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While sorting out old photographs of my aunt's paintings, a couple of which are of Kezmarok, it occurred to me to look for the name on one of them to see if I can find out anything about the fate of that person. This led me to your Kezmarok website and the memorial for the Jews of Kezmarok.
My aunt, Hella Guth (1908 Kirchenbirk-1992 Paris), spent some time travelling through and painting in Slovakia in early 1930s. Being Jewish and also politically quite active, she had to escape to Poland in summer 1939 and later emigrated to England, though later on (1950s) settled in Paris. Her pre-war paintings remained in Prague with her mother, who later perished in Auschwitz, and my aunt's paintings were 'lost'. During one of my visits to Hella's atelier in Paris, I made notes while she described what she could remember about the lost paintings, while looking at their black-and-white photographs.
One of my aunt's paintings was 'Kezmarok Bridge' (1934) and another, of a fruit and veg shop with inscribed name Lazar ..... - from her description 'Lazar Indik/Indig' (1933), which has a lovely story attached: while my aunt was painting it, the woman came out and when she noticed Hella painting the shop, she asked her to wait a bit so that she can put on her wig. And that's how my aunt painted her.
When I found your JewishGen website and the name Eliezer Indig, I wondered whether Lazar could be short for Eliezer? I found quite detailed description of how holocaust affected Kezmarok Jews on holocaust.cz, which mentions many names, but not Indig. I would, of course, be very interested to hear any information about the Indig family and especially about any descendants, if any of the family members survived.
Please find attached copies of the mentioned photos.
With kind regards Kate Rys (Reading, UK)
"Kezmarok Theme" (1933)
"Kezmarok Bridge" (1934)
Market Day in Kezmarok
An image of the photo below was sent to Rina and Shaul GASSNER (relatives of the webmaster of this site) who had lived in Kezmarok pre-WW II, but emigrated to Israel. The following is a translation from the Hebrew of the description of Market Days in Kezmarok from their letter dated, 1 September 2008.
Market Day in Kezmarok, circa 1935
We received this old, interesting photograph of the “Weekly Market in Kezmarok” from the early part of the last century. What I can remember was that in Kezmarok there was a weekly market every Monday in the main street. Farmers arrived there from around the area and brought their products, like crops, chickens, eggs, potatoes, cabbage, all according to what was in season. Every few months, a few times a year, there was an annual market called Jahrmarkt (Market Fair). This was a much bigger market and sellers came from further away and with different products. In the eastern part of Kezmarok was a cattle market. This market interested the GOLDMAN family since they were cattle traders.
You asked if the cattle wagons could have belonged to the Goldmans. I believe these belonged only to the farmers who came from the surrounding areas and came to sell cattle in there and to buy things they needed from the Kezmarok shops, such as equipment for their farms, clothes, shoes, etc.
A good percentage of the shops in the main street were owned by Jews. In the photo, I recognize only the sign on the lower left side. The sign says MAIBAUM and it was a shoe store.
In the Jewish-owned shops they sold textiles, clothing, building materials, glassware, and there were various workshops. 150 years ago, Jews were not allowed to buy houses or to open shops in Kezmarok. The Jews lived in surrounding towns such as Hunsdorf (Huncovce), and brought their goods to Kezmarok but in the evening they had to leave . This is just a very brief description.
The historian Dr. Nora BARATHOVA wrote much about the Jews of Kezmarok on the internet. She wrote it in Slovak. There are also some writings that have been translated into English and German.
When Reneke and I visited Kezmarok more than 10 years ago, for the first time after leaving Kezmarok 50 years ago, we saw no publication or tourist information that told about the history of the Jews there. At the exhibition we met Miki LIPTAK and he tied himself very closely to us. He wanted us to meet the mayor since he did not know any Jews who had lived in Kezmarok before the war.
I brought to the mayor's attention the fact that they do not remember/mention the more recent history of 50 years ago but only publish what took place 800 years ago.
As you know, Renee advised Mikulas LIPTAK to approach you and ask for your help in translating what was written on the tombstones in the Jewish cemetery.
We hope that this gives you a little information and if we can help answer any additional questions, we’ll be happy to do so.
We hope everything is OK with all of you. We send you many blessings and hope that you will be inscribed for a Happy New Year.
Renee and Shaul
(Written by Yitzchak GASSNER, from his father's words and with his mother's concurrence.)
