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Kezmarok Coat of Arms

   Kežmarok, Slovakia


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An Artist Visited Kezmarok

At the end of July 2015, Kate Rys (Reading, UK) sent me the following e-mail:

Dear Madeleine,

While sorting out old photographs of my aunt's paintings, a couple of which are of Kezmarok, it occurred to me to look for the name on one of them to see if I can find out anything about the fate of that person. This led me to your Kezmarok website and the memorial for the Jews of Kezmarok.

My aunt, Hella Guth (1908 Kirchenbirk-1992 Paris), spent some time travelling through and painting in Slovakia in early 1930s. Being Jewish and also politically quite active, she had to escape to Poland in summer 1939 and later emigrated to England, though later on (1950s) settled in Paris. Her pre-war paintings remained in Prague with her mother, who later perished in Auschwitz, and my aunt's paintings were 'lost'. During one of my visits to Hella's atelier in Paris, I made notes while she described what she could remember about the lost paintings, while looking at their black-and-white photographs.

One of my aunt's paintings was 'Kezmarok Bridge' (1934) and another, of a fruit and veg shop with inscribed name Lazar ..... - from her description 'Lazar Indik/Indig' (1933), which has a lovely story attached: while my aunt was painting it, the woman came out and when she noticed Hella painting the shop, she asked her to wait a bit so that she can put on her wig. And that's how my aunt painted her.

When I found your JewishGen website and the name Eliezer Indig, I wondered whether Lazar could be short for Eliezer? I found quite detailed description of how holocaust affected Kezmarok Jews on holocaust.cz, which mentions many names, but not Indig. I would, of course, be very interested to hear any information about the Indig family and especially about any descendants, if any of the family members survived.

Please find attached copies of the mentioned photos.

With kind regards Kate Rys (Reading, UK)


"Kezmarok Theme" (1933)


"Kezmarok Bridge" (1934)

 

Market Day in Kezmarok

An image of the photo below was sent to Rina and Shaul GASSNER (relatives of the webmaster of this site) who had lived in Kezmarok pre-WW II, but emigrated to Israel. The following is a translation from the Hebrew of the description of Market Days in Kezmarok from their letter dated, 1 September 2008.


Market Day in Kezmarok, circa 1935

Dear cousins,

We received this old, interesting photograph of the “Weekly Market in Kezmarok” from the early part of the last century. What I can remember was that in Kezmarok there was a weekly market every Monday in the main street. Farmers arrived there from around the area and brought their products, like crops, chickens, eggs, potatoes, cabbage, all according to what was in season. Every few months, a few times a year, there was an annual market called Jahrmarkt (Market Fair). This was a much bigger market and sellers came from further away and with different products. In the eastern part of Kezmarok was a cattle market. This market interested the GOLDMAN family since they were cattle traders.

You asked if the cattle wagons could have belonged to the Goldmans. I believe these belonged only to the farmers who came from the surrounding areas and came to sell cattle in there and to buy things they needed from the Kezmarok shops, such as equipment for their farms, clothes, shoes, etc.

A good percentage of the shops in the main street were owned by Jews. In the photo, I recognize only the sign on the lower left side. The sign says MAIBAUM and it was a shoe store.

In the Jewish-owned shops they sold textiles, clothing, building materials, glassware, and there were various workshops. 150 years ago, Jews were not allowed to buy houses or to open shops in Kezmarok. The Jews lived in surrounding towns such as Hunsdorf (Huncovce), and brought their goods to Kezmarok but in the evening they had to leave . This is just a very brief description.

The historian Dr. Nora BARATHOVA wrote much about the Jews of Kezmarok on the internet. She wrote it in Slovak. There are also some writings that have been translated into English and German.

When Reneke and I visited Kezmarok more than 10 years ago, for the first time after leaving Kezmarok 50 years ago, we saw no publication or tourist information that told about the history of the Jews there. At the exhibition we met Miki LIPTAK and he tied himself very closely to us. He wanted us to meet the mayor since he did not know any Jews who had lived in Kezmarok before the war.

I brought to the mayor's attention the fact that they do not remember/mention the more recent history of 50 years ago but only publish what took place 800 years ago.

As you know, Renee advised Mikulas LIPTAK to approach you and ask for your help in translating what was written on the tombstones in the Jewish cemetery.

We hope that this gives you a little information and if we can help answer any additional questions, we’ll be happy to do so.

We hope everything is OK with all of you. We send you many blessings and hope that you will be inscribed for a Happy New Year.

