Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego i Innych Krajow Slowianskich
The following excerpts come from Slownik geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego i innych krajow slowianskich, a gazetteer of Polish towns, past and present. The gazetteer was edited by Filipa Sulimierskiego, Bronislawa Chlebowskiego, and Wladyslawa Walewskiego, and published in multiple volumes in Warsaw between 1880 and 1902.
According to Daniel M. Schlyter, the gazetteer covers not only the Russian provinces of Poland, but also most of Galicia and parts of Belarus, Russian, Ukraine, Romania, and other Central and East European nations. More information about the gazetteer can be found on the Polish Genealogical Society of America web site:
The following entries from the Gazetteer are for the towns of Potoczyska and Horodenka. They were translated by Ron Bachman, Polish Area Specialist of the European Division of the United States Library of Congress, in 1998, and were contributed to this web site by Deborah Dworski.
POTOCZYSKA. A village in Horodenka powiat [an administrative unit, consisting of severa1 gminas; in 1964, Poland had 391 powiats], located 11.25 km north of Horodenka on the southwestern bank of the Dniester River, which here twists and turns its way from the northwest to the southeast between Uscieczko and Zaleszczyki. Boundaries: east - the Dniester, and on the other side, Iwanie; south - Strzylce; west - Siemakowce, Bilka, and Michalcze; north - the Dniester, and on the other side, Uscieczko. Area of yards, fields, meadows, and pastures - 754 morgas [a unit of land measure equal to 5,600 square meters]; area of forest - 1,452 morgas; area of estates - 3,271 morgas; fertile soil; banks of the Dniester are forested. In 1857 - 1,974 residents; in 1880 2,436 residents in the gmina; Roman Catholics - 94; Greek Catholics - 2,000; the Roman Catholic parish church located in Horodenka; the Greek Catholic church located in Potoczyska, built of brick, consecrated in 1806, named St. Michael's. Public register dates to 1782. In 1886/87 there were 422 school-age children of the Greek Catholic faith. All governmental offices located in Horodenka. A gmina lending bank with a capital of 722 zIote renskie [German and Austro-Hungarian florins]. Lord of the manor -- Baron Jakub Romaszkan. According to the research of J. Kopernicki, there existed here a prehistoric settlement, the "Baszkirka" site, one of several in the area. The village of Horodnica [sic] has archeological significance as a border settlement of the Roman Empire and was probably on the ancient trade route from the South to the Baltic. Research there by Kopernicki and Wladyslaw Przebyslawski has supported this theory. Archeological digs there indicate that Horodnica once must have been the center of a prehistoric people in that region. The entire area around Potoczyska, including Horodnica, Strzylce, Siemakowce, Torskie, and Czernelica has been studied by archaeologists. The Horodnica fortress offered protection to the population of the area. Numerous stone tombs discovered in Horodnica, Potoczyska, and other nearby communities have provided a wealth of interesting ancient artifacts,
HORODENKA. The"seat" of Horodenka powiat, in Galicia, the Pokucie region, on the highway between Sielec and Zaleszczyki, where the road branches off onto theHorodenka-Sniatyn road. An especially fertile area. Located 4 km from Kolomyja. The area of estates -- more than 2,788 morgas; the area of manors [the text uses abbreviations here, and both expand to mean "estates" or "manors"] -- more than 8,535 morgas.In 1870, the population was 8,824, including 857Roman Catholics, 78 Armenian Catholics, 4,726 Greek Catholics, 4 non-Catholics [sic] and 3,157 Jews. In 1880, there were 10,227 residents.
Other than 100 morgas of pasture, the town possesses no other property and covers all its expenses through real estate and other taxes and from commercial income. Revenue in 1879 amounted to 2,081 zlote renskie. The town is the seat of all powiat government offices, including a post and telegraph office.