Note: Renee GASSNER is the daughter of Berta GOLDMAN and Gyula ENGLMAN.
Views of Kezmarok from Old Postcards
You can go to various sources to see how Kezmarok looks today, but it is far more difficult to find old photographs or postcards of what Kezmarok looked like, before either of the World Wars. Below are some photographs sent to Madeleine ISENBERG by several people with connections to Kezmarok. If anyone accessing this site has more photographs to contribute, they will be most heartily appreciated. You may contact and/or e-mail Madeleine directly.
Click on the photos for a larger version.
Panoramic View of Kezmarok with Poprad River in Foreground, 1900
The Kezmarok Great Synagogue, 1903
Street Scene, circa 1917
View of Kezmarok, with the Tatra Mountains in back, circa 1925.
View of Kezmarok from the railway station
This Street (like many others) underwent several name changes, with thanks to local historian, Dr. Nora Barathova. In 1970, under Communist rule, it was called Námestie Sovietskej armády:
Hauptplatz - Hauptstrasse
Kossuth Lajos utca (since 1894)
Hlinkovo námestie (since 19.12.1918)
Námestie Sovietskej armády
Námestie Alexandra Dubčeka
Undated View of Kezmarok from a Colorized Postcard
This appears to be the same view as the postcard above it, but BEFORE the railroad was built.
The "Handelschule," the Kezmarok Business School, that according to Shaul Gassner, "Everyone went here!"
A list of addresses of Jews who lived in Kezmarok in the years 1918-1950 has been compiled but no attempt has been made as of November 2016 to integrate with the table below for more exact addresses.
Jewish Businesses and Trades in Kezmarok
Here are some of the business advertisements that appeared in the "Carpathian Post," aka Karpathen Post. This newspaper was printed from 1880 until 22 August 1942. Up through December 2016, on-line access to this newspaper was readily available at www.difmoe.eu/archiv/, but is no longer available, possibly until rehosted somewhere.
At the time this page was created, a person could search in the text field for a family name or town, and a date range, to find ads such as these. The home page had boxes that were links to calendar years. Clicking on a calendar year, dates that were "blackened" were issue dates. Painfully, one at a time, you could open a weekly issue and page through an average of six pages per issue, if you had the patience.
Mostly the articles and notices were in German, and printed in Old German Fraktur. While I cannot be sure, I assume after WW I, some articles were also be in Slovak. Below is a sampling of advertisements I was able to find. I did not look through every issue, but it looks like at some time, Jewish merchants stopped advertising, even before the outbreak of WW II.
Interesting perhaps, is that just after Germany's invasion of Poland, already the next issue on 9 September 1939, had a "Heil Hitler" in the first column.
A Selection of Advertisements of Jewish Businesses in Kezmarok
Building Materials, Metalware
Chocolates and Candy 1923
Metal and Rubber Stamps 1890
Watches and Jewelry
Jeanette (née BERGSMANN) WINCZER
Hats and Hairstyling for Women & Children
A List of Businesses by Family Name and when the Businesses were Aryanized
The information below was painstakingly compiled by the noted Kezmarok historian, Dr. Nora Barathova and transcribed into preliminary spreadsheets by Lenka Liptak. Translations were provided by Miki Liptak with editing and corrections by Madeleine Isenberg. (Click on Contacts for contact information).
(Note: a few records in this list appear with turquoise background. They have a known family connection to Madeleine Isenberg.)
