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1900s Name: Yampol
1900s District: Yampol
1900s Province: Podolia
1900s Country: Russian Empire
1930s: Yampol', Vinnitsa, Ukraine SSR, Soviet Union
1950s: Yampol', Soviet Union
Modern: Yampol, Ukraine Coordinates: 48°15'N 28°17'E

Yampol currently has 12,000 residents; of the Jewish community virtually none remain. In the 1990's many Jews left for Israel and other countries. Some went to other large cities of Ukraine.
In 1900, about 3,000 Jews lived in Yampol. The entire city center was in Jewish buildings.
The city had a castle, a fortress and the river port. Also, four synagogues.
During the war, opposite the old Jewish cemetery was the concentration area for Jews.
In Yampol, Nazis were represented by Romanian troops who were guarding the area.
The road to Yampol was a large enclosed grounds, where the Jews were forced to live. When Ukrainians went to the market outside of this zone, they threw the Jews of bread and food over the fence to help feed the Jewish children and the elderly.

Yampol : A short history of the Jewish community of Yampol, Ukraine

A district town in the province of Podolia, east of the river Dniester, western Ukraine.

Before World War 2 it was part of the district of Vinnitsa in the Ukraine, then part of the Soviet Union.

Jews had lived in Podolia apparently from the beginning of the 16th century and it is likely that Jews had lived also in Yampol since apparently that time. There is in Yampol a very old Jewish cemetery, whose time of dedication has not been determined, but it is known that the” new” cemetery was consecrated at the middle of the 18th century, when burial space was no longer available in the old cemetery.

About 2,000 Jews were living in Yampol at the end of the 18th century. In a population census of 1802 1,850 Jews were recorded, but it is not clear if this number included also children. In a census in the year 1897, 2,823 Jews were recorded in Yampol.

The old bet midrash of Yampol dates back to 1795. A hevra kaddisha was organized in 1800 and in 1808 a synagogue was dedicated. A new bet midrash was opened in 1883 and after the pogrom in Kishinev in 1903 a special memorial service for the victims was introduced to it. In 1902 and 1903 the Jews of Yampol collected money for the new settlements in Eretz Israel and for Jewish workers.

In the first two decades of the 20th century, at the time of the revolution in and World War 1, Jews moved out of Yampol. In 1929 1,823 Jews were recorded in Yampol, comprising 29% of the total inhabitants.

The Holocaust period

World War 2 broke out on September 1, 1939, when Nazi Germany invaded and occupied Poland. On June 21,1941, Germany attacked the USSR and opened a thrust to the east. Yampol was taken on July 18 by the German forces, assisted by forces of Romania, then an ally of Germany. Many Jews evacuated the town together with the retreating Red Army.

After the occupation of Yampol most of the Jews of Yampol were murdered by the Germans. The remaining few hundred Jews lived in poverty in their homes in a quarter at the town’s centre.

Yampol was part of Transnistria , a region in western Ukraine which Germany allotted to Romania as a reward for her help in the offensive against the USSR. When Romania was later invaded by Germany, and Jews from Romania were deported to Transnistria , Yampol served as a transit point. 350 of the Romanian deportees, who were skilled in trades and professions needed by the authorities, were allowed to stay in Yampol and they were accommodated by the local Jews. After a short time a few streets were isolated to form a ghetto. Most of the houses in the ghetto were ruined and damaged from the days of the fighting over the town. The Jews were ordered to wear a yellow Star of David on their clothes, for recognition, and they were permitted to leave the ghetto once a day, to fetch water and buy food. Those employed outside the ghetto were provided with special exist permits.

The first commanders of the ghetto treated the Jews decently and life in the ghetto was bearable. But when a martial law was imposed, with Major Dionisie Fotino in command, the attitude to the Jews became drastically worse. Gendarmes used to enter the ghetto, conduct sudden counts and beat Jews. Jews were executed for all sorts of charges. In November 1942 many Jews were expelled from the ghetto and in January 1943 72 Jews were murdered by Fotino. A committee of Jews appointed by the authorities had to supply men and women for any task required. Jews worked in a workshop of the authorities, in garages, in the airfield, etc. for a daily wage and food. With the help of funds that the Jewish relief committee in Bucharest provided, a soup kitchen was set up which supplied meals to Jews not remunerated for their work and also to Jewish prisoners in the local jail. The commander of the German labour union Todt also employed Jews, but he treated them fairly and paid them a wage. But the Ukrainian police which employed Jews, mainly women and children over the age of 14, in public works (sweeping streets, etc.) paid them nothing.

