and even in interesting zoning disputes with the city of Baltimore. Joseph married Zelda (Selma) Bronstein (1897–1935), from a large prominent Baltimore family in the garment business. Zelda arrived in Baltimore with her mother in 1899 at the age of two.

Getzel and Ida had a third son, Michael or Max, who was born in 1896 and appears in the 1900 census. But then he mysteriously disappears from the records and is not present in the 1910 census. When I tracked down Getzel and Ida's great-grandson, Charles Fax, I asked him about this and learned that Max had been run over by a trolley car while riding a bike just outside their home. The incident was documented in this story in the Baltimore Sun on March 21, 1903 (p 12). Recounting this story, Charles told me that this loss stayed with his grandfather and none of the children were allowed to ride bikes for the longest time. The descendants were thus surprised when I turned up this newspaper story, which mentioned nothing about the bike.

Ida's brother, David Rivitz, traveled back and forth from Mlynov to Baltimore throughout the 1890's and lived with the Faxes before moving permanently to Baltimore in early 1901. During his itinerent period, David's wife who was still back in Mlynov was known as "Pesse the American," "a name given to her because her husband keeps going to America and returning, because he doesn’t want to raise his children in the 'traife' America." Clara adds: "'My mother, years later, fond of reminiscing about my father, said frequently: “Whoever didn’t see him get off the train in Dubno [on his return], has never seen a handsome man.' He had come home perhaps to go into the grain business, so he thought." Apparently it didn't work out and David left permanently for Baltimore in 1901. According to Clara, David changed his name from Rivitz to Hurwitz there, because he was told by someone in the synagogue when he first arrived that Rivitz was too hard to spell. Growing up, Clara never knew her family name was Rivitz back in Europe. David Hurwitz became a peddler and worked for a company called Nachlas and Freiden in dry goods. (Clara Fram recalls other memories of Mlynov here.) [13]

In 1904, Getzel Fax's brother, Sam arrived in Baltimore and at his brother's urging took the family name Fox rather than Fax, which Getzel had accidentally adopted upon his arrival in the country. In fact, Getzel's name appears in many different English variations in the records, including Georg Fax, Geo Fax, and Getzel Fox, indicating in part the attempt to settle in and find a new identity. As one of the few Faxes in the Baltimore City directory who was not African-American, Getzel's name appears without an asterisk next to his name, the asterisk a convention at the time signaling a person was "Negro." This lack of an asterisk is an early indication of how Russian Jewish immigrants were being mapped "white" in the hierarchies of Baltimore in the late 19th and early 20th century, even though they were also subject to housing discrimination because they were not Christian. Getzel's great-grandson, Charles, explained to me that the African Americans with the name Fax often:

decended from the slaves who were freed, at his death, by Lord Fairfax, who owned much of Northern Virginia during the colonial period. In gratitude, the emancipated slaves took the surname “Fairfax” or “Fax,”... The author Elton Fax is from one of those slave families. My father used to recount how, when he was on business travels, occasionally he would get a call in his hotel room from another hotel guest who introduced himself as “Fax,” advised that the front desk had told him that there was another “Fax” registered at the hotel, and asked whether they might be related. “I doubt it,” was my father’s standard reply.
Soon after his arrival, Sam Fox married a woman named Zipporah, and the couple had two sons (Martin and Ernie) in Baltimore. Unfortunately, Sam was widowed sometime before 1910 due to unknown causes.


In 1907, David's son Yitzhak Rivitz ("Jechok Riwez" and later "Isaac Hurwitz") arrived in Baltimore via Bremen followed in early 1909 by David's wife, Pesse, his mother Zecil, and three youngest daughters, Minnie, Rose and Clara. They traveled across Europe from Mlynov to Trieste, Italy where they caught took a ship called the "Martha Washington" to New York and then took a train to Baltimore.[14] The youngest daughter, Clara, the author of the memoire from which I have been quoting, apparently did not recognize her father when they were reunited. He had left Mlynov when she was two years old and was seven when they were reunited in 1909. Clara tells us that there was not much room in the Faxes' home when they first arrived and her sister Minnie lived around the corner at the home of her Aunt Mollie (Demb) Roskes before Minnie was quickly married off through an arranged married to her uncle Getzel's brother, Sam Fox, who had recently become widowed. Sam and Minnie Fox went on to have three additional children together: Sarah Ann (Fox) (Kappelman) Harris (1910–2019), Michael (also Michel) Fox (1911–1973), and Jack Fox (1914–1982).

Sadly, Yitzhak Rivitz would be the first Mlynov immigrant to die in Baltimore in 1918 from the Spanish flu epidemic, but not before he married a woman named Cecilia and had a son named Howard Hurwitz. (Ceilia became Sheila Shapiro after she laer remarried). David and Pesse's oldest daughter, Gulza (Rivitz) Mazer, would not arrive with her family in Baltimore until after WWI in 1921, as part of the third wave of immigration following the War.