Name and Profession/ Occupation, Dates and Addresses, Where Available
ALEXANDER Alexander Albin - trader of wood coal and transportation 1941 1929 ALEXANDER Alexander Jozef - trader of wood and coal - 1929, director of sawmill 1941 1916 ALEXANDER Alexander Maximilán - transportation of goods on the Czechoslovak State Railways, 1916, 1937 1907 ALTMAN Altman Adolf - footwear - 1907 - Kossuth Lajos Street Nr. 134 1941 ALTMAN Altman Artúr - trader of wood for fuel 1941 1929 ALTMAN Altman Bernard - tanner, linoleum - 1929, 1938, 1940 son - Trijmostová Street 20 (1940) (It's possible the son took over the business and father retired) 1893 ALTMAN Altman Dávid - typography (1893-1895) ALTMANN Altmann Móric - Tanner of hides 1906 BECSER Becser Lajos - Leaseholder of the firm G.S.Szopka - fuels (petrol/gasoline for cars), coke - Hlavnénám (Main Square) #20, 1906. (Address later was at #54) 1885 BEER Beer Moric - lawyer - 1885 1921 BERGMANN Bergmann Herman - Shopkeeper of sweets, paper goods - 1921; liquidated after bancruptcy 1933 - Main Square 48 1925 BERGMAN Bergman Ignác - butcher - 1925, (Ignatz Bergman died in 1938.) His widow ran the business until liquidation in 1941. Afterward taken over by the state. 1941 1881 BERGSMAN Bergsman R. - fabric, clothing - 1881, 1889 BERGMANOVÁ Bergmanová Karolína, widow - Food shop owner (fruits and sugar) 1941 1890 BERNHARDT Bernhardt Johana - Food retailer - 1890 - Hradná Street (Castle Street) BIRNBAUM Birnbaum Armin - Junk trader of old iron, old clothes, bonemeal (for soap-making) 1941 BIRNBAUM Birnbaum Dávid - Shopkeeper of textiles/fabrics - Rázusova Street 9 1941 BIRNBAUM Birnbaum Naftali - Shopkeeper of Jewish religious items 1941 BLOCH Bloch Rudolf - Delicatessen owner and shopkeeper of fruit 1941 BRAUN Braun Ladislav - Junk store of old iron, rags, bonemeal (for soap-making) 1941 BREITKOPF Breitkopf Leo - Tailor 1941 BRODMAN Brodman Simon - Storekeeper of fruit and sugar 1941 BRÖDY Bródy Andrej - Production and seller of artificial stone 1941 1920 BUCHFÜHRER Buchführer Moric - Furrier - 1920 - Hradná Street Nr. 10 (Castle Street) DÁVID Dávid Anton - Restaurant owner. Opened in 1905 in the building of the Kezmarok Bank - Hlavné nám (Main Square) 11(?) - in 1940 taken over by Jozef Storch 1925 DICKMAN Dickman Ignác - Seller of motor cars for Czechoslovak Motor company Tatra - 1925, 1927, 1937, 1940 - Main Square 52, bought from Szopko DICKMANOVÁ Dickmanová Regina - General store owner 1941 1930 ENGEL Engel Áron - Tradesman - near 1930 ENGELHARDT Engelhardt Jindrich - Goods made of leather, wool 1941 1930 FISCHGRUND Fischgrund Alexander - Tradesman - about 1930 FISCHGRUND Fischgrund Berta opened a laundry and ironing establishment in 1896, in Zwicker’s house 1901 FISCHMANN Fischmann S.J. Ran a textile store. Opened in 1901, in Jozef Markovich’s house Nr. 113 1929 FORSCHER Forscher Adolf - House painter - 1929 1941 FORSCHEROVÁ Forscherová Regina - Tailor 1941 FREY Frey Ladislav - Tailor 1941 1925 FREYER Freyer Adolf - Hotel owner 1925 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) (Fötár) Nr. 36 FREYER Freyer Moris - Opened a cafí and a restaurant in August 1931 on Lyceálna Street Nr. 17 1860,
FREYER Freyer Samuel was from Karviná where he had a brewery 1860; Opened a railway restaurant in Ándor Lám's house in 1890; he rented it out in 1902; On 24.11.1901, opened restaurant on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 11, which had belonged to S.W. Roth; Tradesman - 1929 FRIED Fried M. - Upholsterer 1941 1929 FRIEDMAN Friedman Adolf - Grain trader - 1929 FRIEDMAN Friedman Július - Engraver and calligrapher 1941 FRIEDMAN Friedman Leo - Producer of sheep cheese 1941 1889,
