Yurevichi, Belarus

Rechitsa Uyezd, Minsk Gubernia

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December 2013 Version 1

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“Yurovichi”, Kalinkovichisky News. 06/12/2011

Online: http://www.knews.by/?p=2706

  • Translation of article is Task 48

"Doctors", Kalinkovichisky News. 09/27/2012

The first health care worker in Yurevichi, that was mentioned in 1854 in the backlogs of Byelorussian National Historical Archives “Minsk medical board”, “Minsk province office” and “Minsk province peasants’ affairs office”, was Yurevichi citizen feldsher Alaiziy Iosifavich Ivashkevich. His ancestors were noblemen. He had the certificate signed by the chief inspector of the Minsk medical office that gives the right to exercise medical practice. At the same time smallpox vaccinator (a person who vaccinate against smallpox) Motel Girshavich Goltan worked in Yurevichi. His relatives were the Jews. It is clear, that there were no any health facilities or hospitals in the town in this period. The feldsher hold the reception of patient in his own or their homes. Among the information about feldshers in volosts of Rechitsa povet during 1866 the following can be found:

“Yurevichi volost: There are 1411 men, 1361 women, 368 homesteads in the volost. Vikentsii Antonau Galaunia is a feldsher, catholic, his allowance: 160 roubles, 11 quarts 4 tchetveriks 4 garniecs of winter grain crops, the same amount of spring crops to the amount of 70 roubles 90 copecks, which means 230 roubles 90 copecks in total…

The first pharmacy in Yurevichi was opened at the end of 1889. It was owned by pharmacist Sybotski. In the list of feldshers and employed in Rechitsa povet midwifes (№483 dated 24.09.1907) Afanasii Fedoravich Kritski (Yurevichi feldsher) was mentioned. Other persons who provided medical services were feldshers Myzikant Abram Chaimavich, Zabela Vosip Zianonavich and midwife Alterman Gita Girshayna. There was a pharmacy owned by the pharmacist Tovii Izrailevich Kaletski in the town. As archival documents of Byelorussian National Archive indicates Yan Lyudvicavich Lrashcheuski worked in the Yurevichi from 1909 to 1912. The first record about the doctor in the town took place in 1914. It was Agizik Notay.

Before the October Revolution and during it feldsher Fedar Vosipavich Bartashevich provided health care services to the population of Yurevichi volost. In this period his brother Michail had a medical practice in Kalinkovichi.

Fedar Vosipavich was very considerable men among the local population. That’s why he was elected to the Yurevichi executive committee after its establishment by the Russian Provisional Government in 1917.

Feldsher Bartashevich was the only person who provided medical services to the ill, injured persons and parturient women in the whole volost during the difficult period of civil war.

At the beginning of November in 1920 there was an order to detach the only volost’s feldsher to Rechitsa and then to Gomel to undergo re-certification and then to be sent in the army. At the 11 of November chance political meeting took place. People adopted the following resolution:

We, the undersigned citizens of Yurevichi, at the chance political meeting caused by the order to detach feldsher Bartashevich to Gomel have decided:

“Considering that Bartashevich is the only health-care worker in the whole volost that consist of 26 villages and taking into consideration the wide spread of epidemic diseases in our area, we are solicit the appropriate government body for leaving Bartashevich in the Yurevichi”.

At the same time meeting participants wrote the appropriate statement to the Yurevichi Volostnoi Revolutionary Committee in which they gave even more proofs of their statement. They wrote:

The last two weeks were very difficult to Yurevichi citizens. Bylak-Bylachovich invasion has resulted in the multitude troubles, including people’s death: 7 were killed, 4 died from wounds, 9 dead were transported from the nearest villages, nearly 20 people were injured using cold weapon and firearms. Moreover, the epidemic of scarlatina has began. 20 children felt ill during the last two weeks. Along this we have one more possible trouble – to be left without any medical treatment because the only health-care worker – feldsher Bartashevich must leave us for an indefinite term as a result of his detachment to Rechitsa and Gomel with the further sending to the battlefront.

