There are other entries in Sistematicheski that reference colonies not listed in the previous article
published in Roots-Key. The entries in Sistematicheski, for the most part, refer
the reader to newspapers and periodicals published in Russia from 1708 to 1889.
Most of the papers were published after 1860. Some of these newspapers may be
found in the United States in major repositories such as the Library of
Congress, YIVO, the New York Public Library and Hebrew Union College in
Another source containing information
on these colonies is the Russian Imperial Government Series on Microfilm in the
Library of Congress - A Guide to the Uncatalogued Collection, compiled by Harold
M. Leich (Washington: Library of Congress, 1985).
The guide's catalog number is Z 6956 S65 L52. The microfilm number is 83/5231.
There are 967 different titles, two of which are described by Harold and James
Rhode in their article: "Russian Sources in Western Libraries" (Avotaynu, Vol.
VI, No. 4, Winter 1990). A third title not noted in the Rhode article is
Evreiskiiaa zemlediel' chesldia poselniia Ekaterinoslavskoi guberniya (Jewish
Agricultural Colonies in Ekaterinoslav Guberniya), microfilm number 83/5231-813.
The title is on Reel 172, pages 77-106. The information, covering both
Alexandrovskii and Mariupolskii Districts of Ekaterinoslav Guberniya,
unfortunately contains only statistical and not personal data on these colonies.
Perhaps a closer examination will reveal more details.
With respect to the colonies of Big and Little Nagartav, Kherson District,
Kherson Guberniya, see the article in Rechi po pogromhim delam (Speeches about
Pogrom Matters), Kiev, 1908 (Hebrew Union College No. HUC X21 R98, pages 43-48,
where the pogrom in Nagartav in 1881 is described).
Recently Maurice R. Commanday, who
addressed the Jewish Genealogical Society of Los Angeles in September 1991,
received the results of ongoing research in Kirovograd concerning the beginnings
of Jewish agricultural colonies in the Elizabetgrad District of Kherson Gubemiya.
The following information, obtained from archival sources in Kirovograd, was
furnished to Mr. Commanday by the Association for the Jewish Culture of
Kirovograd.2 Jews were allowed to settle in the territory by a law of November
16, 1769. (From 1765 to 1806 the territory around Elizabetgrad was called
Novorossisk.) "Besides the cities and the shtetls in which the Jews had small
shops and trading posts, there were also some agricultural colonies which were
organized by Jewish peasants. The everyday lives of the peasants, in spite of
large subsidies from the government, were so fragile and difficult and so
economically marginal that an ukase of April 6, 1810 halted the movement of Jews
into the Novorossisk province which order was lifted only in 1837, and in all
Jewish colonies in the Kherson province in 1849."
Concerning the colony of Gromoklaya
(or Glomokleya), Mr. Commanday was advised that in 1896 the police chief of
Bobrenitz made the following inventory of the colony: "48 families and houses,
population 334 (164 males and 170 females). There was a Jewish house of worship,
a post office, a small general store, and a bath house. The nearest city was 75
versts (50 miles)." Mr. Commanday was also advised that the three major colonies
in Elizabetgrad district, i.e., Gromoklaya, Israelevka and Sagaydak) remained in
existence as collectives until 1941.
1. Another entry for New Berislav (No. 4994) is listed under a different heading
2. Mr. Commanday notes that the
information found by the Association for Jewish Culture of Kirovograd is perhaps
the "...earliest physical records of agricultural collective organizations
(kibbutzim) among the Jews in the modern era."