Gyöngyös Holocaust

~ 1938-1941 ~

Tensions and the open anti-Semitism in Gyöngyös naturally contributed to the decrease in the number of Jews. According to the 1920 census, Gyöngyös had 19,715 inhabitants, of which 2,250 were Jews (about 11% of the total population), while in 1930, Gyöngyös had 21,281 inhabitants and only 2,136 Jews (about 10% of the total population). If we consider that following the war, quite a few families arrived from within the pre-Trianon boundaries and from the areas of the former Monarchy, the dwindling of the original Gyöngyös Jewish community is well understood. Their definitive economic role, however, stayed unbroken and as a consequence, from 1938, three laws were passed attempting to make this impossible—following the German model.

In 1938, the First Anti-Jewish Law tried to maximize their proportion at 20% in the intellectual and the free jobs. Germanophile politics and the ground gained by of the right wing, boosted the preparation of the Second Anti-Jewish Law at the beginning of 1939.

On 5 May 1939, the Second Anti-Jewish Law, 4th article "On the Limitation of the Jewish Extension in Social and Economic Life," came into force. This, contrary to the previous 20% limitation, lowered the maximum proportion in intellectual jobs to six percent, beside re-establishing the Numerus Clausus. The law totally excluded Jews from public service jobs and limited their employment in intellectual and office jobs. In comparison to the previous law, the definition of 'Jewish' was placed on racial foundation, proclaiming anybody Jewish, if one parent or two grandparents were, or had been, member(s) of the Jewish denomination. The goal of this law was to eliminate Jewish presence in the leading positions of economic life, but even contemporaries found it a two-edged weapon. There were attempts to remove skilled experts and leading personnel at a time when the economy was booming but this could not be accomplished without endangering the success of the armament program and one economic plans. This explains why the dismissals were only moderately executed in certain jobs and why the expropriation of factories started later.

The Third Anti-Jewish Law was prepared continually from the spring of 1941. This is the 1941, l5th article, "Comlement and Modification of the 1894, 3lst article, On the Marriage Rights and the Needed Race-protective Regulations Connected to this." While the two previous laws attacked the economic positions of the Jews, this wanted to eliminate social and personal contact between the Jews and the non-Jews, prohibiting not only marriage, but also extramarital sexual relationship between them. The first deportations started parallel to the first appearance of this law, namely: In the August of 1941, the Hungarian authorities began to round up Jews who could not present a certificate of citizenship. Starting at this time, 35,000 Jews were deported from Hungary and were killed by the Nazis in Ukraine and Galicia (in Kamenec-Podolsk alone 13,000 people died who sought refuge in Hungary).

( Click the images below to view a larger image. )

Anti-Semitic Book
Photo: Courtesy of Agnes SZEGÕ, Hungary

Anti-Semitic Newspaper
c. 1919
Photo: Courtesy of Agnes SZEGÕ, Hungary
Headline: "Christians, buy only Christian newspapers"


~ 1942-1943 ~

But Hungarian Jews, even if humiliated, lived in comparative safety. Their greatest burden, until the German occupation, was forced labor service. 44,000 Jews died on the Eastern front during the winter of 1942-43, out of the 50,000 labor service members ordered there—only 6,000 returned. Humiliating decrees appeared in monthly periods, but in spite of all these measures, the KÁLLAY government successfully defied them. With ever stronger German urging, on 17 October 1942, the Germans demanded, in a memorandum, the marking of Hungarian Jews with the yellow star and the immediate beginning of deportations. As the consequence of serial German defeats, the total physical annihilation of European Jews became the main goal of the Nazis. Hitler, in a personal discussion with HORTHY in April of 1943, demanded the start of deportation in the first instance, which HORTHY and the Hungarian government resisted until 19 March 1944.

~ 1944 ~

The decree dated 31 March 1944 made the wearing of the "canary-yellow six-pointed star" compulsory also for the Gyöngyös Jews. In April, they were prohibited to travel by car, motorcycle, taxi, public or restricted railway or ship. In the middle of April, the government initiated other influential economic measures. The registration and closing of Jewish property was ordered on 16 April. Jewish safes were closed, bank accounts and deposits went under closure too. The Minister for Trade closed down Jewish shops on 21 April, an order of serious consequences in Gyöngyös too in the conditions of wartime provisioning. On the basis of this order, the Gyöngyös police chief closed down 93 shops owned by Jews and on 22 April, even the keys of which were confiscated.