At the 1 of December Yurevichi Volostnoi Revolutionary Committee considered this application at the meeting and sent to the Rechitsa Povetovy Military Committee the petition signed by the foreman of the Volostnoi Revolutionary Committee Stsiapan Akylenka in which they asked to postpone the detachment of Bartashevich because of difficult medical and epidemiological situation in the volost.

Health locality

In the 1920th the health locality was opened instead of Yurevichi first-aid post. Unfortunately, we don’t know the exact date. The only thing we know is that doctor Ermachenka was the head of this the health locality in 1926. In 1926 at the 15 of October Veniamin Leibavich Lipkin applied to the Rechitsa paviatovy health-care department and requested the possibility of being appointed to the vacant position of the second doctor in Yurevichi. Doctor Lipkin was born in the village Elnia, Smolensk oblast, in 1904. He graduate the medicine department of severno-Kavkazskiy university in 19 June 1926. At 25 October 1926 twenty-two years old young man started to work in the Yurevichi hospital. In 1 February 1927 he became the head of the hospital. There was plenty of work to do. Besides the health-care services it was necessary to do explanatory work, look for sanitary state of the settlements, fight with the epidemics. The records, for example, contain interesting document about the examination of the medical state of victualling-houses, bakeries, hairdresser's, beerhouse and sales outlets in Yurevichi conducted by Lipkin and a member of town council. The reason was the neglecting of warnings about the impropriate condition of sanitation. According to this document, committee members asked regional executive committee to

…fine the next persons: hairdresser Lansman for working without overall – 3 roubles, hairdresser Berazouski – 3 roubles; Rachleyski – dirty beerhouse – 5 roubles; baker Buchman Irma – dirty kitchen, using dirty tools – 5 roubles. Yurevichi consumer society – insanitariness – 7 roubles. Schtenberg Schliome, Berman Zalman, Kantar Aron, Myrauchik Chaim – violation of sanitary norms – 1 rouble fine for every person …

At the end of July doctor Lipkin left the town due to his transfer to the position of the head of Elsk regional hospital. Archive documents saved the signed by the foreman of the Yurevichi regional executive committee copy of the reference which was given to Lipkin. Here is the small extract from it:

Doctor Lipkin proved himself as the doctor – always dedicated to his job activist of high account among the Yurevichi region citizens.

At the beginning of the August in 1927 Illia Davydovich Shtern arrived with his family at Yurevichi in order to fill the position of the head of health locality. By the way, doctor Bemar S. I. was appointed on the position of region sanitation doctor of Yurevichi, Choiniki, Bragin, Vasilevitski and Komarinski regions in 1927. Paid medical service for kulaks, free medical service for the poors In the second half of 1920th political situation in the country influenced not only economicy and peasant’s way of life but also other aspects of life including health care. Special resolution on the report of the inspector of okrug health department Harlap were adopted on the district doctors meeting in Mozyr in 1927. It’s official name is About the class differentiation in health care services and paid medical service for the unemployed. There is the quotation from this document:

The class war is strengthening because of the capitalism roots grubbing both in cities and villagies. The kulaks liquidation require conducting accurate class oriented work, including health care services. There is no clear differentiation in health care, especially in the villages, there is no division on social groups. The poors, the middle class and the kulaks receive equal health care services. Such situation smooth over class guideline in medicine.

Based on this reasoning, the district doctors council decided:

  1. Heath care services to the unemployed (NEPmen, merchants, kulaks, individual tax payers, disenfranchised) should be services for a fee, they should be served last of all with the exception of contagious diseases (typhus, cholera, scarlatina, diphtheria, smallpox and syphilis) but also for a fee.
  2. Fix the following prices for medical services:

    Day hospital

    town village
    Day in hospital without surgery 4.50 3.00
    Day in hospital with surgery 6.00 4.50
    abortion 25.00 15.00
    assist in childbirth 25.00 15.00
    Home visit without surgery 1) 0.75 0.60
    Home visit with surgery 1.00 0.90
    tooth stopping 3.00 3.00
    removal of tooth 2.00 2.00
    roentgenograph 10.00 10.00
  3. Typhus patients with active opened process should be seen for free, but patients should pay for medicines. Unemployed typhus patients can’t be directed to a hospital, because there is no possibility to place every typhus patients in medical institutions.
  4. All medicines for the unemployed should be paid.
  5. Medical consultations for children and pregnant women living in the cities – 50 copecks, villages – 40 copecks.
  6. All income from the medical services for the unemployed should be used for medical institutions improvement. Special estimate approved by sanitary council should be used.