Rose went on to marry, Henry Finkelstein, who ran a men's clothing business in Baltimore and they had four children. Clara would later marry Philip Fram from Texas, son of an immigrant rabbi, when he was stationed in Baltimore. They had two children: Betty J. Korpeck (1933–) and David H. Fram (1937–2019).

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THE FISHMAN FAMILY

The Fishmans were a large family from Mlynov and Mervits, the small village close to Mlynov. Fishmans intermarried with Demb, Goldseker, Schwartz, Shulman and Gruber descendants. From the Baltimore descendants, we know about three Fishman brothers: Berel, Nathan and Qabish.

We have very little information about Qabish Fishman and his wife Gitel, only the names of their four children: Benjamin, Hinda, Silke and Yankel.

Nathan and his daugther Anna came to Baltimore in 1911, where Anna married Mlynov immigrant Ben Schwartz in 1914. It was not until ten years after Nathan's arrival that he was joined in Baltimore by his wife Ida after WWI. Nathan was among a number of Mlynov husbands who came to Baltimore before 1914 and were separated from their wives and children when WWI broke out in late July of that year. Many were reunited only six to ten years after they had last seen their families.

Nathan's brother, Berel Fishman, married Toba and had five children: Hennie (Anna), Sarah, Meyer, Moishe, and David. Their oldest daughter Anna Fishman (1867–1914) married Shimon Goldseker (1867–1926) and had twelve children, a number of whom came to Baltimore (see summary below under Goldseker Family).

Anna's sister, Sarah Fishman (1878–1963), married Israel Schwartz (1874–1935) and they both were in Baltimore with their two children by 1912. Israel, by the way, travelled to the US with Nathan Fishman, his wife's uncle.

Anna and Sarah's brother, Meyer Fishman (1884–1965), married his niece, Ida Goldseker (1888–1968), daughter of his sister Anna (Fishman) Goldseker, and both immigrated to the United States and were in Baltimore by early 1912. Meyer and Ida later divorced and Meyer was remarried twice more.

Moishe Fishman (1873–1968), his wife Chava, his son David ("Dudek"), and daughter Chuva, immigrated to Palestine in 1921 where Moishe helped found Moshav Bafouria.[15] Balfouria was founded in 1922, the third moshav to be established in Palestine, and was named after Arthur James Balfour, writer of the Balfour Declaration, which endorsed Zionist plans for a Jewish "national home". The Fishman family was one of the first families to leave Mlynov for Palestine and made a big stir in Mlynov at the time.

Before Moshe left for Palestine, his other son Ben Fishman (1902-1993) left Mlynov without the permission of his parents and joined the Demb, Lerner and Marder families in 1920 as they migrated to Baltimore. This split in the Fishman family between Palestine and Baltimore as destinations was representative of the choices facing the Mlynov immigrants who wanted to leave after WWI. I have no information so far about David Fishman, the last of Berel and Toba's children, but he must have passed away before 1904 when Sonny David Goldseker was named for him.

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THE GOLDSEKER FAMILY

The Goldsekers were a large family in Mlynov. From family trees passed on in the Baltimore descendants, we know of five Goldseker brothers: Hirsch, Yankel, Shimon, Moishe and Yoel, and we know the most so far about Shimon Goldseker.

The family name, Goldseker, was spelled "Holzhaker" by some family members. Early in the 19th century, laws were enacted in Poland/Russia, prescribing that Jewish families assume surnames. Popular sources for surnames were the places where the people lived or their vocations. Apparently someone in the family was a woodchopper since "holzhaker" means "woodchopper."

Shimon was born in 1867 and died in Mlynov in 1926 at the age of 59. He married Anna Fishman, from the large Fishman family, who was born in Mlynov in 1876 and died in 1914 at the age of 47. The marriage of Shimon and Anna, forever intertwined the Fishman and Goldseker families.

Anna (Fishman) and Shimon Goldseker were the parents of twelve children, eight of whom grew to adulthood. The eight children were: Chaiya (Ida) (Goldseker) Fishman Gresser, Peyrel (Pearl) (Goldseker) Pressman, Eta (Goldseker) Fishman, Moishe (Morris) Goldseker, Baila (Goldseker) Collidge, Charna (Goldseker) Gruber, David (Sonny or Sam) Katz/Goldseker, and Chuna (Juan) Goldseker. Perel, Baila, and Charna and their families perished in the Shoah.

Two of the Goldseker children married Fishman men (Ida, her uncle, Meyer, and Eta, her first cousin, David) making the family trees especially confusing since their mother was herself a Fishman. I have found such intimate interfamilial marriages were common among Mlynov families.