Renee and Shaul

(Written by Yitzchak GASSNER, from his father's words and with his mother's concurrence.)


Note: Renee GASSNER is the daughter of Berta GOLDMAN and Gyula ENGLMAN.

 

Views of Kezmarok from Old Postcards

You can go to various sources to see how Kezmarok looks today, but it is far more difficult to find old photographs or postcards of what Kezmarok looked like, before either of the World Wars. Below are some photographs sent to Madeleine ISENBERG by several people with connections to Kezmarok. If anyone accessing this site has more photographs to contribute, they will be most heartily appreciated. You may contact and/or e-mail Madeleine directly.

Click on the photos for a larger version.

 

Panoramic View of Kezmarok with Poprad River in Foreground, 1900

 

The Kezmarok Great Synagogue, 1903

 

Street Scene, circa 1917

 

View of Kezmarok, with the Tatra Mountains in back, circa 1925.

 

View of Kezmarok from the railway station


CommercialSchool_Old&New

 The "Handelschule," the Kezmarok Business School, that according to Shaul Gassner, "Everyone went here!"



A list of addresses of Jews who lived in Kezmarok in the years 1918-1950 has been compiled but no attempt has been made as of November 2016 to integrate with the table below for more exact addresses.


 

Jewish Businesses and Trades in Kezmarok

Here are some of the business advertisements that appeared in the "Carpathian Post," aka Karpathen Post.  This newspaper was printed from 1880 until 22 August 1942.  Up through December 2016, on-line access to this newspaper was readily available at www.difmoe.eu/archiv/, but is no longer available, possibly until rehosted somewhere.

At the time this page was created, a person could search in the text field for a family name or town, and a date range, to find ads such as these.  The home page  had boxes that were links to calendar years.  Clicking on a calendar year, dates that were "blackened" were issue dates.   Painfully, one at a time, you could open a weekly issue and page through an average of six pages per issue, if you had the patience. 

Mostly the articles and notices were in German, and printed in Old German Fraktur.  While I cannot be sure, I assume after WW I, some articles were also be in Slovak.  Below is a sampling of advertisements I was able to find.  I did not look through every issue, but it looks like at some time, Jewish merchants stopped advertising, even before the outbreak of WW II. 

Interesting perhaps, is that just after Germany's invasion of Poland, already the next issue on 9 September 1939, had a "Heil Hitler" in the first column.

 

A Selection of Advertisements of Jewish Businesses in Kezmarok


Ad_Freund_1923
Moriz FREUND
Motor Fuels
1923

Ad_Glucksman_1917
B. GLUCKSMANN
Building Materials, Metalware
1917

Ad_Lowy_1923
Josef LÖWY
Chocolates and Candy  1923

Ad_Friedman_1890
M. FRIEDMAN
Metal and Rubber Stamps 1890

Ad_Grunapfel_1897
Adolf GRÜNAPFEL
Tombstone Engraving
1897

Ad_Perlroth_1900
Z. PERLROTH
Watches and Jewelry
1900

Ad_Sichermann_1924
Hermann SICHERMANN
Furs
1924



Ad_Stern_1925

Isaak STERN
Petroleum Products
1925

Ad_Bergsman_1894
Jeanette  (née BERGSMANN) WINCZER
Hats and Hairstyling for Women & Children
1894

Ad_Maibaum_1925
Adolf MAIBAUM
Shoes
1925


 

A List of Businesses by Family Name and when the Businesses were Aryanized

The information below was painstakingly compiled by the noted Kezmarok historian, Dr. Nora Barathova and transcribed into preliminary spreadsheets by Lenka Liptak. Translations were provided by Miki Liptak with editing and corrections by Madeleine Isenberg. (Click on Contacts for contact information).

(Note: a few records in this list appear with turquoise background.  They have a known family connection to Madeleine Isenberg.)

