also known as: Vajnág (HU), Vonyhove (CZ), Vonigovo (RU), Vinif (Yid)
48°04' N / 23°32' E
~ Introduction ~
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Vonihovo was part of the Kingdom of Hungary (11th century - 1920 and 1938-1944) with the name of Vajnág in Máramaros megye (county), next part of Czechoslovakia (1920-1938) with the name of Vonyhove in Podkarpatská Rus (Sub-Carpathia), then part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1945-1991) with the name of Vonigovo and, since 1991, known as Vonihovo, in the Tiachivskiy rayon (district) of Zakarpats'ka oblast (county) of Ukraine.
In Yiddish, Vonihovo was known as Vinif.
Other spellings/names for Vonihovo are Vainág, Vuniyevo, Vonyihove, Vajnágh and Wajnág.
Vonihovo is located about 11 miles ESE of Khust (Huszt), 8 miles NNW of Tyachiv (Técső).
Jews probably settled in Vonihovo in the mid-18th century.
In 1768, the Jewish population numbered 19, and in 1830, the Jewish population numbered 67.
By 1880, the Jewish population was 190 (of a total population of 774).
Then by 1921, during the Czechoslovakian period, the Jewish population rose to 342.
A few Jewish families farmed small plots of land. A number of Zionist organizations were active, with Betar opening a club.
With the Hungarian occupation of Vonihovo in March, 1939, Jews were persecuted and pushed out of their occupations. In 1940-41, dozens of Jews from Vonihovo were drafted into forced labor battalions and others were drafted for service on the Eastern front, where most died.
Then by 1941, the Jewish population rose to 354.
In the summer of 1941, the Hungarian authorities pronounced 45 local Jewish families "alien" and relocated them to German-occupied Galicia. Most of them were murdered on 27-28 August 1941 near Kamenets-Podolsk, by German units and their Ukrainian hirelings. Helen (née GROSSMAN) DUB and her family were included in this deportation and only Helen survived. Others ended up in various Galician ghettos, where they became victims of serial selections.
The remaining Jews of Vonihovo, about 120, were deported to Auschwitz late May, 1944.
A great many of the Jews from Vonihovo were murdered in Auschwitz and a few survivors returned after the war. One was murdered by a local resident and afterward, the remaining Jews rest settled in Czechoslovakia and elsewhere.
In 2001, Vonihovo had about 2,654 inhabitants and no Jews live there today.
Sources (portions): Encyclopedia of the Holocaust in Hungary by Randolph BRAHAM The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust, (2001) p. 1412
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Created and Compiled by: Marshall J. KATZ, USA with assistance from
M. Y. EHRENREICH, USA Encyclopedia of the Holocaust in Hungary by Randolph BRAHAM
Nikoli KATZ, USA
Shani NAFTALI, Canada
Amos Israel ZEZMER, France
and the following JewishGen members/descendants and contributors of Vonihovo Jewish families:
Stanley M. DUB, USA
Gita (née SHIOVITZ) HOFFMAN, USA