Jewish Agricultural Colonies In the Western governments

The Jewish Encyclopedia  Funk and Wagnals 1951

and placed in quotes: i.e." pp 255-256 "

    "In the western governments the Jewish agricultural Colonies were founded after the publication of the edict of 1835. There the Jews were permitted to settle on government as well as on private lands, and for founding colonies wealthy Jews were rewarded with the title of honorary citizens. I 1848, 158 families comprising 946 persons, settled on government lands. Eleven years later (1859) the settling of Jews on such land in the western governments ceased entirely; and in 1864 they were deprived of the permission even to settle on private lands. In 1870 there were 34, 475 Jews settled in the Agricultural Colonies in the western governments, distributed as shown in the following table:

Government. Number of Settlements. Number of Individuals. Land in Deciatines.
Grodno 20 1,376 2,655
Kiev 32 7,980 2,719
Kovno 15 2,477 2,252
Minsk 25 3,923 3,577
Mohilev 77 2,250 8,413
Podolsk 14 9,411 8,470
Wilna 18 2,960 2,069
Vitebsk 5 824 749
Volhynia 10 3,274 2,947
____________ ___________ _____________ ____________
  Total 216 34,475 33,851

 

"The above numbers have since considerably decreased.

Government. Owned by Landlords. Owned by Small Farmers. Leased. Total Deciatines.* Percentage of all the Land in the Government. Percentage of Jewish Population in the Government.
Bessarabia 109,210 ...... 167,539 276,749 9.1 12.1
Chernigov 79,876 ...... 139,505 219,381 5.8 4.4
Ekaterinoslav 61,007 30,257 58,058 149,322 2.5 3.2
Grodno 21,085 3,573 294,952 319,510 10.6 19.7
Kherson 218,843 ...... 254,050 472,893 8.4 9.5
Kiev 11,477 ...... 261,518 272,955 6.3 14.6
Kovno 4,033 2,252 36,432 42,717 1.3 19.
Podolsk 6,857 2,006 240,108 248,971 6.9 18.7
Poltava 40,836 ...... 172,379 213,215 5.3 3.5
Taurida (Crimea) 84,580 161 24,891 109,632 2.1 2.5
Vitebsk 32,173 749 44,278 77,200 2.2 12.9
Volhynia 13,916 408 304,948 319,272 5.8 14.9

*1 deciatine = 2.70 acres.

 

    "The preceding table, published in "Statisticticheski Vremennik Rossiskoi Imperii" (Statistical Annals of the Russian Empire), 3d series, part 2, edited by V. Alenitzyn, St. Petersburg, 1884, shows the extent of land owned and leased by Jews in western and southwestern Russia in 1881.

    "The following two tables have been compiled by the Odessa Society for the Aid of Jewish Agriculturists and Artisans in Syria and Palestine. No. I. shows that in 1896 neatly 97,000 Jews in Russia were engaged in agriculture. Besides these colonists who were grouped in settlements there were numerous single families occupied in agricultural pursuits, as shown in table No. II.

I.Jewish Agriculturists in Russia, 1896.

Governments. Number of Jewish Agricultural Settlements. Number of Persons. Cultivated Land in Deciatines.*
Bessarabia 7 2,100 2,900
Ekaterinoslav 17 7,849 16,220
Grodno 20 2,752 2,665
Kherson 22 19,419 41,790
Kiev 32 15,960 2,719
Kovno 15 4,954 2,252
Minsk 25 7,946 3,577
Mohilev 77 4,500 8,413
Podolsk 14 18,822 8,470
Plotzk 3 500 240
Vitebsk 5 1,648 749
Volhynia 10 6,548 2,947
Wilna 18 3,932 2,069
________________ ________________ ________________ ________________
  Total 265 96,930 95,011
*1 deciatine = 2.70 acres.

 

 

II.Jewish Workers on Plantations in Russia, 1896.