When
Mentioned

Family Name

Name and Profession/ Occupation, Dates and Addresses, Where Available

Liquidation/
Aryanization

 ALEXANDERAlexander Albin - trader of wood coal and transportation1941
1929ALEXANDERAlexander Jozef - trader of wood and coal - 1929, director of sawmill1941
1916ALEXANDERAlexander Maximilán - transportation of goods on the Czechoslovak State Railways, 1916, 1937 
1907ALTMANAltman Adolf - footwear - 1907 - Kossuth Lajos Street Nr. 1341941
 ALTMANAltman Artúr - trader of wood for fuel 1941
1929ALTMANAltman Bernard - tanner, linoleum - 1929, 1938, 1940 son - Trijmostová Street 20 (1940) (It's possible the son took over the business and father retired)  
1893ALTMANAltman Dávid - typography (1893-1895) 
 ALTMANNAltmann Móric - Tanner of hides  
1906BECSERBecser Lajos - Leaseholder of the firm G.S.Szopka - fuels (petrol/gasoline for cars), coke - Hlavnénám (Main Square) #20, 1906. (Address later was at #54)  
1885BEERBeer Moric - lawyer - 1885  
1921BERGMANNBergmann Herman - Shopkeeper of sweets, paper goods - 1921; liquidated after bancruptcy 1933 - Main Square 48  
1925BERGMANBergman Ignác - butcher - 1925, (Ignatz Bergman died in 1938.) His widow ran the business until liquidation in 1941. Afterward taken over by the state.1941
1881BERGSMANBergsman R. - fabric, clothing - 1881, 1889 
 BERGMANOVÁBergmanová Karolína, widow - Food shop owner (fruits and sugar)1941
1890BERNHARDTBernhardt Johana - Food retailer - 1890 - Hradná Street (Castle Street) 
 BIRNBAUMBirnbaum Armin - Junk trader of old iron, old clothes, bonemeal (for soap-making)1941
 BIRNBAUMBirnbaum Dávid - Shopkeeper of textiles/fabrics - Rázusova Street 91941
 BIRNBAUMBirnbaum Naftali - Shopkeeper of Jewish religious items1941
 BLOCHBloch Rudolf - Delicatessen owner and shopkeeper of fruit1941
 BRAUNBraun Ladislav - Junk store of old iron, rags, bonemeal (for soap-making)1941
 BREITKOPFBreitkopf Leo - Tailor1941
 BRODMANBrodman Simon - Storekeeper of fruit and sugar1941
 BRÖDYBródy Andrej - Production and seller of artificial stone1941
1920BUCHFÜHRERBuchführer Moric - Furrier - 1920 - Hradná Street Nr. 10 (Castle Street) 
 DÁVIDDávid Anton - Restaurant owner. Opened in 1905 in the building of the Kezmarok Bank - Hlavné nám (Main Square) 11(?) - in 1940 taken over by Jozef Storch  
1925DICKMANDickman Ignác - Seller of motor cars for Czechoslovak Motor company Tatra - 1925, 1927, 1937, 1940 - Main Square 52, bought from Szopko 
 DICKMANOVÁDickmanová Regina - General store owner1941
1930ENGELEngel Áron - Tradesman - near 1930 
 ENGELHARDTEngelhardt Jindrich - Goods made of leather, wool1941
1930FISCHGRUNDFischgrund Alexander - Tradesman - about 1930 
 FISCHGRUNDFischgrund Berta opened a laundry and ironing establishment in 1896, in Zwicker’s house 
1901FISCHMANNFischmann S.J. Ran a textile store. Opened in 1901, in Jozef Markovich’s house Nr. 113 
1929FORSCHERForscher Adolf - House painter - 19291941
 FORSCHEROVÁForscherová Regina - Tailor1941
 FREYFrey Ladislav - Tailor1941
1925FREYERFreyer Adolf - Hotel owner 1925 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) (Fötár) Nr. 36 
 FREYERFreyer Moris - Opened a cafí and a restaurant in August 1931 on Lyceálna Street Nr. 17  
1860,
1929
FREYERFreyer Samuel was from Karviná where he had a brewery 1860; Opened a railway restaurant in Ándor Lám's house in 1890; he rented it out in 1902; On 24.11.1901, opened restaurant on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 11, which had belonged to S.W. Roth; Tradesman - 1929 
 FRIEDFried M. - Upholsterer1941
1929FRIEDMANFriedman Adolf - Grain trader - 1929 
 FRIEDMANFriedman Július - Engraver and calligrapher1941
 FRIEDMANFriedman Leo - Producer of sheep cheese1941
1889,
1938,
1940
FRIEDMANFriedman Mark - the first store with art engravings and production of stamps (at first metal; later rubber) in the Upper Hungary in 1889; later producer of gold-plated sepulchral crucifixes and tombstones. Information found on a business document from 1891 (First and Largest Tombstone Business in Upper Hungary) - 1891, 1912 - Main Square Nr. 328; Stamp engraver - 1938. This family-run business was still there on 1 Oct. 1940 
