The shtetl Krystynopol
was predominantly Jewish
for most of the town's history. Today there is
barely a trace of the original town. Although
information regarding Krystynopol's history is scant, here
is the story of the rise and fall of this community:
The noble family of
Potocki from Kraków, Poland, owned vast amounts of land in
the region. In May 1685, Feliks Kazimierz Potocki (1630-1702)
bought land in the village of Nowy Dwór (New Garden). In
1692, he founded Krystynopol on this land and made the town his
home. He named the town after his
wife, Princess Krystyna Lubomirska (1640-1699).
Later, Feliks Potocki's grandson, Franciszek
Salezy Potocki (1700-1772) built a large palace there .
The 1900 census
counted 2,651 Jewish residents, 75 percent of the total
population of 3,522 . The census revealed these
Area in hectares = 1,060 (equivalent to 2,610 acres)
Number of men = 1,728
Number of women = 1,794
Number of houses = 408
Number of factories = 1
Number of horses = 57
Number of cattle = 135
Number of sheep = 1
Number of pigs = 218
During World War I, Cossack attacks, mass expulsions and the decline of grain trade caused the Jewish population to drop to 2,086 (74 percent of the total population of 2,809). Zionist organizations gained popularity .
Krystynopol Jews settled in New York City, founding several
organizations (landmanshaftn) to aid fellow immigrants (click here
for more information on Krystynopol Jews in New York) .
years after the conclusion of World War I, the 1926/7 Poland
business directory counted five synagogues in
Krystynopol. Businesses in the town included a cement
factory, mills and tanneries. The 1930 directory
additionally noted sawmills and the production of chemical
most Krystynopol Jews were expelled by the Germans and left
with the Soviet forces. They crossed the Bug River to
be in Soviet-controlled Sokal and Witkow Nowy. In the
summer of 1940, many of these Jews were exiled to Siberia
. In September 1942, remaining Krystynopol Jews
were deported to the death camp in Belzec. The Jewish
cemetery, founded in the 1700s, was destroyed during that
here for more information on the Jewish cemetery in
became a part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist
Republic. Its name was changed to Chervonograd in
1953. Coal mining began in the 1950s and Chervonograd's
population grew rapidly, from 12,000 in 1959, to 83,600 in
Jews in New York City:
This is a list of Krystynopol-related landsmanshaftn incorporated in Manhattan, 1848 to 1920 :
|Name of landsmanshaftn
||Year of incorporation
|Krystenopoler Sick and
|Krystynopolo and Austria Congregation of the City of New York||1896
|Independent First Krystynopoler Sick and Benevolent Association||1902
|First Krystynopoler Young Men's Benevolent Association||1906
|First Krystynopoler Young Men's and Young Ladies Benevolent Society||1908
|Krystonopoler Congregation of
|Progressive Krystynopoler Young Men's Benevolent Society||1912
1896, the synagogue Cristonopoler Congregation Brith Isaac
was at 90 Columbia Street, Lower East Side Manhattan.
In 1919, its spiritual leader was Rabbi Aaron Hafner, its
president was Issac Axelrod and its secretary was Leib
Lustig. The congregation had 100 members and the
services were in Hebrew .
The First Krystenopoler Sick and Benevolent Association maintained an area at the Montefiore Cemetery in Queens, New York (block 83, gate 89/W), where there is a memorial to Krystynopol.
The following New York cemeteries have sections maintained by Krystynopol landsmanshaftn :
121-83 Springfield Boulevard
Springfield Gardens, Queens, NY 11412
Block 83, gate 89/W
Mt. Zion Cemetery
59-63 54th Avenue
Maspeth, NY 11378
Path 7 left, gate 5
Mt. Hebron Cemetery
130-04 Horace Harding Expressway
Flushing, NY 11367
Block 4, path 1
Farmingdale, NY 11735
Block 60, section 3
to the International Jewish Cemetery Project, the
Krystynopol Jewish cemetery is located at the center of
Chervonograd on Shevs'ka Street. The original size of
the cemetery was 1.5 hectares. At the time of the
survey in 1995, 0.15 hectares remained, surrounded by
housing. No grave markers exist .
1) "Chervonohrad." Wikipedia. 22 Apr. 2008. 3 May 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chervonohrad>.
2) "Jewish Historical Institute Education." 2007. Jewish Historical Institute, Warsaw, Poland. 3 May 2008 <http://www.jewishinstitute.org.pl/en/gminy/miasto/719.html>.
3) Spector, Shmuel, ed. The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and After the Holocaust. New York: NYU P, 2001. 684.
4) Austro-Hungarian Empire. Statistischen Zentralkommision. Gemeindelexikon der im Reichsrate Vertretenen Königreiche und Länder, Vol. 12,_Galizien. Vienna, 1907.
5) Green, Ada, and Steven Siegel. "Index to Incorporations of Jewish Locality-Related Organizations of New York County (Manhattan) 1848-1920." 28 June 2004. Jewish Genealogical Society of New York. 3 May 2008 <http://home.att.net/~landsmanshaft/ajhsintro.htm>.
6) Księga Adresowa Polski (Wraz Z W. M. Gdańskiem) DLA Handlu, Rzemiosł I Rolnictwa; Annuaire de la Pologne (Y Compris La V. L. de Dantzig) Pour Le Commerce, L'Industrie, Les Metiers et L'Agriculture, 1926/7. Warsaw: Towarzystwo Reklamy MięDzynarodowej, 1926. 1261-1262.
7) Księga Adresowa Polski (Wraz Z W. M. Gdańskiem) DLA Handlu, Rzemiosł I Rolnictwa; Annuaire de la Pologne (Y Compris La V. L. de Dantzig) Pour Le Commerce, L'Industrie, Les Metiers et L'Agriculture, 1930. Warsaw: Towarzystwo Reklamy MięDzynarodowej, 1930. 683.
8) Schneiderman, Harry, ed. American Jewish Yearbook 5680, 1919-1920. Vol. 21. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1919. 467.
9) "The Cemetery Project." 2006. The Museum of Family History. 4 May 2008 <http://www.museumoffamilyhistory.com/hm-chervonograd-om.htm>.
10) "Burial Societies in the New York Metro Area." 17 Oct. 2005. Jewish Genealogical Society of New York. 4 May 2008 <http://www.jgsny.org/searchcity.htm>.
11) "International Jewish Cemetery Project." JewishGen: The Home of Jewish Genealogy. 30 Aug. 2005. International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies. 4 May 2008 <http://www.jewishgen.org/cemetery/e-europe/ukra-c.html>.