Gubernskie Vedomosti (Volynian
Provincial Records) "The Borough of
Liubar" by Priest V. Komashko, issues #40,
41, 42; October 7th, 14th, and 21st, 1861
Translated by Elena Tsvetkova of Blitz
Russian-Baltic Information Center
"The Borough of Liubar"
Liubar is located 87
verst (*) far from the main city of the district
- Novogradvolynsk - and 50 versts far from
Starokonstantinov. This rich country has many
natural gifts for human life. So it could not be
uninhabited for a long time. The first settling
was of Slavs who made use of it. Though it is
unknown when this took place. Its name -
Liubartov - was given after the Grand Duke
Liubart. Liubar refers to its being established
by this prince. He inherited Volyn from his
father in 1322. Then Liubar belonged to the
Princes Chartoriiskii, who were close relatives
on the side of Olgerd, the brother of Liubart.
The son of the former was the progenitor of the
old Orthodox Princes, Chartoriiskii. One of the
Chartoriiskiis - Isabella - was married to
Liubamirskii, crowned Marshall. Thus she gave
Liubar to the family of these princes. So, it is
not surprising that the Liubomirskii Princes,
who were Orthodox, zealously constructed
churches and monasteries in their manors. The
Princes also provided them with lands and
various privileges. The Liubomirskiis always
gave Liubar to their children. The last
representative of the Liubomirskiis - Martin -
presented this place to his niece - Karnicka.
Her daughter, whose name became Walewska after
marriage, still owns this borough.
Liubar is divided by
the river Sluch into two parts - the Old and New
The Old borough
consists of Strizhavka, state part, and so
called Shirokaia [Wide] street.
The New borough is a
very old borough and includes Dominikanskaia
street, where the suburb of Iurovka starts.
Liubar is the best and
very populous place in the Southern part of the
Novograd Volynskii district. It is the center of
trade for the entire neighborhood. The location
is wonderful. It is arranged rather regularly.
Rather a big quantity of Jewish inns are around
the bazaar square. It would not be a shame if
they were built in the cities. There are big,
two-story stone shops. They are rather
advantageously constructed and have taverns on
the upper floors. In this beautiful building
there are many Jewish stores selling various
goods and a good wine cellar. Not far there are
the other stores which were built earlier. They
sell various small goods - everything which
could be bought in district towns, but less
expensive. That is why many people come here for
shopping especially on Sundays.
gubernskie vedomosti" [Volynian Provincial
Not official section. Issue #41. October 14,
1861. Pgs. 245-247.
"The Borough of Liubar"
Points of interest.
1. Rather big stone
two-story palace of the landowner, Walewska with
a big park on the bank of Sluch.
2. In the state part
there is a monastery, built in 1775. It was
constructed by the means of revenues and
donations of various private contributors. Then
the present wooden St. George Church was built.
This church differs from all other local
churches by old Uniate picturesqueness and the
same internal decoration. In 1795, it became an
Orthodox church. It was realized by local
priest, Ioann Malevanskii. It became a parish
for residents of the territories of the former
Bazilian Order. When the Uniates were joined
again in 1838, the church was given to this
monastery. There is a St. Onufrii icon in the
church. He lived in a hermitage. On June 12,
when his image was seen in a monastery well,
crowds of people came here for worship. Before
this monastery was built, a wooden one had
existed here. It was constructed by prince
Liubomirskii in a forest as far back as 1616. It
was located a little lower than the present
monastery, near the main right turn of the road
to the river Sluch. Now on the place of the old
monastery there is a fruit garden and a stone
cellar in it. According to a person, who
previously studied in a college attached to the
former monastery, the following facts certify
the existence of this wooden monastery.
a) When the monastery
and college libraries were put in order, he read
a Slavic book written by some monk from the
Liubar Orthodox monastery. The book was devoted
to Anastasiia Liubomirskaia, still Orthodox,
from an ancient family. The book contained a
narration about the introduction of the Orthodox
religion in Russia and that Orthodox monks
follow the real Greek religion.
b) Gospel given to this
monastery by Prince Dolgorukii, field-Marshall
under Peter the Great, contains a note written
by him: "St. George Monastery in Liubar"
Liubomirskaia, Princess of Ostrog, provided the
monastery with privileges and lands with the
obligation to establish a college attached to
the monastery. So, the portrait of this princess
is still kept there. However, when propaganda
for uniting started in these places, then this
monastery was included in the union.
In addition to
secondary schools, a college was established on
September 10, 1818. The number of students was
up to 500.
practical method of teaching was especially
noteworthy. If the monks had strictly followed
the rules of the Order - only to develop the
intellect of boys, enrich them with knowledge,
make their hearts full of Christian piety -
their aim would have been realized for the
good of the students. However, the spirit of
Jesuitism got into the monastic cells and led
them astray from good and lofty assignments.
There was a general order and the government
closed the college in 1831. There was a
physics laboratory at this college. It was
transferred to the Volynian provincial
secondary school. There was also a wonderful
library mostly including Latin, French, German
and other books (17000 volumes in total). The
most valuable were the following:
- Bible passed into
possession from the Jesuit Collegium (in
Ostrog). It was published in Paris in seven
languages - Jewish, Greek, Latin, French,
German, Slavic and Polish.
- History of Western
Church by Petavii in 75 volumes in Latin,
Italian and French languages.
The library with all
college acts was sent to Kiev.
There was a botanical
garden in the monastery near the river Sluch.
Here former students had botanic lessons. Doctor
Romanskii, well known at that time, arranged a
hydropathic establishment right in that place in
the garden where the monastic bath is now.