 FRIEDMANNFriedmann Maximilián - advocate (i.e. lawyer) - since 15 Aug 1880 in the Kiss's house on the Hradná Street (Castle Street) ; since 26 July 1881 on the Hradná Street Nr. 24 in the Grunwald's house.  
1893FRIEDMANNFriedmann Samuel in 1893, took over the National Hotel (Nemzeti Szálloda) from Johann Lengyel 
1912,
1929
FUCHSFuchs Salamon - Clothing Designer 1912, 1929 - Main Square Nr. 110 
 GÄRTNERGärtner Gedeon - Junk dealer, store of old iron and rags - Starý trh Nr. 53, 1941 (twice) 
1901GELEHRTERGelehrter Max - Renter of the railway restaurant (Restauration Zur Eisenbahn) since 15 Nov 1901 (Samuel Freyer was the owner until then.) 
1912,
1918
GERHARDTGerhardt Abrahám - Typographer - 1912 (1910-1918) 
1929GERHARDTGerhardt Jozef - Store with paper goods (probably a stationer's), 1929 
1935GERHARDTGerhardt Helena - Tailor - 1935 
1916GLESINGERGlesinger S. - Sawmill and a wood depot - 1916  
1880,
1893,
1894,
1930
GLÜCKSMANGlücksman B. (Bernat)- Hardware store - 1880, 1893, 1894, 1930, the main depot of bonemeal and fertilizer 
1881GOLDMANGoldman D. - owner of the public baths of Lubica - 1881 
 GOLDMANGoldman Izidor - General store1941
1925GOLDMANGoldman Marek - Café owner - 1925 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 8 
1920,
1931
GOLDMANGoldman Moric - Agricultural tools; also sheep cheese production -1920 - on Starý trh Nr. 7 and Kossuth Lajos Street Nr. 47, since 1931, Nr. 45; Max and Moritz Goldmann had two stores: 1. textile goods next door to 2. factory for the production of sheep cheese.  
1909GOLDMANGoldman Viliam - Agricultural tools - 1909 - Main Square Nr. 335 
 GOLDMANGoldman Zsigmund - Livestock (or cattle) trader1941
 GOLDMANOVÁGoldmanová Serena - Tailoring shop1941
 GOLDSCHEINGoldschein Emanuel - Bakery owner1941
1925,
1932
GOLDSTEINGoldstein Markus - Café owner- 1925, 1932 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 8 
1933GOTTEHRERGottehrer - Established a sweet shop before WW I - Main Square - taken over by Herman Bergmann, liquidated after bancruptcy in 1933 
 GOTTLIEBGottlieb Izák - General store1941
 GOTTLIEBOVÁGottliebová Serena - corsets - 19411941
1890,
1896
GRAUSGraus B. - The first soda-water factory of Kezmarok - 1890; in 1896, seller of fertilizers 
1940GRAUSGraus Dionáz - Wine merchant - Original owners were M.A. Roth and Graus, but Graus became the business successor 1940, 1941.  
 GRAUSGraus Ferdinand - Wine merchant - established in 1898 - 1932 - cellar on Michalská Street (Michelergasse) 1, store on Trojmostová Street Nr. 4; coffee store in 1899 on ser. Nr. 340 
1909GREISIGERGreisiger Jakub - Inn owner - 1909 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 17 
1901,
1906
GROSSGross Móric in September 1901 had Hotel Koruna (Crown Hotel). New Year's celebration took place there in 1936.  
1932GROSSBERGGrossberg - Bazaar - 1932 (á) - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 339 
 GROSSBERGGrossberg Dávid - Store owner of used items (old iron, personal items) 1941
 GROSSBERGGrossberg Július - Haberdashery owner1941
1930GROSSBERGGrossberg M. - Carpet and Tapestry store (tapestries, kilims) - 1930 
 GROSSBERGGrossberg Salamán - Textile store1941
 GROSSBERGOVÁGrossbergová Etela - Handcraft store1941
1902,
1941
GROSSMANNGrossmann Lazar - Provider of building material, iron - established in 1900. In 1902 located in Badányi's house on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 18, then on Hlinka Square (Hlavné nám (Main Square)) Nr. 4. In 1941 seized by a non-Jewish owner, Ján Gallik, Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 55 - at that time Bródy Andrej was part-owner with Grossmann, seized in 19411941
1926,
1937
GROSSMANNGrossmann Salamon - Multi-purpose store owner (bazaar, hardware store, house paints) - 1926, 1937 