Health care workers must obey this document, otherwise health care workers could banished into exile.

Cleanness cultivation

In spite of such difficult situation doctors worked, cured people and taught them how to resist illnesses, especially infections. It was difficult task for doctors to teach people how to keep clean and follow sanitary regulations. It was difficult to teach people who live in absolute poverty to wear clean clothes, wash and follow minimum sanitary regulations. Dated 12 December 1927 “Committee conference report about the conduction of the health protection week in Yurevichi school” can be found in the archives. There is the quotation from it:

Comrad Zinovich report about the results of the health protection week conducted between 23 October and 3 November. During this period regional feldsher conducted medical examination of pupils, coat racks and spittoons were placed in the school, ventlights for airing were made. The floor is moped once a week, windows are washed twice a week. Conversations with pupils about the necessity of following sanitary regulations at homes were conducted.

The whole work on hygiene was estimated as satisfactory. Moreover, the medical examination of the population was carrued up. Almost nobody aired their houses, changed furnishing. Nobody washed because of the absence of Russian baths. But at the same time it was noted that pupils tried to dress more neatly. The commission decided to send the request to regional executive committee about supplying the school with electric water heater, towel and soap; and to collect money in school in order to buy clothes for the poorest pupils. Medical institution’s resourse bases were very scanty at that time, they didn't have even the primitive equipment. That's why Mozyr region health care inspection sent the following guidance to Yurevichi and other towns:

More and more youngsters from villages begin to go in for sports. But very often there is no qualified trainers, who can organize exercises in a proper way. And if we, who live in cities, think that medical control during physical exercises is must, it is very important to organize such control in villages, because lack of control during physical exersices can result in injury.

That’s why People's Commissariat of health care demand regional hospitals to purchase anthropometric inventory (balances, auxanometers, measuring tapes etc.) using the money given for purchasing instruments and equipment. It will be enough for a start to examine athletes once a week or once a two week.

At 6 December 1928 new administrator Kaminer Karl Iosifavich started to work in Yurevichi health locality. The previous administrator was Maroz M.I. There was only 12 beds in Yurevichi hospital. Outpatient clinic was a small free-standing building.


A report dated 5 May 1929 give clear idea how buildings and rooms of the public institutions look like. Yurevichi region sanitation committee, which consisted of head of the police Shtcheletniov, region doctor Kaminer, doctor Sharinova, veterinarian Garelik, member of region executive committee Matysevich and member of the Soviet of the village, made institutions examination. Here is what the report says:

  1. Rooms of region executive committee. There is all necessary things for the working. Clean. There is towel, washstand, ventlights and also enough space for placing here following departments: accountant's office, land department, regional committee of communist party and regional committee of komsomol. Cleaning and mopping of the floor are satisfactory.
  2. Rooms of region police. Does not adapted for working. Unplastered. Small windows. Old rotten floor. The door does not close properly. There is no necessary furniture. Renovation is required.
  3. The Soviet of the village. Building is rented, contain two rooms. Sanitation is satisfactory.
  4. Hospital and outpatient department. Rooms of the hospital are new and clean. Enough air and light. Ventilation is satisfactory. The floor is painted only in the operating room. Outpatient department room is cramped. Windows, doors and floor are not painted. Building is not bordered, as a result there is a lot of waste on the territory. There is two wells in which water completely freeze in winter. So, there is a lack of water in winter.
  5. Drugstore. The room doesn’t have enough light and space. Sanitation is satisfactory.
  6. Veterinary service. Building is rented, contain two rooms. Sanitation is satisfactory.
  7. Slaughterhouse. Sanitation is bad. There is no windows, floor is not cement-grouted. Blood channel is jammed with litter. Tables are not zinc-coated. Walls are not coverd with oil-base paint. There is no room for meat examination. There is washstand, but it is impossible to use it. There is no soap and towel.