The German occupation brought a radical turning point in the handling of the Jewish question. The total exploitation of the country's economic wealth was now conducted in the interest of German military goals, and work power was started to be ordered to Germany. The "final solution of the Jewish question" was only started by direct German military presence.

The order to confine Jews in ghettos appeared on 26 April and concerned 1,824 Jews in Gyöngyös, another 174 in the area of the Gyöngyös district (in the whole county, the total number of Jews confined was 6,601).

Ghettos were set up at Eger, Gyöngyös, Hatvan, Tiszafüred and another one at the Bagólyuk mining area, belonging to the village Szúcs. The Gyöngyös ghetto was situated in the so-called Újtelep part of the town, in the area between the railway station and the military barracks. Its borders were Kassai Road, Laktanya Road, Bethlen Road and Újtelepi Road, and the area was enclosed by barbed wire and guarded by the army. The largest buildings of the ghetto were the single and two-story miners' houses on the Bányász and Encsi streets. These mainly housed the elderly, approximately 30 Jewish families. Confinement progressed expressly slowly in Gyöngyös, and it was completed only by 13 May. By this time every, Jew was moved to the ghetto area, with only a maximum weight of belongings. The small area was unspeakably overcrowded, with the more than 1,800 people—with at least 10 persons in every room. According the remembrances, the Ghetto supervisor was the notorious Mihály ZÖLDI, whom was known from the bloody violence of Ujvidék. At the time, the leaders of Jewish Council where : Ármin VAJDA - President and the officers were: Dezso HAJDÚ, Rabbi Hermann FEIGL, Rabbi Jeno JUNGREISZ and Nádor JAKOBOVITS.

( Click the images below to view a larger image. )

Ghetto Map
Photo: Courtesy of Agnes SZEGÕ, Hungary

Ghetto view III
Photo: Courtesy of Agnes SZEGÕ, Hungary

Ghetto view II
Photo: Courtesy of Agnes SZEGÕ, Hungary

On one occasion, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel László BACHÓ retired, an Arrow Cross Party control commission arrived. They found the conditions to good for the ghetto residence, however, an official complaint was lodged in the interior department and in the Gestapo, against Police captain László GYÖRKÉNYI, who was well known as the enemy of the Arrow Cross. As a result of the issue, on 18 May, GYÖRKÉNYI was transferred to Cegléd.

From the point of view of the deportations, Gyöngyös was situated in the Northern Hungary, in the so-called 3rd Anti-Jewish Zone. While the inhabitants of the Eger and Bagólyuk ghettos were transported to Kerecsend, and there, handed over to the German High Command, the Hatvan and Gyöngyös ghettos were handed over at their locations. During a discussion, held in the Hungarian Royal Ministry for Domestic Affairs on 25 May, in the presence of Adolf Eichmann, it was decided that the confined inhabitants of the 3rd Anti-Jewish Zone should be deported to Auschwitz, via Kassa (present day Kosiče, Slovakia), until 16 June. Consequently, in the Gyöngyös, the Jewish issue was handled by Police Captain HAJNIKI and Municipal Councilor STRANZL. First, on 1 June, Captain Kálmán HORVÁTH sorted out all men fit to work. He selected and transported them for forced labor service from Gyöngyös (later this group had the highest survival rate). Most of these men were taken to Kiskunlacháza via Hatvan, with the task of building an airport there.

The remaining inhabitants of the ghetto were driven to the railway station around noon on 8 June, on the Corpus Christi Holiday, and was followed by the great compassion of the Gyöngyös citizens. The executive commander feared that an outbreak could result, so Vasút street and the neighboring areas were closed during the transport of the Jews to the ghetto. Even the selection of this specific day for the deportation reflected possible fears of the Christian population's resistance, so the emptying of the ghetto was timed when most of the town's population would be taking part in a religious procession. The wagons only went to sugar factory of Hatvan this time. The Jews of Gyöngyös were later joined by the people from the Hatvan, Gödöllo and Aszód ghettos where they waited for their final transportation for two-three days, in atrocious conditions, lying on the ground, mostly in the area of the factory. Once the loading of the Jews into boxcars started, the Jewish patients of the local mental asylum staged some horrible scenes.