1926GROSSWIRTHGrosswirth Ludovit - Producer of sheep cheese - The first Spiš Carpathian sheep cheese factory in 1926 
1897GRÜNAPFELGrúnapfel Adolf - Stonecutter - opened a stonecutting enterprise and a depot of tombstones in 1896, 1897 - Cintoránska Street (Cemetery Street, near the synagogue)  
1892,
1945
GRÜNBAUMGrünbaum Jozef - Printer (born 28.9.1892 in Zakarpatská Ukraine; died in 1945 in Majdanek) 
1919,
1938
GRÜNBAUMGrünbaum Viliam - Typographer - 1919, 1938, Masarykova Street Nr. 10 
1942GRÜNFELDGrünfeld Samuel - Sagub-ready-made clothing store - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 78, seized in 19421942
1912GULDENGulden Anna - Milliner - 1912 - Nr. 480 next to the Evangelical Church 
 GULDENGulden Fridrich - Shoeshop owner, opened in 1894 in Dr. Tátray’s house, Hlavné nám (Main Square) ser. Nr. 117 
1901GULDENGulden Jálius - Baker - 1901 - Castle Square (Hradná námestie) Nr. 104 
 HAMMERSCHLAGHammerschlag Bernard - Bakery owner1941
 HAMMERSCHLAGHammerschlag Ignác - Tinsmith - liquidated among the first stores on 25 January 19411941
1929HARTMANNHartmann Dezider - Wholesaler - 1929 
1905,
1940
HARTMANNHartmann Izidor - Designer of handmade textile products from sheep’s wool in 1905, also from linen during the first Czechoslovakian Republic - established in 1884. Advertised in Karpathen-Post in 1885 in Badány’s house, that he came back from a trade route with new designer goods of textiles and clothing for men, women and children; in 1927, 1940. His sons - opened a branch also in Poprad, Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 24 - Nr. 338 (á) 
 HERSKOVITSHerskovits Max - since 4 November 1933 - Owner of Hotel Freyer 
1902HERZHerz Leo - Owner of a distillery; opened winter baths in January 1884 and on 18 September warm tub baths in the suburb of Lubica. Owned a distillery in Kezmarok in 1902.  
1893,
1931
HERZHerz Rudolf - Delicatessen owner - 1893, 1894 Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 108, 1925, 1931 Lyceálna Street Nr. 17 
 HERZHerz Rudolf - electrical mangling (similar to ironing but only with cold cylinder press)1941
1925,
1935
HOCHHAUSERHochhauser A. - Ladies Fashion Clothes 1925, 1935, Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 50 
 HOLLÄNDERHolländer Frantisek - Second-hand store owner (old iron, personal items, bones)1941
1881HOLLÄNDERHolländer Maximilián - Barrister’s office - 1881 - Hradná Nr. 85 (Castle Street) 
1909HOLZERHolzer Izidor - Owner of Public baths (rental of tub and steam baths)for the Jewish community - 1909 
 HOLZEROVÁHolzerová Johanna - Poultry trader1941
 HORNHorn Vojtech - Car-hansom (i.e., taxi-cab service)1941
 INDIGIndig Lazar - Store owner (fruits and sweets)1941
 INDICHIndich Herman - widowed; second-hand store (old iron, rags)1941
1929JANOWITZJanowitz Artúr - Factory owner - 1929 
1930JANOWITZJanowitz Leopold - Trader - about 1930 
 JANOWITZOVÁJanowitzová Alábeta - Textile store owner, liquidated in 19411941
1925JANOWITZOVÁJanowitzová Aranka - Perfumery - 1925 - Trojmostová Street 
 JANOWITZOVÁJanowitzová Bella - Textile store owner1941
 JANOWITZOVÁJanowitzová Magda - Perfumery1941
 KALLUSKallus Izák - Producer of soda water - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 18 - liquidated in 1941 by Jozef Kromka from the Tax Administration in Keámarok1941
1897KANNENGIESERKannengieser M. - tailor - 1897 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 3 (corner house) 
 KATZOVÁKatzová Rozália - Greengrocer (store of fruits and vegetables)1941
 KLEINKlein - Hotel owner on Michalská Street - during the first Czechoslovakian Republic 
1881KLEINKlein Adolf - Textile store owner - 1881; Wine bar owner - about 1880 (according to a photograph of the Square). However photo is unavailable. 
1909KLEINKlein Emália - Flowershop owner (flowers and wreaths) - 1909 
1894KLEINKlein Herman - In 1894 handed over designer goods to Ignácz Winczer, Hlavné nám (Main Square) ser. Nr. 119 