The Roman Catholic parish was established in 1743 by Mikolaj Potocki, a powerful nobleman. The brick church was sanctified in 1760 and became the parish church in 1763 under the name of Immaculate Conception. The following communities belong to the parish: Czerniatyn, Gluszkow, Horodnica, Jasienow polny, Okno, Potoczyska, Probabin, Serafince, Strzylcze. In the entire parish there are 1,574 Catholics, 10 non-Catholics, 4,534 Jews. There are chapels in Jasienow polny and Okno. The parish belongs to the Horodenka deaconate of the Lwow diocese. The Greek Catholic parish also belongs to the Horodenka deaconate of the Lwow diocese.
The local court belongs to the Kolomyja district court.
The four-class school belongs to the Sniatyn school district council.
The lending bank has a capital of 26,560 zlote renskie.
The largest property owner was Baron Mikolaj Romasazkan, whose wealth consisted of several large farms, which were among the most progressive in that part of Galicia in terms of cultivation techniques, soil fertility, etc., a steam-driven mill, a large brewery, and a distillery.
Horodenka powiat, along with Sniatyn and Kossow powiats formed the southeastern part of Galicia, bordering on Bukowina. On the east, it bordered on Zaleszczyki powiat and Bukowina; on the south, with Sniatyn and Kolomyja powiats; on the west, with Tlumacz powiat;on the north, with Buczacz and Zaleszczyki powiats.
Horodenka powiat had a population of 66,849 in 48 settlements and 48 tax districts, two powiat courts in Horodenka and Obertyn, belonging to the Kolomyja district court.
This powiat is located completely in Pokucie; it has very fertile soil, a warm climate, tobacco and corn grow here very well. It is poor in forests. Its northern boundary is the Dniester River, and it has several small tributaries of the Dniester and Prut.
There are no large cities, but there are three towns: Czernelica, Horodenka, and Obertyn. There are 45 village gminas. As for housing density in the powiat: there are 1 gmina having between 26 and 50 houses; 10 gminas having between 51 and 100 houses; 18 gminashaving between 101 and 200 houses; 10 gminas having between 201 and 300 houses; 2 gminas having between 301 and 400 houses; 3 gminas having between 401 and 500 houses; 4 gminas having more than 500 houses; there are 32 manorial estates with as many as 10 houses; 13 manorial estates with between 11 and 20 houses; and 3 manorial estates with more than 20 houses.
In terms of population density in the powiat: 1 gmina has between 100 and 200 residents; 1 gmina has between 201 and 300 residents; 2 gminas have between 301 and 400 residents; 5 gminas have between 401 and 500 residents; 19 gminas have between 501 and 1000 residents; 11 gminas have between 1001 and 2000 residents; 6 gminashave between 2001 and 3000 residents; 1 gmina has between 3001 and 4000 residents; 1 gmina has between 4001 and 5000 residents; and 1 gmina has more than 5,000 residents -- a total of 48 gminas.
Dividing the population by settlements: 2 towns have between 2001 and 5,000 residents; 1 town has more than 5,000 residents; 9 villages have fewer than 500 residents; 19 villages have between 501 and 1000 residents; 11 villages have between 1,000 and 2,000 residents; 6 villages have between 2001 and 5,000 [sic; the text uses two terms -- miasteczko = small town and wies = village, countryside. Can't explain this discrepancy here.] Of the total powiat population of 66,849, 13% resides ingminas with more than 5,000 persons; 56% in gminas with more than 1,000 and fewer than 5,000 persons; 22% in gminas with between 500 and 1,000 persons; 5% in gminas of fewer than 500 persons; and 4% resides on manorial estates.
Broken down another way, the population of towns [miasteczko] is 15,705, i.e., 24% of the total; villages [wies] -- 48,430, i.e., 72% of the total; manorial estates -- 2,714, i.e., 4% of the total. In 1878 in the powiat there were two gminas linked by manorial estates: Korniow and Okno. In 1878 there was one wiekszy wlasciciel[the largest landowner in the powiat],45 wojts [village heads], and 44 landed gentry.