On the evening of 12 June 1944, after a three-day journey through Kassa (present day Kosiče, Slovakia), the train arrived at Auschwitz-Birkenau. Some of the Gyöngyös Jews were selected for forced labor, but the majority—judged not fit for work—were sent by the Nazis to the gas chambers.

In 1946, about 461 members belonged to the local religious community, comprised mostly of the of survivors from the work battalions. They reorganized the Gyöngyös Jewish community and refurbished the synagogue which started to function. The disgraced Torah scrolls were buried in the cemetery.

In 1947, a Holocaust memorial was erected in the cemetery.

Sources (portions):
The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust, (2001), p. 472
The History of the Gyöngyös Jewish Community, by László Horváth, Ph.D.,Hungary

[click the image to enlarge.]

~ Gyöngyös Holocaust Memorial ~
Erected in 1947

Photo: Copyright ©2010 Jerry ZEISLER, USA

[click the image to enlarge.]

Memorial plaque
Photo: Copyright ©2010 Jerry ZEISLER, USA

Photo: Courtesy of Jerry ZEISLER, USA

The stone shall cry out of the wall

Mine eye runneth down with rivers of water for the breach of the daughter of my people

And for the lost of 2000 Jews

Men and women, boys and girls, old people and babies

Of our city Gyöngyös who were killed, murdered, slaughtered, burned, drowned and suffocated

In the labor and death camps in Auschwitz and other sites

In our country and beyond its borders

Among 600,000 Jews of our country who were killed

During the years 5701-5705

And among 6,000,000 European Jewish martyrs

Their memory lives forever

~ Gyöngyös Holocaust Data ~

The names below are from the Nevek deportation lists.
Source: The Nevek Deportation List database at the Nevek-Klarsfeld web site.

Disclaimer: The following names were found searching the Nevek-Klarsfeld web site for individuals listed as living in or born in Gyöngyös. Unfortunately, for reasons unknown, the list is incomplete.

If your family member is not listed below, see the Yad Vashem Archives - Central Database of Shoah Victims' Names, a more complete database of names.

( * = Not transcribed; -né suffix at the end of a name = Mrs. )