Ida Goldseker married her uncle Meyer Fishman and went to join him in Baltimore by 1911. They subsequently divorced and Ida married Sam Gresser, who also adopted her son, Ben. Ida's brother, Morris, joined her in Baltimore by 1911. Morris Goldseker was very successful in real estate in Baltimore starting in 1917 and upon his death established the Goldseker Foundation, the largest foundation in Maryland.

Ida's and Morris's younger brother David (also Sonny/Sam) Goldseker arrived in Baltimore in 1926 via a perilous journey and a several year stay in Beunos Aires. Several other Mlynov immigrants who couldn't get into the US during the mid 1920s because of quotas came via Buenos Aires and one of the Demb descendants, Julius Deming, was friendly with Sonny Goldseker in Buenos Aires. In 1929, Sonny's younger brother, Chuna Goldseker, followed his brother's path to Argentina where he stayed and raised a family. Sadly, his daughter, Ana, died at the young age of sixteen. In 1965, Chuna's son, Simon along with his wife and one year old baby, Ana, came to the US.

Eta immigrated to Palestine in the 1920s to marry David Fishman, her first cousin. After a number of difficult years there, the family made the difficult decision to emigrate from Palestine to Baltimore in 1929. They were among many immigrants leaving the difficult life in Palestine at this time. Eta and Sonny maintained their extremely close relationship throughout their lives until Eta's death in 1989, at the age of 92.

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THE HERMAN FAMILY

There was a large Herman family in Mlynov and the nearby town of Dubno. The family name sometimes appears in variations of "Erbman" and "Herbsman". We know of two brothers, Moshe and Joseph Herman, though we know more about Moshe than Joseph.[16]

Moshe married Chaya Golda and they had seven children. Moshe, Chaya, and three of their children, Israel Herman (1881–1942), Isaac Herman (1895–1975), and Sadie (Shava) Korn (1899–1992), all immigrated eventually to Baltimore. The other children, Paul, Aaron, Samuel and Sonia, perished in the Holocaust.


In 1899, Moshe's oldest son, Israel Herman (1881–1942) married Mollie (Malka) Gruber (1882–1959), the oldest daughter of Simha (Demb) Gruber. Israel was a cabinet maker and was drafted into the Tsar's army according to family oral traditions. In 1906, the couple and their two eldest children, left on the qt so Israel could avoid conscription. Israel and Mollie traveled across Europe before making it to the United States, as you can see from the birthplaces in four different countries of their children: Jennie (Zlate), was born in Mlynov in 1900, Sarah born in Toprev, Austria in 1907 (later part of Czechoslovakia and called Toplice), and Hyman (later Albert) and Betty who were born in England in 1908 and 1911, respectively.

According to family accounts, another son named Herschel died of a fever and by falling off a bed (or both) while the family was in Toprev. Sarah was told that her father was so depressed that he decided they should leave. He went ahead to Paris but didn't like it there and headed to London, where he earned enough as a cabinet maker to send for his family. In London, the family's surname became Herman and two children were born there. Two other children, Joseph and Sadie (later Sally) were born in Baltimore.[18]

Israel arrived in Baltimore in Decemember 1911 traveling via Halifax and Toronto, and Mollie and the children followed in August 1912. Israel and Mollie had other additional children who were born in Baltimore, Joseph and Sadie Chancey.

Israel's brother Isaac, and their father Moshe arrived in Baltimore in 1913. Isaac later married Helen "Elke" London (Lamdan) in Baltimore and had four children. I suspect, but cannot prove, that Elke was related to the Lamdan family from Mlynov.

Israel and Isaac's sister, Sadie Korn, was in Toronto with her husband Samuel Korn by 1932 when their first child was born before eventually entering the US in about 1939 and heading towards Baltimore.

Moshe's brother, Joseph Herman and family, remained in Europe through WWI and appear to have been living in the nearby town of Dubno for much of this period. I have no information about how many children Joseph had. Joseph's daughter, Rebecca ("Rifka") married a man named Simon Seltzer (1867-1925) from Dubno before 1889 when their first child, Rose Stein (1889–1972) was born and they had four additional children.

Rebecca's husband, Simon Seltzer, immigrated to Baltimore in 1913, according to his naturalization papers (or possibly earlier) but like several other husbands was not joined by his wife and children until 1921, after the war. Simon and Rebecca's oldest daughter Rose, and her husband Paul Steinmann (Paul Stein), arrived in Baltimore sometime in 1913. While living in Baltimore during those years, Simon, Rose and Paul were sharing addresses with the other Herman immigrants from Mlynov who had already arrived and were living on Albemarle Street. They eventually purchased the mom-and-pop grocery of Mlynov-born, Benjamin Schwartz, who had arrived in 1910.