One small synagogue in the ghetto was in use on Sabbath days and the Jewish festivals for public prayers. In addition, a number of minians were held in private homes.

In 1943 there were in Yampol some 500 Jewish deportees, in addition to a few hundred local Jews. The Romanians evacuated the town in the first half of March 1944 and Yampol was liberated on the 14th of march by the partisans. But the town continued to be bombarded by the Germans with heavy damage. The Soviet forces entered the town on the 17th of March and Jews were mobilized to repair the bridges on the Dniester. A month later the deportees from Romania crossed the river back to Romania.

After the war in 1945, Major Fotino was brought to trial for killing Jews and sentenced to death. However his death penalty was commuted to hard labour for life.

No information is available as to the number of Jews in Yampol after the war.

Permission to use and credit to: logo Museum of Jewish People

  • Jampol (Ukrainian Yampіl), village, district center of Vinnitsa region, in 1796 - 1923. county town of Podolia.

The village is located on the left bank at the confluence of a p. Rusavy, 165 km from the regional center, the distance to nearby former Jewish settlements: Magpies - 8 km, Dzygovki - 17 km, Yaruga - 20 km. A separate branch of Jampol-Vapnyarka connects the village with the railway line Odessa-Zhmerynka.

Sometimes, in the historical and reference literature is confused with the Transnistrian Jampol Yampol Kremenets district of Volyn province (now in the Khmelnitsky region).

In the XVI century. Jampol was one of the great trading cities of Bratslav, the Dniester to the Black Sea delivered the goods and in the opposite direction exported grain. The city was also known as a center kamenotesnogo craft.

With the establishment of Bratslav province of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1565 - 1566 Jampol's Castle and the adjacent borough is mentioned among the few settlements of Bratslav, deserted by frequent Tatar invasions.

On the basis of the Union of Lublin (1569) Bratslav province joined the Kingdom of Poland,

At the end of the XVI century. Jampol, together with the villages closest to it was purchased by "the great crown hetman," and the Chancellor of Poland, Jan Zamoyski. The new owner has strengthened the city and rebuilt the castle. Perhaps it was during this period in Yampol, as in other cities belonging to the Zamoyski, the Jews have settled.

In 1593 the Cossacks rebelled under the leadership of K. Kosinski Yampolsky besieged castle, but could not capture it.

On the map Bratslav voivodeship 1650 cartographer Boplan Jampol portrayed as a protected historic city walls of the settlement.

During the Khmelnytsky Jampol has become one of the centers of the insurgency. In July 1648 burghers of this settlement and the neighboring village of Bushes arranged their own party, who led a Cossack Yampolsky Cat. Together with an army colonel M. Krivonosa they participated in the capture of the Cossacks Bar.

By agreement Zbarouski 1649 Transnistrian border Jampol was hundreds of cities Bratslav regiment in whose territory under the terms of the contract is not permitted accommodation of the Jews.

Starting in August 1650 in a campaign against Moldavia and trying not to irritate the Poles, the army which was at that time in Kamenetz-Podolsk, Bogdan Khmelnitsky appealed to Yampol to the Cossacks, with instructions not to offend the gentry. In September, Khmelnytsky returned with his troops from Moldova to Jampol and Russian ambassadors received here. Repeatedly visited Yampol Cossack hetman and his son Timothy Khmelnitsky.

In March 1661 one of the fair days of Bratslav Governor Stanislaw Lantskorunsky suddenly perpetrate a brutal massacre, he drove the Cossacks, and gave the city the fire.

In 1664 in the city were 10 farms ("smoke") and two operating mills.

In September of 1671 g, Jampol, ruled by the Cossacks, again entered the Polish troops of Jan Sobieski.

We have no information about the life of the Jewish community in Yampol until the second half of XVIII century., When the ruins of the once fortified city, a small town.

In 1751 there were a total of 118 homes.