There is a lack of water in the slaughterhouse. The well is in insanitary condition.

  1. Kindergarten. There are two floors in the building. Ground floor is dark and damp. Works are placed here. Upper floor, where children are accommodated, has a satisfactory sanitation.
  2. Hairdresser’s. sanitation is satisfactory.
  3. Samotuzhnaya artel. Rooms are cramped and dusty. Ventilation is unsatisfactory.
  4. Courthouse. Building is rented, cramped. Sanitation is satisfactory.
  5. Yurevichi consumer society.
    1. Shop. Room is cramped and dark. Sanitation is unsatisfactory. Products are placed in proper order.
    2. Consumer society warehouse. The room is also small and cramped. It is also damp that can result in products spoiling.
    3. Kiosk №3. The room is rented, cramped. Sanitation is satisfactory.
    4. Kiosk №2. The room is rented, cramped. Sanitation is satisfactory.
    5. Sausage shop. The room is cramped and low. There is no aprons. Dirty.
    6. Meat shop. The room is cramped and low. Walls are veneer. Apron is dirty.
    7. Canteen-beerhouse. The room is rented. Sanitation is satisfactory.
    8. Consumer society chancellery. The room is rented, creamped, dark. It impossible to work in this room.

At 8 November 1928 the head of the Yurevichi health locality Kaminer M.I. made a report about the sanitation of the Yurevichi schools. The following persons assisted him: Sarokina and Kashmar from Byelorussian school, Kaimovich from Jewish school, Kalinoyski from Polish school. The report says:

Byelorussian school doesn’t have toilet, hot water and washstands. There is a lack of coat racks.

Jewish school doesn’t have toilet, there is no separate room for coat racks, that’s why children should leave their's coats in the classrooms. Classrooms are very small and ot is very difficult to accommodate all of the pupils here. Moreover, there is no hot water. Polish school also doesn’t have toilet. There is no hot water and washstands. There is a lack of coat racks, clothes lie on the benchs. Windows are small, so it is too dark in the classrooms.