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THE SCHUCHMAN FAMILY

Gershon Schuchman is one of the earliest Schuchmans we know about. He was probably born around 1855-1860, during the rule of Tzar Alexander II. His father's name was Isroel Schuchman, who was probably born around 1835. We don’t know if Israel or his son Gershon were born in Mlynov, but by 1874 Gershon had married Shaindel Bluma Schuchman (family name unknown) and they had started to have their five children in Mlynov: Joseph (1874-1958), Noach, Eta, Moshe, and Chana. We do not know anything about Moshe but we do about something of Noach, Eta, Hannah, and especially Joseph and his descendants, who all ended up in Baltimore.

Joseph Schuchman married Chusia (also Chissa and later Jessie) Klepatch and the entire family was in Baltimore by 1921 after a separation during the War, in a story told below. Joseph's sister, Eta Schuchman, married Leibish Gelberg (also Goldberg) and a number of the Goldberg children ended up in Baltimore as well. Their story will be told under the Goldberg family story. Chana Schuchman married a man with the family name of Golisuk (see photo below). They had seven children. One of their daughters, Etel, married Moshe Sherman from Mlynov and they had two children. The Shermans escaped the Mlynov ghetto and their son Ezra Sherman recounts the family's harrowing survival story . Noach, the other Schuchman brother (spelled Schechman), had five children: Ben Tzion, Shiman, Yitzhak, Aharon and Shlomo. Only Shlomo and his wife Liza Schechman surived the Holocaust and came to Baltimore. Liza testified to her experience in the Holocaust museum collection .

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Joseph Schuchman

As noted above, we know quite a bit about Mlynov born, Joseph Schuchman, and his family. Joseph (1874–1958) married Jessie (Chusia) Klepatch (1876–1947) from the Klepatch family and their four children were born in Mlynov: Samuel Schuchman (1902–1984), Ida (Chaya) Greenberg Cohen (1907–1986), Anna (“Enia”) Yoffee (1909–2000), and Rose (“Rejzia”) Klavan (1912–2002). The entire family ended up in Baltimore by 1921. According Joseph’s granddaughter, Joyce Jandorf, “My grandfather, Joseph, was 13 when he was married to Chusia; she was 19. He was 6 ft, very tall and very mature looking in those days. They would draft you into the Russian army if one looked big enough. So they were married off to avoid conscription.”

Joseph, like a number of Mlynov husbands went on ahead of his family to the US before WWI. He arrived in North America on August 24, 1913 as “Josel Schuchman” at the port of Quebec, having sailed from Antwerp via the SS Montreal. "Josel" was 40 years old when he arrived and his youngest daughter Rose was just a year old.

Joseph was not the first Mlynov immigrant to come via Canada. In November 1911, Israel Herman also from Mlynov landed in Halifax, Canada and made his way by railroad to Toronto where he took a ferry to Buffalo, NY. Joseph, for his part, took a ship to Quebec and then crossed into the US via Railroad at Alburg, VT. His passenger manifest indicates he was headed to Baltimore to a nephew M Weinstein at 152 E. Lombard, whom I am told was Morris Weinstein, a relative of the Schuchmans. Morris was from Mervits and landed in Baltimore in 1907 according to his naturalization papers. We do know something about the address at 1152 E. Lombard Street, which was the home of several other Mlynov immigrants at various points. In 1912 when she arrived, Sarah (Fishman) Schwartz was headed to 1152 E. Lombard, which was the address at the time of her husband Israel Schwartz.

Joseph’s wife Chusia and his children were back in Mlynov when Joseph arrived in the US and he became another one a number of Mlynov husbands separated during from his family when WWI broke out in 1914. He wouldn't his family again until 1921.

By the time, Joseph signed his WWI draft registration card in 1918 as Joseph “Schugman,” he was living at 205 Albemarle St., an address he was still using in 1920 when he filled out his Declaration of Intention to naturalize. But there was a significant change in his papers between 1918 and 1920. In his earlier 1918 draft registration card, he signed his name with the Hebrew alphabet, apparently not yet knowing how to write his name in the Roman alphabet. In the next two years, he apparently had adopted somewhat to his new country and signed his name in English rather than Hebrew. In his earlier 1918 record he identified himself as a presser at a pants house called Morganstern and Rieser, and by his 1920 records he was identifying himself as a tailor. He would be a grocer soon thereafter as he and others abandoned the challenging garment industry which was also suffering after WWI.

According to family accounts, Joseph’s brother-in-law, the husband of his sister Chana Golisuk, came to Baltimore about the same time and worked in the sweat shops with Joseph. But he didn’t like Baltimore and eventually went back to Mlynov.

The address of 205 Albemarle Street where Joseph had moved was a landing spot for Mlynov immigrants and even a bachelor pad of sorts for husbands whose wives were still back in Russia. It was close to 104 Albemarle, the home of Mlynov born Mollie (Demb) Roskes and her husband Samuel, an address where many of the Mlynov immigrants stayed when they initially arrived. As that address overflowed with Mlynov immigrants, reaching about 14 by 1914, a number of the Mlynov immigrants moved into 205 Albemarle Street. Morris Schwartz, for example, was already there in 1915 with his wife and son and still there in the 1920 census. Nathan Gruber, whose family was also still back in Mlynov, was at that address in 1915, and his brother Sam Gruber and wife Bessie were there in 1917 along with Morris Fishman and his wife that same year. As noted elsewhere, these streets of Baltimore had become a little Mlynov.