FRIEDMAN Friedman Mark - the first store with art engravings and production of stamps (at first metal; later rubber) in the Upper Hungary in 1889; later producer of gold-plated sepulchral crucifixes and tombstones. Information found on a business document from 1891 (First and Largest Tombstone Business in Upper Hungary) - 1891, 1912 - Main Square Nr. 328; Stamp engraver - 1938. This family-run business was still there on 1 Oct. 1940 FRIEDMANN Friedmann Maximilián - advocate (i.e. lawyer) - since 15 Aug 1880 in the Kiss's house on the Hradná Street (Castle Street) ; since 26 July 1881 on the Hradná Street Nr. 24 in the Grunwald's house. 1893 FRIEDMANN Friedmann Samuel in 1893, took over the National Hotel (Nemzeti Szálloda) from Johann Lengyel 1912,
FUCHS Fuchs Salamon - Clothing Designer 1912, 1929 - Main Square Nr. 110 GÄRTNER Gärtner Gedeon - Junk dealer, store of old iron and rags - Starý trh Nr. 53, 1941 (twice) 1901 GELEHRTER Gelehrter Max - Renter of the railway restaurant (Restauration Zur Eisenbahn) since 15 Nov 1901 (Samuel Freyer was the owner until then.) 1912,
GERHARDT Gerhardt Abrahám - Typographer - 1912 (1910-1918) 1929 GERHARDT Gerhardt Jozef - Store with paper goods (probably a stationer's), 1929 1935 GERHARDT Gerhardt Helena - Tailor - 1935 1916 GLESINGER Glesinger S. - Sawmill and a wood depot - 1916 1880,
GLÜCKSMAN Glücksman B. (Bernat)- Hardware store - 1880, 1893, 1894, 1930, the main depot of bonemeal and fertilizer 1881 GOLDMAN Goldman D. - owner of the public baths of Lubica - 1881 GOLDMAN Goldman Izidor - General store 1941 1925 GOLDMAN Goldman Marek - Café owner - 1925 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 8 1920,
GOLDMAN Goldman Moric - Agricultural tools; also sheep cheese production -1920 - on Starý trh Nr. 7 and Kossuth Lajos Street Nr. 47, since 1931, Nr. 45; Max and Moritz Goldmann had two stores: 1. textile goods next door to 2. factory for the production of sheep cheese. 1909 GOLDMAN Goldman Viliam - Agricultural tools - 1909 - Main Square Nr. 335 GOLDMAN Goldman Zsigmund - Livestock (or cattle) trader 1941 GOLDMANOVÁ Goldmanová Serena - Tailoring shop 1941 GOLDSCHEIN Goldschein Emanuel - Bakery owner 1941 1925,
GOLDSTEIN Goldstein Markus - Café owner- 1925, 1932 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 8 1933 GOTTEHRER Gottehrer - Established a sweet shop before WW I - Main Square - taken over by Herman Bergmann, liquidated after bancruptcy in 1933 GOTTLIEB Gottlieb Izák - General store 1941 GOTTLIEBOVÁ Gottliebová Serena - corsets - 1941 1941 1890,
GRAUS Graus B. - The first soda-water factory of Kezmarok - 1890; in 1896, seller of fertilizers 1940 GRAUS Graus Dionáz - Wine merchant - Original owners were M.A. Roth and Graus, but Graus became the business successor 1940, 1941. GRAUS Graus Ferdinand - Wine merchant - established in 1898 - 1932 - cellar on Michalská Street (Michelergasse) 1, store on Trojmostová Street Nr. 4; coffee store in 1899 on ser. Nr. 340 1909 GREISIGER Greisiger Jakub - Inn owner - 1909 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 17 1901,
GROSS Gross Móric in September 1901 had Hotel Koruna (Crown Hotel). New Year's celebration took place there in 1936. 1932 GROSSBERG Grossberg - Bazaar - 1932 (á) - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 339 GROSSBERG Grossberg Dávid - Store owner of used items (old iron, personal items) 1941 GROSSBERG Grossberg Július - Haberdashery owner 1941 1930 GROSSBERG Grossberg M. - Carpet and Tapestry store (tapestries, kilims) - 1930 GROSSBERG Grossberg Salamán - Textile store 1941 GROSSBERGOVÁ Grossbergová Etela - Handcraft store 1941 1902,
GROSSMANN Grossmann Lazar - Provider of building material, iron - established in 1900. In 1902 located in Badányi's house on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 18, then on Hlinka Square (Hlavné nám (Main Square)) Nr. 4. In 1941 seized by a non-Jewish owner, Ján Gallik, Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 55 - at that time Bródy Andrej was part-owner with Grossmann, seized in 1941 1941 1926,