Medical Aid Assessment

At 5 February 1930 okrug health care inspector Harlap inspects Yurevichi hospital. He came to the conclusion, that “After overhauling the hospital and outpatient department sanitation facilities are satisfactory. The hospital has equipment, necessary tools; autoclave was bought. All of these led to the hospital performance improvement. 773 patients (727 patient days) got medical aid in hospital during 1929. At average every patient spent 6.4 patient days in hospital. It means that patients don’t spend too much time in hospital and its carrying capacity is satisfactory. Bed’s downtime is only 12.9% days in the year. But it should be taken into account that hospital was under reconstruction during 4 months (September - December). There were 7116 visits to outpatient department during 1929, or 57 patients per day. It means that outpatient department isn’t overloaded. During the provision of medical services doctors finds out patient’s social position but don’t diversify them on the poor, the peasants of average means and the kulaks. All of them are mentioned in the documents as “peasants”. The insured patients are served out of turn in the outpatient department, but special service of evening patient reception does not organized. Home health service is organized as on-call maintenance. The insured patient can choose any doctor he wants; there are no any special rules. Kolkhozy are served by periodical doctor’s visits which are mostly caused by medical (not preventive) issues. At average there are 3-4 visits per month. Besides these issues doctors visits the gravely sick persons 3-4 times per month. There are no special sanitation work plans for serving kolkhozy. Doctors don’t take part in creating construction programs, don’t assess kolkhozy’s buildings from the sanitation point of view. Educational activities are satisfactory but in the same time kolkholzniks are not teached to use first-aid kit. Labor discipline is satisfactory. Some nurses are late for a work but not very often. There is no appropriate doctors’ work schedule. During the round of surgeons doctor Kaminer doesn’t consult with another doctor. Every doctor sends the patients to Mozyr for special medical treatment independently. There are no consultations between doctors. At night any doctor can be called by a nurse due to the absence of the work schedule. Paramedical workers’ watching can last from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. There is only one nurse in hospital after 9 p.m. She has a flat here. The head of the hospital rarely take part in the reception of the patients. Reports about hospital and first-aid stations work aren’t made on the political meetings. Relations between doctors are unsatisfactory. Such situation isn’t the result of disagreements about professional issues. It was caused by selfish interests and was maintained by spreading rumors. Undoubtedly, it resulted in the declining of the medical services quality. The lack of the appropriate work schedule is one more reason of this”. Because of bad relations between personnel, doctor S.A. Sharynova turned to Yurevichi executive committee with the application in which she asked to let her to do out of service. The application was considered too much time, so she tried again. When Kaminer were in Minsk on the development of vocational competence in surgery from 19 April to 20 June, the conflict quieted down. Sharynova substituted him. But after his return the tensions were growing and Sharynova leaved her job. BSU medical department graduate I. Batvinnik sent application for a position of doctor at 6 August. She had worked as a school teacher in Kalinkovichi before. Kaminer made a report dated 1 November 1930 in which he stated that Yurevichi hospital personal numbers only 1 doctor, 1 dentist, 4 feldshers, 3 midwifes, 2 pharmaceutists, 2 nurses, 5 aid-women. He also reported that there should be 3 more doctors in hospital. Moreover, the contagious isolation ward on 12 beds was planned to be build in 1931, because local population suffered from infectious diseases: scarlatina, flu, measles and other. Unfortunately, there is no more information about the period between 1930 and 1941. Only names of some medical workers are known: nurses Pliavaka Zinaida Stsiapanauna, Tselesh Aliaksandra Fiodorauna, Iashchanka Anastasia Ivanauna, midwifes Pliavaka Ianina Auhustauna and Lytskevich Katsiaryna Michajlauna. During the war At the end of November, 1943 Yurevichi was liberated from national socialists, but the town was still near the battlefront (some kilometers from the line of the front) which stopped at the line Prydok – Grada. Nevertheless, the life in Yurevichi began to revive. One of the first institutions that started to work was the Yurevichi hospital. Kalinkavichi was still under the occupation. By order №1 dated 1 December 1944 Sharavar Nina Mikitsichna became acting head of Yurevichi hospital. She had 5-years experience in medical services. During January – February the next people were accepted for employment: nurses – Deichyk Katsiaryna Iakauleuna, Harchanka Maryia Vasileuna, Pliavaka Ianina Auhustauna, Tselesh Aliaksandra Fiodarauna, Miranovich Nelia Stsiapanauna, Tselesh Liubou Ivanauna; aid-women – Panhlish Iryna, Kananenka Maryia, Tselesh Ahafia, Davydchyk Alena, Makeichyk Natallia; midwife – Paskonnaia Paraska Tarasauna; cook – Koidan Pelaheia, stoker – Stoma Volha. Beginning from 2 February Hryshyna Volha Ivanauna was appointed on two month period on the position of the head of Yurevichi hospital by Council of People’s Health Commissars. Nina Sharavar was appointed on the position of the head nurse. Tsiarentseva Nina Andreeuna was accepted for employment on the position of ambulatory feldsher in April 1944. Lytskevich Maria Mihailauna was accepted for employment in the position of midwife in May 1944. Before August 1944 health services for local people were provided by detached doctors, who headed rural district hospital at the same time. Feldsher Nina Tsiarentseva was appointed on the position of the head of hospital and ambulatory department in 20 August. And only in 22 October she was replaced by doctor Yushkevich Vasil Andreevich. Staff changed constantly. For example, nurse Tselesh Lyubou entered Mozyr Feldsher School in May and left Yurevichi. Nurse Pliavaka Yanina graduated from midwife courses and took a position of a midwife. Tselesh Yauhenia Ryhorauna was appointed on the position of a health visitor in November, Kastenka Varka – on the position of an ambulatory disinfector. Health care workers conducted the receptions and examinations of patients, inoculated them, and took measures to prevent typhus. At the same time battlefront was very close. Yurevichi dwellers could hear gun cannonade till April 1944. It was the lack of drugs and medical tools. Health care workers sacrificed themselves. During the aiding for patients they often got the infection from their patients. But there was even worse thing. Doctors very often became the victims of false accusation. For example, NKVD arrested Yurevichi hospital chief physician Yushkevich in 1 June 1945. It is difficult to say what has happened. But at 3 August doctor Vaser Faina Siamenauna who took place of Yushkevich imposed an order, in which was stated: “In accordance with regional health committee instructions and Yushkevich Uladzimir Andreevich application, he is considered to be on leave from 1 August till 1 September 1945”. Fortunately, Yushkevich returned at 1 September and continued his work in hospital. Vaser V.S. returned on her previous workplace in Autsyukovichi health locality.