In what appears to be his 1920 census, Joseph is still living at 205 Albemarle and boarding with Morris Schwartz and family, another Mlynov immigrant family. The record, however, is misleading, saying Joseph had arrived in 1914, and that his and the Schwartz's last birthplace had been what looks like Kovno. The date could have been an error of memory, since he arrived in 1913, but it is unclear why Joseph, (and the Schwartzes) all listed Kovno as their birthplace. It was not long after the 1920 census that Joseph’s family finally arrived in Baltimore.

Joseph’s wife, “Chasia Szuchman” and their children, Shaie (Samuel, age 21), Chaja (Ida, age 17), Enia (Anna, age 11), and Rejzia (Rose, age 9) arrived in New York on Nov. 5, 1921 traveling from Belgium on the SS Gothland. "Chasia" noted that her brother “M. Klepacz” was still back in Mlynov at the time and that she was headed to her husband who was living at 205 Albemarle St.

That address must have been crowded. By 1923, the family had moved to 603 Charles St. and Joseph is now listed as a grocer, though in 1924 he is listed again as a presser at the same address. By 1930, the family had suficiently improved its situation and has move Northeast and is living together at 106 Old Pimlico Road.

Joseph and Chusia's children married and had families in Baltimore. Samuel married Sadie Lichter (1917–2006) who was quite a bit younger, and they had three children: Sidney Morris, Jacob Gutman Schuchman, and Mordecai Aaron Schuchman. Ida Schuchman (1907–1986) married twice, first Barney Cohen, who passed away in 1960, and then Max Greenberg, but had no children of her own. Anna (1909–2000) married Jacob Yoffee and they had four children: Diane Hawk, Leon B. Yoffee, Bluma S. Lewin, and Benyoman Yoffee. Rose (1912–2002) married Morris Klavan and had three children: Joyce Jandorf, Irving Klavan and Eileen Reiss.

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THE SCHWARTZ FAMILY

There were four brothers in the Schwartz family of Mlynov. Chaim (1863–1946) was the oldest, followed by Moshe (Morris) (1873–1943), Israel (1874–1935), and Michael ("Heschie") (dates uncertain). All four of the brothers and their families migrated from Mlynov to Baltimore between 1905 and 1912. At least three of the brothers had sons named Paul Schwartz, named after the brothers' father, Peretz Schwartz, who must have died by 1902, when Paul H. Schwartz was named.

Moshe and Michael Schwartz were the first to leave Mlynov for Baltimore. Moshe arrived in 1907 and his brother Mschil (Michael) arrived bringing Moses' wife with him later six months later.

Hyman Schwartz was married off to Yetta Demb (1870–1962), through an arranged marriage, because Yetta had been married and quickly divorced when a tailor's apprentice grabbed her hand and uttered the words of bethrothal in front of witnesses. We don't know if this family tradition is true. But according to the story Hyman had been willing to take the younger woman whose reputation had been besmerched, though Yetta loved another man, one of the Roskes brothers. Chaim and Yenta's eldest son Ben Schwartz left ahead of the family for Baltimore in 1910 and the rest of the family followed in 1912.

Israel Schwartz married Sarah Fishman. They had two children, Ida (Irene Edelstein) and Paul Schwartz. Israel left Mlynov in 1911 for Baltimore traveling with Nathan Fishman, his wife's uncle, and another Mlynov husband, Harry (Usher) Teitelbaum. Sarah and her children followed in 1912. Sarah travelled to the US in 1912 with several others from Mlynov, her brother-in-law Chaim and Yenta Schwartz, her nephew Morris Fishman and Nathan Gruber, Yenta's nephew.

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THE SHULMAN FAMILY

Noone knows why Tsodik Shulman (1863–1947) (also "Zadok," "Codyk" and "Tsodick" Szulman) ended up in Mlynov. Recollections from family say he was from Lithuania originally and spoke Yiddish with a Lithuanian accent, though the family's passenger manifest says he and the rest of the family were born in Rowno [Rivne], which apparently was where they moved sometime after WWI. Tsodik's 1926 US Petition for Naturalization says they were all born in Mlynov, Poland.[20], which was true of his wife Pearl and the children. This later identification of Tsodik's birth location in Mlynov was probably to simplify his naturalization process and reduce any further complication in his naturalization process. The family had already fudged many of their relationships on their passage to the US and Tsodik may not have wanted to expose even more inconsistencies by listing his original birthplace.