GROSSMANN Grossmann Salamon - Multi-purpose store owner (bazaar, hardware store, house paints) - 1926, 1937 1926 GROSSWIRTH Grosswirth Ludovit - Producer of sheep cheese - The first Spiš Carpathian sheep cheese factory in 1926 1897 GRÜNAPFEL Grúnapfel Adolf - Stonecutter - opened a stonecutting enterprise and a depot of tombstones in 1896, 1897 - Cintoránska Street (Cemetery Street, near the synagogue) 1892,
GRÜNBAUM Grünbaum Jozef - Printer (born 28.9.1892 in Zakarpatská Ukraine; died in 1945 in Majdanek) 1919,
GRÜNBAUM Grünbaum Viliam - Typographer - 1919, 1938, Masarykova Street Nr. 10 1942 GRÜNFELD Grünfeld Samuel - Sagub-ready-made clothing store - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 78, seized in 1942 1942 1912 GULDEN Gulden Anna - Milliner - 1912 - Nr. 480 next to the Evangelical Church GULDEN Gulden Fridrich - Shoeshop owner, opened in 1894 in Dr. Tátray’s house, Hlavné nám (Main Square) ser. Nr. 117 1901 GULDEN Gulden Jálius - Baker - 1901 - Castle Square (Hradná námestie) Nr. 104 HAMMERSCHLAG Hammerschlag Bernard - Bakery owner 1941 HAMMERSCHLAG Hammerschlag Ignác - Tinsmith - liquidated among the first stores on 25 January 1941 1941 1929 HARTMANN Hartmann Dezider - Wholesaler - 1929 1905,
HARTMANN Hartmann Izidor - Designer of handmade textile products from sheep’s wool in 1905, also from linen during the first Czechoslovakian Republic - established in 1884. Advertised in Karpathen-Post in 1885 in Badány’s house, that he came back from a trade route with new designer goods of textiles and clothing for men, women and children; in 1927, 1940. His sons - opened a branch also in Poprad, Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 24 - Nr. 338 (á) HERSKOVITS Herskovits Max - since 4 November 1933 - Owner of Hotel Freyer 1902 HERZ Herz Leo - Owner of a distillery; opened winter baths in January 1884 and on 18 September warm tub baths in the suburb of Lubica. Owned a distillery in Kezmarok in 1902. 1893,
HERZ Herz Rudolf - Delicatessen owner - 1893, 1894 Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 108, 1925, 1931 Lyceálna Street Nr. 17 HERZ Herz Rudolf - electrical mangling (similar to ironing but only with cold cylinder press) 1941 1925,
HOCHHAUSER Hochhauser A. - Ladies Fashion Clothes 1925, 1935, Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 50 HOLLÄNDER Holländer Frantisek - Second-hand store owner (old iron, personal items, bones) 1941 1881 HOLLÄNDER Holländer Maximilián - Barrister’s office - 1881 - Hradná Nr. 85 (Castle Street) 1909 HOLZER Holzer Izidor - Owner of Public baths (rental of tub and steam baths)for the Jewish community - 1909 HOLZEROVÁ Holzerová Johanna - Poultry trader 1941 HORN Horn Vojtech - Car-hansom (i.e., taxi-cab service) 1941 INDIG Indig Lazar - Store owner (fruits and sweets) 1941 INDICH Indich Herman - widowed; second-hand store (old iron, rags) 1941 1929 JANOWITZ Janowitz Artúr - Factory owner - 1929 1930 JANOWITZ Janowitz Leopold - Trader - about 1930 JANOWITZOVÁ Janowitzová Alábeta - Textile store owner, liquidated in 1941 1941 1925 JANOWITZOVÁ Janowitzová Aranka - Perfumery - 1925 - Trojmostová Street JANOWITZOVÁ Janowitzová Bella - Textile store owner 1941 JANOWITZOVÁ Janowitzová Magda - Perfumery 1941 KALLUS Kallus Izák - Producer of soda water - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 18 - liquidated in 1941 by Jozef Kromka from the Tax Administration in Keámarok 1941 1897 KANNENGIESER Kannengieser M. - tailor - 1897 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 3 (corner house) KATZOVÁ Katzová Rozália - Greengrocer (store of fruits and vegetables) 1941 KLEIN Klein - Hotel owner on Michalská Street - during the first Czechoslovakian Republic 1881 KLEIN Klein Adolf - Textile store owner - 1881; Wine bar owner - about 1880 (according to a photograph of the Square). However photo is unavailable. 1909 KLEIN Klein Emália - Flowershop owner (flowers and wreaths) - 1909 1894 KLEIN Klein Herman - In 1894 handed over designer goods to Ignácz Winczer, Hlavné nám (Main Square) ser. Nr. 119 1930 KLEIN Klein Jeremiás - Innkeeper - about 1930 KLEIN Klein Karol Jr. Opened a pastry shop in November 1894 on Hlavné nám (Main Square) ser. Nr. (31á) KLEIN Klein Leopold - Shoemaker 1941 1926,