NAME Year of Birth NAME Year of Birth NAME Year of Birth
*, Gyula 1893 HELLER, Jozsef 1908 REISS, Ferencné 1899
ABRAHAM, Imre 1925 HELLER, Samuel 1901 REISZMANN, Lajos 1924
ABRAHAM, Jozsef 1923 HELLSCHEIN, Antal 1905 RETI, Edit 1921
ADAM, Miklos 1899 HERCZ, Lajosné 1894 REVESZ, Janosné 1909
ANCSELOVICS, Marton 1917 HERCZ, Laszlo 1915 REVESZ, Lajosne Dr. 1897
BALASSA, Imrené 1904 HERSKOVITS, Alfred 1920 RIEGLER, Jenoné 1912
BALAZS, Geza 1880 HERSKOVITS, Borbala 1924 ROSENBERG, Zsigmondné 1889
BALAZS, Geza 1880 HERZ, Arpadné 1902 ROSENFELD, Lipot 1878
BALINT, Miklos 1897 HERZ, Emanuelné 1880 ROSENFELD, Simonné 1887
BANO, Ernoné 1895 HEVESI, Istvan 1921 ROTH, Siegfried Dr. 1915
BANYASZ, Miksané 1879 HEVESI, Katalin 1926 RUSZ, Lipot 1878
BASS, Gezané 1883 HIRSCH, Bela 1894 RUSZ, Lipotné 1883
BERKOVICS, Endre 1901 HOCHWALD, Imre 1914 SARAI, Sandor 1874
BERLINER, Dezso 1903 HOFFMANN, Laszlo 1922 SASVARI, Morné 1903
BERLINER, Lajos 1904 HOFFMANN, Miksa 1893 SCHAAR, Agnes 1912
BERMANN, Dezsoné 1910 HOLCZER, Zoltanné 1927 SCHLESINGER, Samuelné 1889
BERNFELD, Mor 1860 HOLLANDER, Katalin 1919 SCHNITZLER, Elemerné 1903
BINET, Manoné 1885 HUSZAR, Berta 1889 SCHONFELD, Ervin 1924
BINETER, Bela Dr. 1907 ICKOVITS, Bernat 1919 SCHWARCZ, Erno 1904
BIRINGER, Ernoné 1887 ILYOVITS, Miklos 1913 SCHWARCZ, Janosné 1911
BISCHITZ, Erno 1903 IZSAK, Jakab 1871 SCHWARCZ, Jozsef 1913
BLAU, Imre 1894 JAKOBOVITS, Karoly 1910 SCHWARCZ, Lipotné 1896
BLAU, Imre 1894 JAKUBOVICS, Dezso 1901 SCHWARCZ, Roza 1893
BLUMENTHAL, Lajos 1896 JAKUBOVICS, Miklosné 1921 SCHWARTZ, Dezso 1901
BODNAR, Kornelné 1884 JONAS, Pal 1912 SCHWARTZ, Ferenc 1904
BOGDAN, Laszlo 1911 JONAS, Sandorné 1909 SCHWARTZ, Kalman 1905
BOGDANY, Laszlo Dr. 1901 JUNGREISZ, Tibor 1921 SCHWARTZ, Samuelné 1873
BORGER, Ignacné 1879 KAHAN, Sandor 1924 SCHWEIGER, Jozsef 1865
BOROCZ, Karolyné 1893 KAHAN, Tibor 1922 SCHWEIGER, Lajos 1924
BOROS, Morné 1863 KALDOR, Vilmosné 1884 SCHWEIGER, Sandorné 1885
BOSKOVITZ, Jozsefné * KARDOS, Bela 1892 SCHWEITZER, Ivanné 1904
BRAUN, Oszkarné 1898 KARDOS, Ferenc 1910 SEIDNER, Jeno 1892
BRUCK, Miklos 1906 KARDOS, Miklos 1896 SEIDNER, Jeno 1896
BRUCK, Sarolta 1933 KARDOS, Sandor 1882 SEMLER, Ignacné 1897
CZAKO, Palné 1905 KARDOS, Sandorné 1906 SIMON, Aronné 1883
CZEISLER, Imre 1912 KELEMEN, Gyulané 1884 SIMONOVITS, Laszlo 1912
CZEISLER, Karoly 1915 KELLER, Antal 1865 SINGER, Gyulané 1898
CZINK, Helen 1915 KELLER, Laszlo 1902 SINGER, Lajosné 1871
CZIPSZER, Lajos 1903 KENDE, Jeno 1889 SINGER, Lajosné 1878
DENES, Istvan 1919 KERENYI, Jeno Dr. 1899 SIPOS, Jenoné 1899
DEUTSCH, Belané 1912 KERTESZ, Gyorgy 1907 SOLTESZ, Jozsefné 1865
DEUTSCH, Gyorgy 1914 KERTESZ, Katalin 1877 SOMLO, Emil 1896
DEUTSCH, Gyorgy 1914 KESTENBAUM, Lajos 1907 SONNENSCHEIN, Imre 1908
DEUTSCH, Jozsefné 1885 KIS, Adolf 1871 SONNENSCHEIN, Tibor 1912