Nadzeia Tselesh

Front-line nurse Kupryenka Nadzeia Haurylauna was appointed on the position of a Yurevichi hospital nurse after her demobilization in 1 December 1945.

Her life was very difficult. She was born in the Abuhauschyna village in 1917. At the beginning of 1930th her parents moved to Yurevichi. Nadzeia entered an evening school here. She had a large family, so she needs to work. Nadzeia worked in the kolkhoz fields. She was an agile, small, vivacious girl and it helped her to do her work well. Quickly she became work team leader and then thanks to intellect and sharpness she became an accountant. In 1989 she said: “In spite of the fact that I worked and studied in the same time, I earned 250 workdays per year and moreover, I had time to have fun”. In 1936 Nadzeia graduated from 7-year school and entered midwife courses in Mozyr medical school. After one year she got a diploma in nursing and was placed on a job in Lamavichi village in Aktsibrski region.

Village first-aid station was in a small old house. Here were no doctor; she was the only health worker in the village. But she was not afraid of difficulties. She cleaned the house and started to work.

At the very beginning of the war she was called in Mozyr regional health committee. Immediately she was drafted and sent to the military base in Kozenki, near Mozyr. Military hospital was also situated here and many of her friends worked in this hospital: college mates and college teachers.

After some time military hospital was moved in Kazelsk, Smolenskaya oblast. The reason was quick German attack. Here military hospital worked in full force. There were many injured, generally seriously wounded: without legs or arms and injured in abdomen or head. Military hospital had 300 beds but often more than 1500 patients were placed in it. Staff, generally women, worked day and night.

Nadzeia Haurylauna said: “It was very good if had time to sleep at least 1 or 2 hours, but most of the time work went on round the clock”.

She was assiduous, dedicated, responsible and hardy. That’s why she was appointed on the most difficult work: head nurse of the sanitary inspection room. Her duties were to receive the injured, debride theirs wounds, suture, plaster and bandage them. They need blood and drugs that always were in deficit. Nurses donated blood, even in spite of the fact that they fainted from overtime work.

Martial life forced her to move from one front to another. She received her first war decoration in Tsihvin, near Leningrad. It was the medal “For Military Merit”. Nadzeia went through the war from the beginning to the end. She met Great Victory in Germany. But for military unit, in which she served, war didn’t over. It was sent to the Far East. It took one month to get there by train. They arrived in Krasnoyarsk and started to deploy a hospital. Everyone waited for new strong battles with the Japanese militarists: dug shelters, trenches, made them suitable for placing the injured.

Fortunately, they got an order: “Return back!”

After the war Nadzeia Haurylauna has been working as midwife and nurse in Yurevichi hospital for 40 years. She retired only in 72. All her life she helped people to be born, cured and to be health.

Rotation of staff

Nurse Iouchyk Varvara Vasileuna started to work in the hospital in autumn 1945. At 1 February 1946 she was fired, because she graduated nurse courses for working in kolkhozy. Kazlousaya Palina Kypryyanava started to work on her position. Feldsher Tsiarentsieva Nina left hospital in March 1946. She was moved in Kryshyki to work in the first-aid station. Deichyk Lubou Anufrieva (wife of Yushkevich) began to work as feldsher. Byldyk Lidzia Aliakseeuna was appointed as a nurse in Yurevichi hospital in 1 May 1946.

At the end of October regional health department ordered Yushkevich to become a chief physician of Hoiniki regional hospital. Kosintser Iafim Maiseevich started to work at Yushkevich’s position at 1 November 1946. At the position on which worked his wife Shurko Lubou Siarheeuna was appointed.