KLEINBERGER Kleinberger Jakub - Furniture seller (wood furniture) - 1926, 1929 1894 KOHN Kohn Béla - Textile store owner - went bankrupt 1894 1880,
KOHN Kohn Eduard (from Miskovec) - textiles, various industrial products - 1880, 1894, 1897 on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) ser. Nr. 120 KOHN Kohn Emanuel - Textile store owner 1941 KOHN Kohn Maximilián - Textile store owner 1941 KOHN Kohn Szimon - Textile store owner - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 21 1941 1925 KORNGOLDOVÁ Korngoldová Anna (a widow) - Bakery Owner - 1925 - Lyceálna Street Nr. 19 - liquidated/seized by Adalbert Scholtz and on 24 November 1941 he reopened it again. 1941 1932 KORNGOLD Korngold J. Candy store owner, opened in 1930 next door to the widow (Anna Korngold) - 1932 KORNGOLD Korngold Ladislav - Candy store owner 1941 1900 KORNHAUSER Kornhauser Adolf - Trader - 1900, his son Dezider - a doctor - graduated in 1900 KORNHAUSER Kornhauser Herman Simon - general store owner - liquidated in 1941 twice - once as a trader of fruits, sugar and pastry 1941 1925,
KORNHAUSER Kornhauser Július - Chemist’s shop - 1925, 1930, in January 1940 seized by PhMg. Paul Neubauer 1910 KORNHAUSER Kornhauser Moric - Furniture shop - 1910 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) ser. Nr. 111 KORNHAUSER Kornhauser Simon - Grocery shop owner 1941 KORNHAUSEROVÁ Kornhauserová Adela - Ready-made clothing shop 1941 KORNHAUSEROVÁ Kornhauserová Anna, widow - Dairy owner 1941 KOVÁCS Kovács Jozef, Ing. - Building contractor - liquidated by Rudolf Jendreják manager of an apprentice school. 1941 1931 KOVÁCS Kovács M. - Perfumery - 1931 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 32 1903,
KOVÁCSOVÁ Kovácsová Jolana - General store owner, established in 1903 - 1928 KÜNSTLINGER Künstlinger Zsigmund - Tinsmith, liquidated among the first on 25 January 1941 1941 1895,
LITTMANN Littmann Izidor -- Brick producer in Huncovce in 1895; in Kezmarok in 1901, established a liquor factory to produce rum and liqueurs. 1924 LÖWINGER Löwinger brothers - General goods - 1924 1920 LÖWY Löwy Jozef - Owner of Hotel Freyer - 1920 MAHLER Mahler Fridrich -- established a furniture shop in 1894, in the past in Kuntzov’s, then in Lerch’s house on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 28 1907,
MAIBAUM Maibaum Adolf - Footwear - 1907 Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 109; 1925 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 33 1932,
MAIBAUM Maibaum Maximilián - Footwear (sandals and sport shoes) in Humanie - 1932; in 1938? the - Hlavné nám (Main Square) - liquidated on 20 May 1941 1941 MANDEL Mandel Alexander - Shoemaker 1941 MANDELOVÁ Mandelová Hermina - Corsetier 1941 1909 MANDEL Mandel Herman - Footwear -- in 1909 moved from Hlavné nám (Main Square) ser. Nr. 117 to Kossuth Lajos Street ser. Nr. 205 1941 1927,
MELLER Meller E. - Wine wholesaler - award 1927, 1936 (received an award) MELLER Meller Moses - Wine wholesaler - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 3 - liquidated by Ján Brija 1941 1927 MOSKOVITZ Moskovitz (Moskovich) Mikulás - Advocate (i.e., lawyer) - 1927 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 2 1926 NEUGRÖSCHL Neugröschl Brothers - Producer of cheeses, including sheep cheese - 1926 - Trojmostová Street Nr. (49?) (Three Bridge Street) NEUGRÖSCHL Neugröschl Adolf - General store owner 1941 NEUGRÖSCHL Neugröschl Daniel - Owner of wood for building construction - opened a store in May 1897 on Cintorínska Street (Cemetery Street) 1929 NEUGRÖSCHL Neugröschl Lazar -- Store of flour, spices and seeds - 1929 - (Trojmostová Street Nr. 49?) 1926 PAHMER Pahmer Jakub - Tailor - 1926 1909,