DOMANY, Tibor Dr. 1892 KIS, S.Sandorné * SPATZ, Miklosné 1921
DOZSA, Henrikné 1880 KISS, Laszlo 1909 SPITZER, Lajosné *
ECKSTEIN, Hermann 1902 KISS, Laszloné 1917 STARK, Sandorné 1888
EGRI, Adolfné 1867 KLEIMANN, Livia 1926 STECKLER, Jenoné 1895
EHRENFELD, Ignac * KLEIN, Belané 1894 STEINER, Erno 1924
EICHLER, Albertné 1897 KLEIN, Gyorgy 1928 STEINER, Lajosné 1907
ENGEL, Ignacné 1882 KLEIN, Imre 1909 STEINER, Miksané 1893
ENGLANDER, Ferencné 1888 KLEIN, Jozsefné 1892 STEINREICH, Roza 1915
ERDOS, Imre 1914 KLEIN, Miklos 1907 STERN, Imre 1881
ERDOS, Istvan 1912 KOHN, Jolan 1882 SUGAR, Laszloné 1918
ERDSTEIN, Elemer 1909 KOHN, Lipot 1884 SZABADOS, Andorné 1898
ERDSTEIN, Jakabné 1866 KONIG, Katalin 1915 SZABO, Gyula 1893
FABIAN, Karolyné 1873 KORNSTEIN, Zoltan 1890 SZABO, Istvan 1922
FALK, Edené 1876 KOSA, Vilmosné 1898 SZEKELY, Dezso 1876
FANNFEDER, Martonné 1908 KOVACH, Dezsoné 1878 SZEKELY, Dezsone Dr. 1882
FANNFEDER, Zsuzsanna 1923 KOVACS, * 1897 SZEKELY, Janos Dr. 1912
FARAGO, Laszloné 1910 KOVACS, Gyorgy 1917 SZEKELY, Jenoné 1880
FARKAS, Dezso 1886 KRAUSZ, Andor 1901 SZEKELY, Laszlo 1900
FARKAS, Imre 1899 KRAUSZ, Gyorgy 1919 SZEKELY, Nandor 1875
FARKAS, Jozsefné 1870 KRESCH, Sandor 1911 SZENES, Adolfné 1872
FERI, Sandor Dr. 1895 KUPFERSTEIN, Vilmosné 1885 SZILAGYI, Istvan 1901
FISCHER, Andras 1915 KURSCHNER, Ignac 1884 SZINYOVSZKY, Miklosné 1924
FISCHER, Belané 1898 KURT, Gyorgy 1918 SZIRMAI, Karoly 1910
FISCHER, Lajosné 1869 LAKNER, Dezsoné 1909 SZIRMAI, Laszlo Dr. 1908
FLEISCHMANN, Gyorgy 1908 LEDERER, Jenoné 1880 TABAK, Samuné 1884
FLOHR, Imre 1912 LICHTENSTEIN, Lajos 1892 TEBNER, Arpad 1909
FOGEL, Istvan 1911 LICHTENSTEIN, Roza 1871 TEBNER, Jeno 1911
FOLDES, Sandor 1920 LOBL, Jozsefné 1919 TEBNER, Jeno 1913
FOLDES, Tivadarné * LOVI, Imre 1901 TOROK, Samuelné 1903
FORBAT, Manoné 1889 LOWINGER, Palné 1893 TOTISZ, Sandorné 1875
FORSTER, Lipot 1884 LUSZTIG, Laszlo 1922 TRATTNER, Endre 1914
FRADD, Gyulané 1897 MAHLER, Marton 1909 TRATTNER, Jakabné 1888
FRANKEL, Tiborné 1923 MANDL, Ferenc 1915 TRATTNER, Magda 1916
FRANKL, Erno 1899 MANDL, Marton 1878 TREPPER, Dezso 1920
FRANKL, Pal 1920 MANDL, Marton 1903 TUSCHAK, Gyorgy 1916
FRIED, Janosné 1916 MANDL, Roza 1865 VAGO, Davidné 1890
FRIEDMANN, Jozsefné 1897 MARCZELL, Aladarné 1879 VAJNA, Dezso 1881
FRIEDMANN, Miklosné 1870 MARKO, Karolyné 1874 VAMOS, Hugo 1886
FROSTER, Samuel 1872 MARKUS, Samuelné 1883 VAMOS, Hugoné 1886
FUCHS, Jozsef 1893 MARTON, Oszkar 1905 VARGA, Gyula 1896
FUREDI, Miksa 1875 MESTER, Ivanné 1911 VARLAKI, Albert 1920
GARAI, Aladarne Dr. 1886 MEZEI, Andor Dr. 1911 VARSA, Imrené 1875
GELB, Jozsef 1898 MEZEI, Manone Dr. 1890 VAS, Zsigmond 1890
GELLERT, Jakab 1872 MILHOFER, Alfredné 1882 VEGHAZY, Istvan Dr. 1923
GERO, Armin Dr. 1871 MITTELMANN, Laszlo 1918 VERMES, Arnoldné 1883
GLUCK, Ernone Dr. 1888 MOLNAR, Lajosne Dr. 1900 VERTES, Miklos *