It is surprising that Tsodik ended up in the small town of Mlynov. He was descended from a well-known family. His uncle, Kalman Schulman (1819–1899), was a well-known Jewish enlightenment (maskil) figure and Hebrew writer known for popularizing Jewish history and literature and "whose work was significant in the development of modern Hebrew literature." Kalman Schulman (and Tsodik's father) was born to a Hasidic family in Stary Bykhov, in the Mogilev district of Belorussia. He studied at the Volozhin yeshiva for about six years, subsequently learning German and developing an interest in Haskalah literature. He went on to be a tireless popularizer of more than 30 books on Jewish history and literature and was eventually able to support himself as a writer in Vilna.[21]


Tsodik's father (and Kalman's brother), Naftali Hertz Schulman, was named for Tsodik's great-great grandfather of the same name. Scholars identify the earlier Naftali Hertz Schulman (1770–30) as a significant figure in the early Eastern European Jewry Enlightenment (haskalah)and modernization, who was among a group who first "challenged traditional beliefs and values, and called for the reform and renewal of Jewish culture."[23]

Tsodik thus came with an well-educated enlightenment perspective to Mlynov. Clara Fram (his niece) remembers her grandfather, Israel Jacob Demb, and his son-in-law, Tsodik sitting and talking about the work of his famous uncle Kalman Shulman. She writes about her recollections of him in Mlynov.

Frequently, our cousin Hertz Shulman, a youth of about seventeen, a student in that school, would stop in our house to study, memorizing his work, while walking back and forth in the room with his book. We knew he was the son of my Aunt Pearl [Pearl Malka (Demb) Shulman] and her distinguished husband [Tsodik Shulman] whom my grandfather [Israel Jacob Demb] was delighted to have marry his second daughter. This man had arrived in Mlynow from Lithuania, well educated, rolling his R’s when he spoke Yiddish; an emancipated, proud Jew, resembling one’s image of Tolstoi, and possessing books in Hebrew and Russian, as well as Yiddish translations of French novels. He also subscribed to a Yiddish newspaper, and would talk to my grandfather about his uncle, the famous Hebrew writer, Kalman Shulman.


Whatever the reasons Tsodik ended up in Mlynov, by 1887 he had married Pearl Malka Demb (1867–33), the second oldest daughter of Israel Jacob and Rivkah (Gruber) Demb. Tsodik and Pearl went on to have five daughters and two sons, all but two of whom ended up in Baltimore with their families by 1922. They were Nachuma (Shulman) Meiler (1887–1944), Liza (Shulman) Koszhushner (1889–?), Simon Judah Shulman (1890–1970), Ertz (Harry) Shulman 1894–1964, Sarah Shulman (1898–88), Clara (Shulman) Fishman (1904–1990), Pauline "Pepe" (Shulman) Schwartz 1905–1985.

According to family traditions, Tsodik had a prestigious livelihood overseeing the forest for the Count who owned the village and the areas surrounding it. We are not sure what this meant exactly, but we can guess that it involved overseeing the use of the forest and its harvesting. Tsodik was not the only Mlynov resident to work for the Count and the Count's presence hovered over the life of the town as evident in other accounts in the Mlynov-Muravica Memorial book.[24]


Family speculate that because of his strong education, Tsodik was able to secure this position and perform these duties for the Count. Clara Fram in her memoire recalls her delight in visiting the forest and her cousins the Shulmans. "A visit with my Shulman cousins in their forest home was always exciting. Their father was the important manager of the entire forest. My recollection of their beautiful mother, my mother’s sister, was that she wore a sweeping “pin-yar” (peignoir) and was generally reading books." [26]

It is possible that when the Count lost his property in the Bolshevik takeover, that Tsodik also lost his livelihood and this may be one reason the family decided at that point to emigrate and leave two of their daughters behind, a fateful decision for one of those families that stayed.

In 1921, Tsodik and his wife Pearl Malka, three daughters (Sarah, Clara and Pepe) and a son Ertz Shulman (named for Naftali Hertz) headed to the US with the help of a nephew. The family fudged their relationships. Ertz's new wife, Eta Perelson, and his friend Pesach (Paul) Settleman pretended to be Shulman children and joined them on their passage. The older Shulman son, Simon, was studying to be a pharmacist in Berditchev near the end of WWI and didn't know the Shulmans had migrated until he returned to Mlynov in 1922 with his wife Edith (Fixman), whom he met in pharmacy school. In 1922, Simon and Edith made their way to Baltimore, as well.

Arriving in Baltimore, Pearl Malka was reunited with her three sisters, Bessie Hurwitz, Mollie Roskes, and Yetta Schwartz, who had all arrived there before the war. There her youngest daughter, Pepe Shulman, fell in love with and married her first cousin, Paul Schwartz , son of Yetta. Sara Shulman married Paul Settleman who had traveled with them and pretended to be a Shulman son on the passage to America. In the US, he retained the family name "Shulman" to remain consistent with his passenger manifest. Clara Shulman married Ben Fishman who had left for America the year before.