Governments. Culture of Tobacco. Gardening, etc.
Bessarabia 1,358 245
Chernigov 384 92
Ekaterinoslav 168 5
Grodno 2,869 631
Kherson 1,138 77
Kiev 801 200
Kovno 612 1,351
Minsk 390 1,896
Podolsk 839 169
Poltava 308 6
Taurida 223 1
Vitebsk 320 30
Volhynia 125 51
Wilna 503 522
_________________ __________ _____________
  Total 10,038 5,276

 

    "There were also about 1,800 Jewish field-laborers employed in 1896 on about 25 different estates in Bessarabia, Grodno, Kherson, Kiev, Podalsk, and Poltava.

III.Jewish Agricultural Colonies in Russia in 1898-99. (Data Collected by the Jewish Colonization Association.)

Governments. Number of Colonies. Number of Jewish Agriculturists. Land Occupied by Them, in Deciatines.
Bessarabia 6 3,960 2,906
Ekaterinoslav 17 8,597 17,660
Grodno 13 1,505 4,198
Kherson 21 22,801 42,336
Kiev 19 2,965 2,372
Kovno 20 1,520 2,854
Minsk 25 5,540 6,431
Moghilev 75 5,290 4,954
Podolsk 14 3,330 2,125
Vitebsk 19 865 110
Volhynia 14 4,940 5,426
Wilna 35 1,910 4,413
______________ ____________ ____________ ____________
  Total 278 63,223 95,785

 


Governments. Horticulture. Tobacco Culture. Viticulture. Number of Persons Engaged in Dairying, etc. No. of Persons Engaged in Apiculture.
___________________ ___________________ ___________________
Number of Persons. Number of Deciat. Number of Persons. Number of Deciat. Number of Persons. Number of Deciat.
Bessarabia 721 1,568 789 1,512 459 776 366 23
Chernigov 551 599 114 467 .... .... 35 8
Courland 36 56 .... .... .... .... 99  
Ekaterinoslav 3 15 ..... ..... .... .... 3  
Grodno 2,047 1,174 35 25 .... .... 844  
Kalish 44 53 ..... ..... .... .... 72 1
Kherson 56 81 26 104 31 60 114 3
Kiev 170 240 .... ..... 4 .... 41 4
Kovno 1,495 1,633 ..... ..... 3 .... 617 51
Kyeltzy 35 17 .... .... .... .... 358 12
Lomzha 234 390 15 .... 1 .... 174  
Lublin 497 168 .... .... 4 .... 452 13
Minsk 1,849 1,642 .... .... .... .... 726 1
Mohilev 811 1,452 2 5 7 2 563 1
Petrokov 81 22 .... .... .... .... 151  
Plotzk 194 146 .... .... .... .... 140 2
Podolsk 935 805 441 357 117 260 407 22
Poltava 177 1,185 24 128 .... .... 45  
Radom 44 811 .... .... .... .... 210 1
Suvalki 445 938 .... .... .... .... 222 4
Syedletz 165 260 .... .... .... .... 181 11
Taurida 61 46 .... .... 38 38 4 7
Vitebsk 105 55 .... .... .... .... 305 1
Volhynia 490 393 300 48 1 .... 373 2
Warsaw 160 531 .... .... .... .... 231 5
Wilna 578 1,132 .... .... .... .... 452 5
____________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ __________________ __________________
  Total 11,984 15,112 1,746 2,646 665 1,136 7,185 177

 

    "From numerous official reports of Benkendorff, Barons Hahn and Stempel, Kartzev and Islavin, up to 1886 (summarized in Nikitin), it is evident that the Jewish colonies in New Russia are in no way behind the Christian Russian villages in rational farming. If the colonies have not been as great a success as was anticipated, the fault lies rather with the methods of foundation and the obstacles placed in the way by officials than with the Jewish colonists themselves."

Table of settlements in the Western Governments

    

Home 

Jewish Gen Home Page

 KehilaLinks Directory