1930KLEINKlein Jeremiás - Innkeeper - about 1930 
 KLEINKlein Karol Jr. Opened a pastry shop in November 1894 on Hlavné nám (Main Square) ser. Nr. (31á) 
 KLEINKlein Leopold - Shoemaker1941
1926,
1929
KLEINBERGERKleinberger Jakub - Furniture seller (wood furniture) - 1926, 1929 
1894KOHNKohn Béla - Textile store owner - went bankrupt 1894 
1880,
1897
KOHNKohn Eduard (from Miskovec) - textiles, various industrial products - 1880, 1894, 1897 on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) ser. Nr. 120 
 KOHNKohn Emanuel - Textile store owner1941
 KOHNKohn Maximilián - Textile store owner1941
 KOHNKohn Szimon - Textile store owner - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 211941
1925KORNGOLDOVÁKorngoldová Anna (a widow) - Bakery Owner - 1925 - Lyceálna Street Nr. 19 - liquidated/seized by Adalbert Scholtz and on 24 November 1941 he reopened it again.1941
1932KORNGOLDKorngold J. Candy store owner, opened in 1930 next door to the widow (Anna Korngold) - 1932 
 KORNGOLDKorngold Ladislav - Candy store owner1941
1900KORNHAUSERKornhauser Adolf - Trader - 1900, his son Dezider - a doctor - graduated in 1900 
 KORNHAUSERKornhauser Herman Simon - general store owner - liquidated in 1941 twice - once as a trader of fruits, sugar and pastry1941
1925,
1930
KORNHAUSERKornhauser Július - Chemist’s shop - 1925, 1930, in January 1940 seized by PhMg. Paul Neubauer 
1910KORNHAUSERKornhauser Moric - Furniture shop - 1910 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) ser. Nr. 111 
 KORNHAUSERKornhauser Simon - Grocery shop owner 1941
 KORNHAUSEROVÁKornhauserová Adela - Ready-made clothing shop1941
 KORNHAUSEROVÁKornhauserová Anna, widow - Dairy owner1941
 KOVÁCSKovács Jozef, Ing. - Building contractor - liquidated by Rudolf Jendreják manager of an apprentice school.1941
1931KOVÁCSKovács M. - Perfumery - 1931 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 32 
1903,
1928
KOVÁCSOVÁKovácsová Jolana - General store owner, established in 1903 - 1928 
 KÜNSTLINGERKünstlinger Zsigmund - Tinsmith, liquidated among the first on 25 January 19411941
1895,
1901
LITTMANNLittmann Izidor -- Brick producer in Huncovce in 1895; in Kezmarok in 1901, established a liquor factory to produce rum and liqueurs. 
1924LÖWINGERLöwinger brothers - General goods - 1924 
1920LÖWYLöwy Jozef - Owner of Hotel Freyer - 1920 
 MAHLERMahler Fridrich -- established a furniture shop in 1894, in the past in Kuntzov’s, then in Lerch’s house on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 28 
1907,
1925
MAIBAUMMaibaum Adolf - Footwear - 1907 Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 109; 1925 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 33 
1932,
1938
MAIBAUMMaibaum Maximilián - Footwear (sandals and sport shoes) in Humanie - 1932; in 1938? the - Hlavné nám (Main Square) - liquidated on 20 May 19411941
 MANDELMandel Alexander - Shoemaker1941
 MANDELOVÁMandelová Hermina - Corsetier1941
1909MANDELMandel Herman - Footwear -- in 1909 moved from Hlavné nám (Main Square) ser. Nr. 117 to Kossuth Lajos Street ser. Nr. 2051941
1927,
1936
MELLERMeller E. - Wine wholesaler - award 1927, 1936 (received an award) 
 MELLERMeller Moses - Wine wholesaler - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 3 - liquidated by Ján Brija1941
1927MOSKOVITZMoskovitz (Moskovich) Mikulás - Advocate (i.e., lawyer) - 1927 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 2 
1926NEUGRÖSCHLNeugröschl Brothers - Producer of cheeses, including sheep cheese - 1926 - Trojmostová Street Nr. (49?) (Three Bridge Street) 
 NEUGRÖSCHLNeugröschl Adolf - General store owner 1941
 NEUGRÖSCHLNeugröschl Daniel - Owner of wood for building construction - opened a store in May 1897 on Cintorínska Street (Cemetery Street) 
1929NEUGRÖSCHLNeugröschl Lazar -- Store of flour, spices and seeds - 1929 - (Trojmostová Street Nr. 49?) 
1926PAHMERPahmer Jakub - Tailor - 1926 
1909,
1920