The former commissar of the Second Kalinkovichi guerrilla band Bialiai Iosif Mikitavich worked as a Yurevichi hospital household manager at this time.

Feldsher Dalinchuk Fiodar Danilavich often executed chief physician duties when he was away. Dalinchuk was very experienced medical worker but at the same time he had a very big drawback – he liked a drink. That’s why he constantly was administrated rebukes and penalties.

While drinking could cause only penalties, absenteeism could result in imprisonment. For example, the order №3 dated 15 January 1947 can be found in Hospital archive: “Stableman Makarchuk broke working discipline at 13 January 1947 – he left work and returned only at 15 January in the afternoon. It is 3-day truancy. For breaking working discipline give Makarchuk severe reprimand. The case must be passed to investigatory powers in order to be adduced to legal liability”. It is unknown what the result of this situation was, but in Stalin-ruled country Makarchuk could be judged even to exile. Anastasia Iaschanka

Prewar nurse of Yurevichi hospital Iaschanka Anastasia Ivanauna returned in Yurevichi from the military forces at 28 March 1947. It is impossible not to say some words about her. She worked in the sphere of health care for 52 years. She retired only in 70.

She was born in peasant’s family in Yurevichi in 22 December 1922. There were 7 children in the family. During her childhood she worked hard, but she found time for education. She studied with interest and diligence. After graduating 7-year school she decided to enter Mozyr medical school. In 1940 she graduated it, returned in Yurevichi and started to work.

Anastasia Ivanauna said: “Yurevichi hospital was situated in the forest. It considered being comfortable. Hospital had its own ambulatory and laundry. Moreover it was a well near the hospital”. She was only 19 when the war began. After some days she was drafted and appointed as a nurse of 60th Guards Division of the First Byelorussian Front.

Unexpectedly, representative of the most peaceful profession found herself on the battleground. It was no time to be afraid, because she must help the injured.

Anastasia Ivanauna said: “We had only one thought: help the injured as quickly as possible, bandage them, stop a wound, and drag them out of the fire. Battles always were difficult. But after we entered German territory, especially Oder, nazists became crazy, they fought furiously. Bloody battles lasted day and night. It was almost impossible to count all of the injured and killed. Sometimes there was a need to do a blood transfusion directly on the surgical table. And we, military nurses donated our blood to help the injured”.

She met a Great Victory on the Berlin outskirts where her military unit was stationed.

Anastasia Ivanauna said: “We all cried. It was tears of happiness, we were glad that our enemy surrendered and that the war is over. We cried, because many of members of our families and friends were killed or died”. After the Great Victory her military unit was sent to the Baltic states, and health care workers were sent to town Shveryn. Anastasia looked for the paralyzed soldiers for 1.5 years after the war, because their injures were so bad, that it was impossible to send them to the Homeland.

When she returned in Yurevichi, there was no hospital here. Collaborationists demolished the building and built defensive installations.

So that, beds were placed in the private Jewish house, which owner was killed (as a majority of Jews in Yurevichi) during the war.

Anastasia Ivanauna said: “In this house were only two rooms. The first was used as male hospital room, the second as female hospital room. Syringes were boiled on the Primus stove, water was boiled in boilers. It was a lack of drugs and bandaging materials, but we done all we could. Local people helped to rebuild hospital, purchased all necessary equipment. After some years new buildings were erected, very good medical institution has been created”. There are a lot of records of the nurse Anastasia Iaschanka and midwife Nadzeia Kupryenka (Tselesh) in Yurevichi hospital order book. All of them are positive. For example, the order №13 dated 30 April 1949 in which the head of the hospital wrote: “In connection with 1 May to be thanked officially first aid station administrator Dalinchuk F.D., midwifes Kurpyenka N.H., Valchanka H.A., disinfector Charnetskaia E.M., nurses Iashchanka A.I., Davydzenka E.A., Plyavaka Z.S., junior nurses Kazlouskaia S.P., Panhlish I.I, cook Butsenka M.T., hospital attendant Harchanka U.M.”.

1) including dentist services
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