Northeast Poland -12 mi
NW Augustow, 10 mi SW Suwalki -
53°59' N, 22°47' E. (Raczki is both a town and administrative district
(Gminy Raczki). 2001 Polska Organizacja Turystyczna
The Jewish History
survivors of the holocaust have collectively written
Books for Suwalki city and surrounding shtetls including Raczki.
Hundreds of such books
are online and in various stages of translation by
the Jewishgen Yizkor Book Project
These are very poignant stories related to the birth, life,
and fate of the Jewish communities in Europe.
The 1961 Suwalk Yizkor Book
Bukh Suvalk, 826 pages, Yiddish]
Berl Kagan in New York is currently in translation to English
with many small chapters already completed.
The 1989 Suwalki Yizkor Book
kehilat Suvalk u-benotehah, 439 pages Hebrew, 57 pages English, dozens
of memorials with photos and large necrology index]
by Yehuda Alroi and Yosef Chrust and published in Tel
Aviv. The English chapers are already indexed and the
published version is online at the NYC Public Library.
Both books have excellent Tables of Content and indexes to names and
|650-400 BC first settlements on
banks of the river Rospuda.
Sigismund I (from Vilnius) gives privileges to Rackowicz
brothers. Stanislaw Rackowicz builds the famous Dowspuda
|1795 After the 3rd partition of Poland,
and all of Suwalki were under Prussian rule in the department of
|1799 Raczki had 168 houses and 1008
who were mostly farmers.
|1807 Duchy of Warsaw was established and Raczki
was assigned to the department of Lomza.
Kingdom of Poland (Congress Poland) became part of Russian Empire.
part of Augustow province. See Jewishgen
|1826 Encyclopedia Londinensis Vol XXI
reports population of 600, chiefly Jews. The first
surviving Raczki document of any type lists 49 adult Jewish men which
would imply a significant Jewish population.
Economic stagnation, lack of prospects for development and Numerous
result in only 140 numbered houses and 1279 inhabitants.
|1863 resurrection by insurgents of Russian
begins and by 1870 Raczki lost its town charter.
|1867 Kingdom of Poland divided into 10
gubernias and 84 powiats (sub-districts). Raczki
of Augustow powiat in Suwalki Gubernia. See Jewishgen
|1886 Raczki had 2807 inhabitants and 194
11 brick. There were two breweries, tanneries, candles makers
and 19 trade companies. There were 16 streets (only one paved).
|1888 another major fire burnt down 98 houses
Russian defeat in war with Japan results in weaking of Tsarist regime
and outbreak of revolutionary struggles in the area.
|1907 fire burns a large part
town including 73 residential buildings
|1914 Raczki receives rail link from Suwalki
Prussian border and WW1 begins
|1921 Raczki has 252 houses and 1558
|1938 Raczki has population of 1841 with
Roman Catholic, 413 Jews, 27 Evangelicals, 5 Orthodox, and 19
September - Raczki seized by Russians. In an agreement with Germany
Russians left at beginning of October and Germans deported
remaining Jews to Suwalki, then to Lithuania and the death
The Last Two Raczki
We have added over
800 records for Raczki emigrants over a period
of about 100 years. The last two of these ship
arrivals is the 1947 passage of
Aron and Lisa (Nussbaum) Derman (b1926 Raczki) who arrived in New York
on a little
boat after surviving the horrors of the Holocaust. Their story
appears on the US Holocaust Memorial
Lisa's sister Pola
did not escape.
Raczki has no
known vital records (civil records: births, marriages,
deaths) or census data for the 19th and early 20th century. However,
there are many ship arrivals and related immigration documents that
specify Raczki as the last residence or birth place. The shiplist
data give the important birth year and last know name usage.
can also link families who traveled together and in later years they
key data such as
occupations (abt 1840), ethnicity/nationality (abt 1850), and
full destination names and addresses.
19th Century Raczki
taxpayer lists give the names of
male Jewish taxpayers in the town of Raczki
and surrounding villages at two fixed years in the 19th
century. While not a census this give the names
familes who paid taxes or were likely eligible for military service.
Click here for both lists: 1826
These lists include the head of household and working
male adult children as well as occupations. The
1826 list had 49 individuals with patrynomic
which link fathers and sons. By 1863 surnames were
frequently used and these help identify close male family
members but not necessarily
the relationships. The general rule for surnames was one unique surname
for each family in the same area. The 1863 List for Raczki has
residing in Raczki and 23 from nearby
small towns. There are 8 alphabetic sublists that may be
streets or close neighborhoods. We
have no detailed maps of Raczki but one 1886 reference states that
Raczki had 16 streets.
numerous occupation is the Polish word handlarz
which can mean merchant, dealer, peddler or huckster. The 2nd and 3rd
largest occupations are tailor and shoemaker. Most other
occupations are basic trades. The top 12 occupations by
|15 others occupations
- Jewishgen Communities DataBase on Jewishgen.com
Gminy Raczki - official Polish
Interest Group for Jewish Genealogists
Genealogy Society of America
Desruction of Ratsk (Suwalki Yearbook, 1961 ed).