Two of the Shulman daughters, Nechama and Liza, remained behind when Tsodik and Pearl left Mlynov probably became they had already gotten married and had children. How hard it must have been for their parents to take leave and split the family across the ocean. The oldest daughter, Nechama (Shulman) had married Saul Meiler and they had their first daughter, Tamara, in about 1914. You can see the baby Tamara in the photo of the four generations of the Shulmans above. Mlynov descendants speculate that Saul Meiler may have been from the "Malar" family which is mentioned in the Mlynov-Muravica memorial book.[27]

Also staying behind in Mlynov was the second oldest Shulman daughter, Liza. Liza had married Shia Koszhushner and they had three children. In 1942 when the Nazis invaded, the Koszhushners headed east and made it to Kiev, where they survived the war. They had waited as long as they could for the Meilers to join them at a set rendevous point, but the Meilers had never showed up and the Koszhushners could wait no longer and had to go on East without them. The Meilers did not survive. The Koszhushners, for their part, remained in Russia under Communist rule. The Shulmans in Baltimore eventually learned they were alive after WWII and first cousins eventually got to visit them in Russia in the 1990s.

***

Notes

[1] The Family of Shimon and Anna (Fishman) Goldseker, 1906. Back row ( left to right): Eta, Ida, mother Anna, Cousin Gittel, Pearl. Front row (left to right): Bayla, Charna, Sonny (David). The youngest son, Chuna, is not yet born.

[2] Four Generations of the Shulman family: Middle row (left to right): Pearl Malka Shulman, her mother, Rivka (Gruber) Demb, her father Israel Jacob Demb, her husband Tsodik Shulman, her son-in-law, Saul Meiler. Back row (left to right) Pearl's son, Simon Shulman, son-in-law Shia Koszhushner, daughter Liza Koszhushner, son Ertz Shulman and daughter Nachuma Meiler. Front row (left to right), daughter Clara Shulman, granddaughter Tamara Meiler, daughter Pauline Shulman, daughter Sarah Shulman.

[3] Quoted in essay "The Town of Mlynov," by Joseph Litvak of Jerusalmen. In Mlynov-Muravica Memorial Book, 52-53; Sokolsky, Mlynov-Muravica, p. 15.

[4] On the coachmen, see Sonia and Mendel Teitleman, "People in a Shetl," Mlynov-Muravica Memorial Book, 90-93. Sokolsky's translation, 31, however, skips this part of the narrative which I found in the translation by Irene Siegel. The coachmen are again mentioned by name in "Poor Lives," by Sonia and Mendl Teitleman, Memorial Book, 229-240, translation from Irene Siegel (section skipped in Sokolsky's translation). The presence of the Gruber men in 1912 and 1913 is captured in the passenger manifests of Simha's sons, Nathan and Samule Gruber, in their immigration to Baltimore. On the size and history of Berdichev, see Wikipedia.

[5] From Sonia and Mendl Teitelman, "People in Town," in Mlynov-Muravica Memorial Book 90-102, found in translation by Irene Siegel. Not quoted in Sokolsky's translation.

[6] See Benjamin Nathans, Beyond the Pale, for the term "selective integration" and an account of the various ways that Jews sought integration (not assimilation) in the Tsarist empire with a focus on St. Petersburg. Nathans contests the views that tend to overemphasize the pogroms as the key events shaping Jewish efforts and identity in the period.

[7] Clara Fram was the youngest daughter of Pesse Demb (later Bessie Hurwitz), Israel Jacob and Rivkah's, oldest daughter. Clara immigrated to Baltimore with her mother and two sisters in 1909 to rejoin her father. In 1982, as part of a continuing education seminar, she wrote her memoire. "This is My Story: I Write and Speak of Myself." I am quoting from the memoire with permission of her descendant Mia (Fram) Davidson.

[8] See article on Mlyniv in Wikipedia citing a Ukrainian source Bukhalo, H., Vovk, A. Mlyniv, Mlyniv Raion, Rivne Oblast. "The History of Cities and Villages of the Ukrainian SSR."

[9] Clara Fram, "This is My Story," p. 3.

[10] Clara Fram, "This is My Story," p. 3.

[11] Clara Fram, "This is My Story," p. 3.

[12] This is based on the 1900 Federal census record.

[13] This story comes from Clara Fram, "This is My Story," Part I, p. 2, and Part II, p. 5. See note 7.