PAHMER Pahmer M. - Footwear in Hartmann’s house - 1909 Kossuth Lajos Street Nr. 134 - Nr. 336, 1920 Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 22 1926 PAHMER Pahmer Roza - Printed labels for handicrafts - patterns for handwork and crafts - 1926 1925,
PERLROTH Perlroth Armin - Dentist - 1925, 1949 - Trojmostová Street Nr. 13, Nr. 170 1925 PERLROTH Perlroth Samuel - Goldsmith - the workshop established in 1886 - 1925, 1938, 1940 - Trojmostová Street ser. Nr. 317 PINKAS Pinkas Benó opened 1897 a fashion clothing store in Badány’s house on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 16. Before it belonged to Schwarz Dezider. This was a branch of shops owned by Eduard Kohn in Miskolcz, Hungary. 1926,
POLITZER Politzer Selma - Millinery salon 1926, opened on 1 July 1931 on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 64 1887,
REICHELT Reichelt Leo and Römer - “Chemist’s for the Hungarian Crown” (Apotheke zur unger. Krone) - 1887, in November 1891 was on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 22, where the Condiment Store of Emil Genersich stood before. 1905 RIEMER Riemer Moric - China shop - 1905 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) ser. Nr.(16?), liquidated twice in 1941 1941 RIEMEROVÁ Riemerová Sali - General store 1941 ROTH Roth M.A. and Graus - owner Filip Graus, Producer and seller of liqueurs and alcoholic beverages. - Rázusova Street Nr. 27 (see also GRAUS above). 1941 1932 ROSENZWEIG Rosenzweig Maximilán H. - Furniture - 1932 - Trojmostová (Three Bridge) Street Nr. 9, in 1941 on Rázusova Street Nr. 7 together with brother, Salamon - liquidated by Gabriel Vavro from Bratislava 1941 1900,
ROSMANN Rosmann Leopold - Beer depot - 1900, 1902 on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 109 1947 SEINWELL Seinwell Bernard and Co. - Fish canning factory in 1st Czechoslovakian Republic, company SEGROS - 1947 - In the Thokoly castle, where they had the factory. After the WW II, they came back and started it again. 1941 1927 SCHECHTMANN Schechtmann Mária - Midwife - 1927 - Main Square Nr. 14 SCHLESINGER Schlesinger Roza -- Hairdressing salon -- established in 1901 on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 54 SCHLOSS Schloss Henrich - Seed Store (mainly for gardening) 1941 SCHLOSS Schloss Jozef - Coal seller, opened in 1901 on the Kossuth Lajos Street. Samuel Kohn also took orders for coal in the Lazary's house on the Starý trh (Old Market Street) 1929 SCHLOSS Schloss Jozef - Seller of building materials - 1929 1941 SCHÖN Schön Adolf - Watchmaker - liquidated by Samuel Prokopa 1942 SCHÖNFELD Schönfeld Nathan - General store - Aryanized in 1942 1942 SCHÖNWALD Schönwald Szigmund -- Upholstery shop -- opened in 1902 in Ján Palencsár's house on the Hlavné nám (Main Square), before that in Budapest and Vienna. SCHRECK Schreck Abrahám - Fruit shop 1941 SILBENHÄNDLER Silbenhändler Jozef - Textile shop 1941 1930 SILBENHÄNDLER Silbenhändler Juraj - Tradesman - 1930 - Trojmostová (Three Bridges) Street Nr. 47 1925,
SICHERMANN Sichermann Herman - Fur store- 1925, 1927 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 53 1941 1929 SINGER Singer Markus - Tradesman - 1929 SONNENFELD Sonnenfeld Jakub - Laundry owner 1941 1900 STERN Stern Bernhard - Store selling paraffin - 1900 1899 STERN Stern Emanuel - Tinsmith -- took over Trepper's tinsmith workshop after the death of Nathan Trepper in 1899, Starý trh Nr. 273 (Old Market Street) 1932 STERN/STERNOVA Stern Fanny - Corsets - 1932 - J. Kraya Street Nr. 6 1941 1887 STERN Stern Herman - Borovicka (i.e., Gin) producer - 1887 1940 STERN Stern Herman - Roofing and building material, car accessories and mineral oils, - 1940 - Jakuba Kraya Street Nr. 6 - liquidated three times - each time for another assortment of products. 1941 1920,
STERN Stern Izák - Building material and mineral oils. Agent for the USA Petroleum Company in Prague and Bratislava - 1920, 1936 - J.Kraya Street Nr. 6 1941 1900,