PAHMERPahmer M. - Footwear in Hartmann’s house - 1909 Kossuth Lajos Street Nr. 134 - Nr. 336, 1920 Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 22 
1926PAHMERPahmer Roza - Printed labels for handicrafts - patterns for handwork and crafts - 1926 
1925,
1949
PERLROTHPerlroth Armin - Dentist - 1925, 1949 - Trojmostová Street Nr. 13, Nr. 170 
1925PERLROTHPerlroth Samuel - Goldsmith - the workshop established in 1886 - 1925, 1938, 1940 - Trojmostová Street ser. Nr. 317 
 PINKASPinkas Benó opened 1897 a fashion clothing store in Badány’s house on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 16. Before it belonged to Schwarz Dezider. This was a branch of shops owned by Eduard Kohn in Miskolcz, Hungary.  
1926,
1931
POLITZERPolitzer Selma - Millinery salon 1926, opened on 1 July 1931 on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 64 
1887,
1891
REICHELTReichelt Leo and Römer - “Chemist’s for the Hungarian Crown” (Apotheke zur unger. Krone) - 1887, in November 1891 was on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 22, where the Condiment Store of Emil Genersich stood before. 
1905RIEMERRiemer Moric - China shop - 1905 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) ser. Nr.(16?), liquidated twice in 19411941
 RIEMEROVÁRiemerová Sali - General store 1941
 ROTHRoth M.A. and Graus - owner Filip Graus, Producer and seller of liqueurs and alcoholic beverages. - Rázusova Street Nr. 27 (see also GRAUS above).1941
1932ROSENZWEIGRosenzweig Maximilán H. - Furniture - 1932 - Trojmostová (Three Bridge) Street Nr. 9, in 1941 on Rázusova Street Nr. 7 together with brother, Salamon - liquidated by Gabriel Vavro from Bratislava1941
1900,
1902
ROSMANNRosmann Leopold - Beer depot - 1900, 1902 on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 109 
1947SEINWELLSeinwell Bernard and Co. - Fish canning factory in 1st Czechoslovakian Republic, company SEGROS - 1947 - In the Thokoly castle, where they had the factory. After the WW II, they came back and started it again.1941
1927SCHECHTMANNSchechtmann Mária - Midwife - 1927 - Main Square Nr. 14 
 SCHLESINGERSchlesinger Roza -- Hairdressing salon -- established in 1901 on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 54 
 SCHLOSSSchloss Henrich - Seed Store (mainly for gardening) 1941
 SCHLOSSSchloss Jozef - Coal seller, opened in 1901 on the Kossuth Lajos Street. Samuel Kohn also took orders for coal in the Lazary's house on the Starý trh (Old Market Street) 
1929SCHLOSSSchloss Jozef - Seller of building materials - 19291941
 SCHÖNSchön Adolf - Watchmaker - liquidated by Samuel Prokopa 
1942SCHÖNFELDSchönfeld Nathan - General store - Aryanized in 19421942
 SCHÖNWALDSchönwald Szigmund -- Upholstery shop -- opened in 1902 in Ján Palencsár's house on the Hlavné nám (Main Square), before that in Budapest and Vienna. 
 SCHRECKSchreck Abrahám - Fruit shop 1941
 SILBENHÄNDLERSilbenhändler Jozef - Textile shop 1941
1930SILBENHÄNDLERSilbenhändler Juraj - Tradesman - 1930 - Trojmostová (Three Bridges) Street Nr. 47 
1925,
1927
SICHERMANNSichermann Herman - Fur store- 1925, 1927 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 531941
1929SINGERSinger Markus - Tradesman - 1929 
 SONNENFELDSonnenfeld Jakub - Laundry owner1941
1900STERNStern Bernhard - Store selling paraffin - 1900 
1899STERNStern Emanuel - Tinsmith -- took over Trepper's tinsmith workshop after the death of Nathan Trepper in 1899, Starý trh Nr. 273 (Old Market Street) 
1932STERN/STERNOVAStern Fanny - Corsets - 1932 - J. Kraya Street Nr. 61941
1887STERNStern Herman - Borovicka (i.e., Gin) producer - 1887  
1940STERNStern Herman - Roofing and building material, car accessories and mineral oils, - 1940 - Jakuba Kraya Street Nr. 6 - liquidated three times - each time for another assortment of products.1941
1920,
1936
STERNStern Izák - Building material and mineral oils. Agent for the USA Petroleum Company in Prague and Bratislava - 1920, 1936 - J.Kraya Street Nr. 6 1941