[14]We don’t know why Bessie Hurwitz and family made the trek across Europe to Trieste instead of Bremen, where others had previously left, for the trip to the US. But we do now that between the time that Bessie’s husband David made the trip in 1901 and Bessie made the trip in 1909 that a major shipping company had opened a route to the US from Trieste. In 1904, Trieste saw the founding of Unione Austriaca di Navigazione (Austrian Shipping Association), also known as Austro Americana & Fratelli Cosulich....A May 5, 1904 article from the Baltimore Sun announces the new shipping line. Perhaps this ad or one like it that what David Hurwitz saw and became the basis for his family coming via Trieste. In only a few months, the new shipper doubled its capital stock, thanks to investments by large north German shippers and Austrian banks that wanted to squeeze a competitor out of the domestic market. Other Mlynov immigrants such as Meyer Fishman would follow the same route later that year.

[15] See Balfouria. According to a census conducted in 1922 by the British Mandate authorities, Balfouria had a population of 18 Jews. According to a Jewish National Fund publication of 1949, Balfouria was the first village to be founded in Palestine after the Balfour Declaration.

[16] According to Herman family traditions, Moshe was born in 1850. However, according to his passenger manifest to the US, he was born in 1865 which seems more likely given the birth of his oldest son Israel in 1881.

[17] Clockwise from the bottom right: Sonia (or Sophie) Herman, Moshe and Chava Golda Herman, Bessie Herman (seated left), Hershon (Isaac?) Herman (standing left), Israel Herman (standing center), Shmuel [(Herman?) or husband of Sonia]. Notes from the family are not clear on identity of each person in the photo.

[18] I want to acknowledge the help of descendants from the Herman family: Lynne Sandler, Miriam Berkowitz, and Debra Weinberg in understanding the Herman family history.

[19] An essay on Solomon Mandelkern by his great, great nephew, Col. Bernard Feingold, "Solomon Mandelkern" In Generations. Jewish Historical Society of Maryland. Vol. II:2. 1981, 10-19.

[20] Shulman signed his Petition For Naturalization on July 6th 1928

[21] On Kalman Schulman (aslo Shulman), see "Kalman Schulman" in the YIVO Encyclopedia. An excellent essay on Schulman, "Kalman Schulman: The First Professional Populizer," appears in a chapter called "Reaching the Masses" in Shmuel Feiner, Haskalah and History: The Emergence of a Modern Jewish Historical Consciousness, 247-273. Trans. Chaya Naor and Sondra Silverton. Oxford and Portland, Oregon, 2002.

[22] Four generations in Mlynov of Demb/Shulmans. Second row seated (right to left): Pearl (Demb) Shulman, Pearl's parents, Israel Jacob and Rivkah (Gruber) Demb, Pearl's husband, Tsodik Shulman, their son-in-law, Saul Meiler.
Back row (left to right): Tsodik and Pearl's daughter, Nachuma (Shulman) Meiler, son "Ertz" (Harry) Shulman, daughter Liza (Shulman) Koszhusner, Liza's husband Shia Koszhusner, Tsodik and Pearl's son Simon Shulman. Front row (left to right): daughters Sarah Shulman, Pepe Shulman, Clara Shulman and baby, granddaughter, Tamara Meiler.

[23] On Nafatli Herz Schulman, see "Ideological and Literary Ferment," in David E. Fishman, Russia's First Modern Jews: the Jews of Shklov. New York: New York University, 1995.

[24] There are a number of references to the Count in the Memorial book. Joseph Litvak from Jerusalem ("The Town of Mlynov," Mlynov-Muravica Memorial Book, 53-59; Sokolsky translation, p. 15) recalls that:

Across the river in a vary large park, surrounded by a fence, was the Count’s palace. Only very few Jews ever were able to enter the palace because the Count’s family was extremely anti-Semitic.Whenever the Count had business dealings with Jews, he never dealt with them directly, using intermediaries instead. Also Jews were afraid to walk around the park because the Polish workers and servants employed by the Count would often release their dogs upon the Jews, or they would throw rocks at the Jews. Finally, in September 1939, after the Soviets took over the area, neighboring farmers ransacked and robbed the palace. For a few days afterwards, the Soviet government opened the palace to crowds of people who wished to see how the Count once lived.
And Baruch Meren from Baltimore recalls ("An Adventure in the Shtetel," Mlynov-Muravica Memorial Book, p. 188-194, Sokolsky translation, p. 43) recalls that
The main attraction of the town was the Count's mansion. No one was allowed to enter the estate except for my grandfather, Hersh (also Hirsch) Goldseker. He was a 'useful Jew' and worked for the Count. When a Jew needed a favor from the Count, Hersh Goldseker was the intermediary. He was the one in town who had favor in the eyes of the Count. My grandfather used to tell us wonderful stories about the lives of the Count and his family.

[25] This digital image is in the public domain.

[26] Quoting from Clara Fram, "This Is My Life," Part I, p. 6.

[27] The interesting possibility that what the Shulmans remember as "Meiler" may have been also Malar was suggested to me by Joyce Jandorf, a descendant of the Schuchman family from Mlynov.

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Compiled by Howard I. Schwartz
Updated:October 2019
Copyright © 2019 Howard I. Schwartz

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