STERN Stern Jozef -Building material, tar, Eternit (tile roofing) seller - 1900 - Cintorínska Street Nr. 409, 1909, 1912, 1929 - Lubická Road (Leibitzgasse) ser. Nr. 390 1890,
STERN Stern Ludwig - Wine merchant - opened the store in 1885 - at that time also the lessor of the town wine-privileges (Weinregal. In 1890 a wine shop/winery on ser. Nr. 113 opposite the post office; in 1898 in the Hotel Central, before that Huminszky; in 1899 and 1901 on the Erzsébet-király Street Nr.8 - near the post office, 1905 Hotel Nazional - Lubická Road ser. Nr.390, 1932 STIEGLITZ Stieglitz Rudolf - Seller of Radios - 1932 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr.82 1941 1893,
STIEGLITZ Stieglitz Szigmund Grocery store -- (he came from Liptovsky Mikulás in 1893 married Regina Bergsmann and opened in 1893 in Pavol Walický's house, where the post office once was - Hlavné nám (Main Square) ser. Nr.29. Representative of AG (joint-stock company) Sobéslav sewing machines - 1926 STORCH Storch Gejza - Tailor 1941 1940 STORCH Storch Jozef - Restaurateur -- took over the restaurant of Dávid Antala - 1940 1932 SZIGETI Szigeti Jozef - Construction foreman - 1932 - Tatranská Street Nr.9 1941 1899 TREPPER Trepper Nathan - Tinsmith - until 1899 when he burned to death (As noted above, Emanuel Stern took over the workshop and the store, Starý trh Nr.273 (Old Market) 1931 VOGELMANN Vogelmann Moric - Fishmonger 1931, House painter 1931, 1936 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr.18, ser. Nr.184 - 1941 aryanized by Pavol Humeník 1941 1938 WEIL Weil Alexander - Automobile repair service - 1938 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr.48 1895 WEINGARTEN Weingarten Salamon - General store - 1895 - in the Ruman's house on the Trojmostová Street Nr.205, his widow's business became a vault for safety deposits - 1934 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 29 1925 WEISZ Weisz Hedviga --Women's fashions(salon for clothing), in October 1925 on the Castle Street Nr. 32 WEISS Weiss Eugen - Shoemaker 1941 1902 WEISZ Weisz Leopold - Grocer - 1902 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) 1867 WEISZ Weisz Viliam - Seller of woolen and designer goods - 1867 WEISZLOVITS Weiszlovits Moritz - Textile (i.e., fabric) store -- opened in 1889 in the Grünwald's house on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) 1932,
WELLNER Wellner Hermann - Barbershop - 1932, 1934 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr. 44 1941 WERTHEIMER Wertheimer Salamon - Seller of fruits and vegetables, meat, eggs, wool, leather. Rags. 1941 1894 WINCZER Winczer Ignác - Textile goods for men and women - in 1894, he took over the store from Herman Klein, Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr.119; in 1929 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr.15 1894 WINCZER Winczer Janette (nee Bergsmann) - Milliner - 1894 - in the Waliczky's house on the Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr.29 (Trojmostová Street Nr. 132?) 1905,
WINTER Winter Szerena -- Photography studio -- (she was born in 1905), Rimavská Sobota). Photography studio opened in September 1932 on Starý trh Nr.17 (Old Market St.) ZIEGLER Ziegler J. and son - Textiles 1941 1930,
ZINN Zinn Adolf - Cleaners/Laundry -- in 1930 took over the Cleaners (laundry) from Marta Schwarz, who had established it in 1898, on New Street Nr.20; in 1931 moved to the Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr.86, but in 1932 back again on the New Street Nr.20 1919,
ZINN Zinn Bernát - House painter and glazier - 1919 Thököly Square Nr.9, 1932 Thököly Square Nr.5 1941 1929 ZINSLER Zinsler Bernhard - Tradesman - 1929 - Hlavné nám (Main Square) Nr.4 ZIPSEROVÁ Zipserová Regina - Textiles Trader 1941
Updated 27 February 2019
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Madeleine R. ISENBERG
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