1900,
1929
STERNStern Jozef -Building material, tar, Eternit (tile roofing) seller - 1900 - Cintorínska Street Nr. 409, 1909, 1912, 1929 - Lubická Road (Leibitzgasse) ser. Nr. 390 
1890,
1905
STERNStern Ludwig - Wine merchant - opened the store in 1885 - at that time also the lessor of the town wine-privileges (Weinregal. In 1890 a wine shop/winery on ser. Nr. 113 opposite the post office; in 1898 in the Hotel Central, before that Huminszky; in 1899 and 1901 on the Erzsébet-király Street Nr.8 - near the post office, 1905 Hotel Nazional - Lubická Road ser. Nr.390,  
1932STIEGLITZStieglitz Rudolf - Seller of Radios - 1932 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr.82 1941
1893,
1926
STIEGLITZStieglitz Szigmund Grocery store -- (he came from Liptovsky Mikulás in 1893 married Regina Bergsmann and opened in 1893 in Pavol Walický's house, where the post office once was - Hlavné nám (Main Square) ser. Nr.29. Representative of AG (joint-stock company) Sobéslav sewing machines - 1926 
 STORCHStorch Gejza - Tailor 1941
1940STORCHStorch Jozef - Restaurateur -- took over the restaurant of Dávid Antala - 1940 
1932SZIGETISzigeti Jozef - Construction foreman - 1932 - Tatranská Street Nr.91941
1899TREPPERTrepper Nathan - Tinsmith - until 1899 when he burned to death (As noted above, Emanuel Stern took over the workshop and the store, Starý trh Nr.273 (Old Market) 
1931VOGELMANNVogelmann Moric - Fishmonger 1931, House painter 1931, 1936 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr.18, ser. Nr.184 - 1941 aryanized by Pavol Humeník1941
1938WEILWeil Alexander - Automobile repair service - 1938 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr.48 
1895WEINGARTENWeingarten Salamon - General store - 1895 - in the Ruman's house on the Trojmostová Street Nr.205, his widow's business became a vault for safety deposits - 1934 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 29 
1925WEISZWeisz Hedviga --Women's fashions(salon for clothing), in October 1925 on the Castle Street Nr. 32 
 WEISSWeiss Eugen - Shoemaker 1941
1902WEISZWeisz Leopold - Grocer - 1902 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) 
1867WEISZWeisz Viliam - Seller of woolen and designer goods - 1867 
 WEISZLOVITSWeiszlovits Moritz - Textile (i.e., fabric) store -- opened in 1889 in the Grünwald's house on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) 
1932,
1934
WELLNERWellner Hermann - Barbershop - 1932, 1934 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 441941
 WERTHEIMERWertheimer Salamon - Seller of fruits and vegetables, meat, eggs, wool, leather. Rags.1941
1894WINCZERWinczer Ignác - Textile goods for men and women - in 1894, he took over the store from Herman Klein, Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr.119; in 1929 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr.15 
1894WINCZERWinczer Janette (nee Bergsmann) - Milliner - 1894 - in the Waliczky's house on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr.29 (Trojmostová Street Nr. 132?) 
1905,
1932
WINTERWinter Szerena -- Photography studio -- (she was born in 1905), Rimavská Sobota). Photography studio opened in September 1932 on Starý trh Nr.17 (Old Market St.) 
 ZIEGLERZiegler J. and son - Textiles 1941
1930,
1932
ZINNZinn Adolf - Cleaners/Laundry -- in 1930 took over the Cleaners (laundry) from Marta Schwarz, who had established it in 1898, on New Street Nr.20; in 1931 moved to the Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr.86, but in 1932 back again on the New Street Nr.20 
1919,
1932
ZINNZinn Bernát - House painter and glazier - 1919 Thököly Square Nr.9, 1932 Thököly Square Nr.51941
1929ZINSLERZinsler Bernhard - Tradesman - 1929 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr.4 
 ZIPSEROVÁZipserová Regina - Textiles Trader1941



 Compiled by
Madeleine ISENBERG
Updated 12 March 2017
Copyright © 2010-2017
Madeleine R. ISENBERG

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