GODA, Erno 1892 MOLNAR, Zoltan 1920 VERTES, Sandor 1906
GOLDSCHMIED, Laszloné 1901 MONTAG, Laszlo 1910 VIDOR, Rezso Dr. 1887
GOMBOS, Gyulane Dr. 1895 MOSKOWITZ, Morné 1890 VIDOR, Samuné 1868
GRAUMANN, Arnold 1893 MULLER, Gyulané 1878 VIRAG, Hugoné 1884
GROSSZMANN, Lajosné 1912 MULLER, Sandor 1902 WALDMANN, Imre 1914
GROSSZMANN, Miklos 1921 MULLER, Sandor 1902 WALDMANN, Jeno 1913
GROSZBERG, Lipotné 1869 NAGY, Pal 1920 WALDMANN, Jozsef 1911
GRUN, Laszlo 1907 NELKEN, Jozsef 1893 WALDNER, Alfred 1911
GRUN, Laszlo 1910 NETTLER, Agnes 1925 WALDNER, Bela 1888
GRUN, Miksa 1903 NEUMANN, Bela 1888 WALDNER, Gyula 1893
GRUNBAUM, Roza 1887 NEUMANN, Bertalanné 1866 WALDNER, Karoly 1917
GRUNBAUM, Sandor 1907 NEUMANN, Jeno 1916 WALDNER, Pal 1919
GRUNFELD, Elemer 1906 NEUMANN, Miksané 1878 WALDNER, Zsuzsi 1928
GRUNFELD, Sandor 1920 NEUWIRTH, Ferencné 1907 WEINBERGER, Ignacné 1887
GRUNFELD, Tivadar 1918 NUSSBAUM, Pal 1912 WEINBERGER, Jakabné 1872
GRUNHUT, Bela 1911 OSZTERREICHER, Elemer 1919 WEINER, Sandorné 1898
GRUNHUT, Miklos 1909 PARTOS, Dezsoné 1883 WEISZ, Ferenc 1910
GRUNWALD, * 1910 PASZTOR, Jozsef 1910 WEISZ, Ferenc 1934
GUTTMANN, Mor 1863 PASZTOR, Miklos 1912 WEISZ, Gyorgy 1903
GYARMATI, Arturné 1880 PFEIFER, Emilné 1898 WEISZ, Gyula 1920
GYONGYOSI, Dezso 1885 PICK, Belané 1883 WEISZ, Imrené 1891
GYONGYOSI, Nandor Dr. 1891 POLLACSEK, Jeno 1913 WEISZ, Jozsef 1901
GYORGY, Lipot Dr. 1881 POLLAK, Istvan 1909 WEISZ, Mihalyné 1889
GYOZO, Zoltan 1888 PRINCZ, Miksané 1889 WEISZ, Miklos 1905
GYOZO, Zoltanné 1894 PROTOVIN, Bela 1913 WEISZ, Sandor 1922
HABER, Andor 1920 PROTOVIN, Geza 1915 WEISZENSTEIN, Jozsefné 1888
HABER, Bela 1908 PROTOVIN, Gyula 1910 WEISZMANN, Miklosné 1886
HABER, Ferenc 1903 REDLICH, Ilona 1905 WERTHEIMER, Jozsefné 1907
HABER, Karoly 1916 REICH, Gyulané 1881 WIDDER, Zoltanné 1906
HALASZ, Andor 1913 REINER, Bela 1901 WIENER, Gyorgy 1909
HALASZ, Arminné 1869 REINER, Gabor * WIESEL, Davidné 1878
HEBER, Endre 1903 REINER, Laszlo Dr. 1884 WINKLER, Adolfné 1880
HEGEDUS, Arminné 1871 REINER, Miksané 1879 ZACHAR, Vilmosné 1889
HEIMANN, Miklos 1913 REINITZ, Aranka 1903 ZELLNIK, Vilmos 1855

~ Gyöngyös Yizkor Book ~

~ Gyöngyös Holocaust Survivors ~

Below are links to personal stories by survivors of the Holocaust from Gyöngyös. If you have a personal story to share by a survivor of the Holocaust from Gyöngyös, click HERE to contact me.

NOTE: Clicking a link will open a new page.

  • A.K. from Gyöngyös (Hungarian Slave Labor)

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Created by:
Marshall J. KATZ, USA
Compiled by:
Ágnes SZEGÕ, Ph.D., Hungary
with assistance from:

Amos Israel ZEZMER, France
and the following

JewishGen members/descendants and
contributors of Gyöngyös Jewish families:


Updated: 01 October 2020

Copyright ©2011
Ágnes SZEGÕ, Ph.D.
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