There is the volost
(**) government and a village college on
Bazilianskaia street. The college is supervised
by a priest from the St. Trinity Church who
receives a special salary for this from the
state budget. Here peasant children learn to
read, write, study mathematics and Christian
3. In addition to the
monastery church there are the following temples
in the Old borough:
Independent. Splendid both inside and outside.
It is considered to be the oldest in Liubar.
4. Pokrovskaia church.
By the way, the aforementioned Ioan Malevanskii,
who converted the monastic church to
Christianity, was a priest here. After that the
priest was Pavel Rafal'skii, brother of St.
Petersburg metroploitan, Antonii.
5. Saint Trinity Church
surrounded by Jewish houses is like the triumph
of Christianity among the faithless. A village
college is attached to it.
6. St. George Church.
It was reconstructed from a big Bazilian church
when the big monastic church became an Orthodox
These churches received
special permissions to have lands, as it was
stated above, by princes Liubomirskii. One - in
1751, and also - in 1774.
Jews have up to 9
prayer houses here. The most notable by size and
arrangement is a stone synagogue newly built
near the land owner's garden. It is located near
the place of their previous synagogue. When
Dnieper Cossack passed by this place they asked
the permission of Hetman Bogdan Khmel'nitskii to
celebrate a Jewish wedding. At that time they
killed 50 Jews and burnt their synagogue which
had been existing for 570 years, as it was known
from a note inside the synagogue. Jews still
hold this place sacred.
There is also an office
of administration, drugstore, place of residence
for the provision of a mission, two cart
manufactures and a brewery here.
gubernskie vedomosti" [Volynian Provincial
Issue #42. October 21, 1861. Pgs. 250-252.
"The Borough of Lubar"
After Western provinces
had been returned to Russia, the Bazilian
college and famous Doctor Minikh contributed to
the blooming state of Liubar. The college had
been existing for 30 years. So many families
settled in the borough to teach their children.
A doctor was famed by his special art of
treatment. Ill people came here from everywhere,
so Liubar was crowded with his patients. There
were about 1000 of them. The rich drugstore of
Vitke was well known not only in the
neighborhood. A rich store selling haberdashery
and other expensive goods of German Fux existed
from 1823 to 1828,. They were not worse than in
Berdichev. In addition, there were wine cellars,
cloth stores and, what is more important, three
book stores. The owners were Rimskii,
Shchepanskii and Lekh. The fact that a division
of apartments was located here was also
favorable for the borough. The borough of Liubar
is not declining even now. Much support is
provided by land owners who come to the local
Dominican Church, one of the most significant in
the neighborhood after the church in Berdichev.
Many different people come here for fairs. The
most notable are three of them, which take place
on St. Onufrii Day, St. George Day (April 23)
and St. John Baptizer Day. Besides Liubar is
located on a big Kupecheskii [Merchant] and
Voennyi [Military] roads from Berdichev to
Radzivilov and from Brody to Kremenets. Here
many various handicraftsmen live such as
coppersmiths, blacksmiths, joiners, tailors,
carvers, turners, etc.
The corps of the Polish
Army was located near Liubar (in so called
Strizhavka) during the last years of the past
century. Older persons can point out the place
of battle, when the Russian army crushed the
Poles. They blocked up great sharftS and
trenches. Kostiushko, who was pursued, escaped
with his army to Chartoriia. He left a big grave
three versts far from Liubar on the right and
four graves on the left from the road to the
settlement of Glezna. The Polish general
Serakovskii, absolutely weak, went with
divisions of his army to Liubarskii road. On
this way, he met the Russian army which crushed
the Polish soldiers in the fields between roads
near the borough of Labun' and the settlement of
A powerful dam with two
good water mills was built on the crossing from
the Old borough to the New one. Up stream a
ferry was arranged.
In the New borough
1. A Dominican church
surrounded by a stone wall. A private college
was attached to the church. Many landowners and
Polish noblemen gather here on St. Dominic Day.
2. Three Orthodox
churches - Prechistenskaia. Independent. It was
built on a hill like a lamp above the town. It
is still beautiful due to the efforts of priest
Ioakinf Terletskii. Two other churches -
Mikhailovskaia (poor church) and Spasskaia - are
attached to the Prechistenskaia church. Vasilii
Malevanskii had been a priest of Spasskaia
church, and then became the district archpriest
There are many Jewish
houses in this part of the borough. There are
workshops. The most noteworthy is the nobleman
Luchitskii's. His piano and especially positive
workshops are very well known.
Here mute graves are
also located along Chudnovskaia road, like in
the Old borough. They add history of the times
of Bogdan Khmelnitskii and show the way of
Sheremetev, who realized the plans of the
Nearby there is a small
borough - Iurovka - called after Iurii
Liubomirskii who had been living here. There is
Vozdvizhenskaia church in the borough. It is
much richer and more beautiful both inside and
outside than all parish churches in Liubar.
From an economical
point of view, Liubar is divided into three
districts - Starometsnyi [The Old Borough],
Novomestnyi [The New Borough] and Iurovetskii.
All of them have their own significant
The soil both in the
borough and in the suburb is a rich black. It is
used for spring and winter crops. The soil is a
bit sandy only along the road to Chertoriia and
a partially clay.
7560 residents (both
sexes) live in Liubar. 3560 of them are Jews.
Old believers also reside here. In addition to
agriculture, the residents are involved in trade
(especially popular is trade with lard).
Priest V. Komashko
* Versta (verst) - Old Russian measure of length
equal to 3,500 feet.
** Volost - small rural