The larger landowning aristocracy of the powiat and neighboringpowiats of Kolomyja, Sniatyn, Kosow, and Nadworna elects one representative to the State Council; the smaller land holders of the powiat and neighboring Borszczow and Zaleszczyki powiats jointly elect one representative.
The Horodenka Roman Catholic deaconate belongs to the Lwow diocese and includes the parishes of Chocimierz, Czernelica, Gwozdziec, Horodenka, Michalcze, Obertyn, Sniatyn, Zukow; the total population of the deaconate is 13,632 Roman Catholics; 402 non-Catholics; 24 schismatics; 15,489 Jews. The Greek Catholic deaconate also belongs to the Lwow diocese and includes the parishes of Czernelica, Czerniatyn, Daleszowa, Dabki, Gluszkow, Horodenka, Horodnica, Jasienow polny, Kaopaczynce, Korniow, Okno, Olejowa, Potoczyska, Rakowiec, Serafince, Siemakowce, Soroki, Strzylcze, Targowica, Toporowce, Tyszkowce, Wierzbowce; the total Greek Catholic population of the deaconate is 36,695.
The schools located in the powiat belong to the Sniatyn school district and break down as follows: four-class boys' schools in Horodenka and Obertyn; one-class schools in Chocimierz, Czernelica, Czortowiec, Dabki, Dziurkow, Daleszawa, Harasymow, Horodnica, Jasienow, Kolanki, Kornow, Nizwiska, Okno, Olejowa, Tyszkowce, Zywaczow; branch schools in Gluszkow, Kopaczynce, Kunysowce, Repuzynce, Siemakowce, Toporowce, Wierzbowce. There is only one foundation for the poor in the powiat, in Horodenka, founded in 1754 by Mikolaj Potocki, a powerful nobleman.
The chief crops of the powiat are tobacco and corn (maize). Among the industrial resources of the powiat, the following existed in 1870: 2 lime kilns; 3 potash producers; 6 soap makers; 91 water-powered mills with 240 millstones; abeer brewery in Horodenka; distilleries in the communities of Czernelica, Harasymow, Horodenka, Kolariki, Lukamonastyr, Obertyn, Okno, Potoczyska, Rakowiec, Siemakowce, Strzylcze, and Woronow. In the same period, annual wool production amounted to 200 quintals [1 quintal = 100 kilograms], and 800 quintals of flax were processed. In 1870 there were 70 textile weavers and 30 furriers.
The powiat is crossed south-to-north by a state road, which is known as the Horodenka road, running from Kolomyja to Gwozdziec, Horodenka, and Tlusty; from west to east, the powiat is crossed by the Sielecko-Zaleszczyki state route, running from Sielec through Jezupol, Pobereze, Strzychance, Rozniow, Milowanie, Taborzyska, Slobodka, Tlumacz, Jezierzany, Niezwisko, Woronow, Horodenka, and Serafince to the border of Bukowina; and from the northwest to the southeast, it is crossed by the Horodenka-Sniatyn state route, etc. The powiat has an abundance of highways, but it does not have even the smallest stretch of railroad track, although the Czerniowcy railroad passes along its southern border from Stanislawow through Kolomyja, Zablotow, and Sniatyn to Czerniowcy The railroad stations closest to Horodenka are Kolomyja (38 km), Zablotow (28 km), Sniatyn (22 km). Commerce is limited mainly to hauling out raw agricultural commodities, mostly all types of grain, aqua-vitae (alcoholic drink), and beef cattle and hauling in all types of industrial products.
The Dniester River, forming the northern boundary of the powiat, is quite wide and deep and could be an excellent transportation route to the East, especially to Odessa and the Black Sea. The idea has been raised again to develop steamship navigation on the Dniester, but this has yet to be realized. In terms of historical sites, the town of Obertyn is noteworthy for the defeat in August 22, 1531, of Petryla wojewoda Multan, whose force of 36,000 men was routed by a force of 6,000 led by Jan Tarnowski the Great Hetman of the Kingdom.