In 1784, 104 Jews lived in Yampol 24 homes, they were assigned to the community Shargorod. According to the census in 1787 in Yampol already existed an independent congregation numbering 307 people (including Jews, suburbs and surrounding villages).

At the end of the XVIII century. Yampol possessed a well-known at the time the entrepreneur Potocki, who built here a river port with warehouses and dock designed for the grain trade with Bender and Ackermann.

With the accession in 1795 to a Russian shtetl Jampol became chief town of Bratslav governorship. His coat of arms depicting the rapids of the river with two ships on the coast reflects the value of the Dniester River in the city's economy.

In 1796, county agencies have been transferred from a neighboring Yampol, whereas a larger place, Tsekinovka. But because of the strong flood of the Dniester River, inundating Tsekinovku, Centre County, was returned to Jampol, as confirmed by royal decree in 1804

Entrepreneurship owner Yampol Prot Potocki was completed in 1798 to complete the bankruptcy and the transfer of the town into the hands of creditors. Related to these developments economic and legal documents contain important information about the town, its population and economy at the turn of the XVIII-XIX centuries. Yampol population consisted of serfs (in 1795 - 432), chinshevoy and gentry. About 80% were lower middle class Jews (in 1802 - 185 people in 1806 - 305).

In 1795 - 1806 years. Christians belonged to from 177 to 238 homes, the Jews - from 78 to 120 (26 - 38% of all homes).

The tip of the Jewish community were about 15 families of major tenants, pay off the landlord belonged to items of income paid in lump sum. 28. Thus, merchants and Manulovich Kelmanovich buy drinking and the city rent for PLN 8000-12000 per year, Serbyansky - povedernye charges of alcohol per 5850 PLN Gertsyk - Vineyards in 3000 zlotys, Abramovich and Baruhovich - a mill for 1,100 zlotys.

At the beginning of the XIX century. new owners of the town was built in Dobrzhanskaya Yampol several small factories: a cloth, and the vehicle-stocking.

In 1827 there were three in Yampol guild merchant, all of them - Jews: Shpitsman, Morder and Brood in 1837 - Shpitsman, and Morderova Fridman26. Most Jews at this time were engaged in petty trade and crafts, service marina, as well as vinogradarstvom27. In 1852 the wells of 79-

Polish craftsmen were 66 Jews. According to the 1855 Yampol and county was not the first and second merchant guilds, and the third guild had 347 Jews and Christians, 9, the number of heads of families, middle-class estate -, respectively, 448 and 921 people.

Contributing to the economic development district of the city, the provincial administration established in Yampol early 1850s. two fairs: two weeks from 9 May and weekly from September 8.

At the beginning of the XIX century. Jewish funeral brotherhood Yampol founded and built the large synagogue in 1853 Yampolskaya congregation had a synagogue and two prayer houses with a total number of parishioners.

In 1906 Yampol Jews appealed to the provincial authorities to request the use of boxed tax on the conversion of existing schools.

In the second half of XIX century. still conspicuous mismatch of administrative status and the economic development of the county town. In 1860 lived in Yampol 1317 Jews (about 32% of the population).

Description of Podolia in 1889 noted an increase of Yampol: "... housing 731 (81 stone), outbuildings and other residential buildings 238 (8 stone), non-residential buildings 410 (60 stone)", emphasizing the lack of development of urban industry and management, "no Factory and industrial establishments in town, there are only three water mills, trade shops 80, 200 artisans, Jampol - City possessory and only in the province, in any city regulations there are not introduced, and now he has a so-called simplified urban governance. "

In the spring of 1900 Yampol Jews have asked the provincial authorities to allocate funds from the boxed collection to benefit the poor.

The revolutionary events of 1905 - 1907 years. did not improve relations between Jews and the surrounding population. This is evidenced by at least the fact that in April 1906, the local representative of the Union full rights Golts Pinchas did not distribute from the St. Petersburg Center for the appeal to the Union, "Russian society," "as the Russian attitude toward the Jewish community here and in our district is so nervous that such literature can bring benefits. "

Despite the decline of the political activity of Jews after the First Russian Revolution, in 1907 during the elections to the State Duma of the III Yampol Jewish electors, according to the newspaper "Dawn", were Berman and Leviticus.

On the eve of the First World War, Jews continue to occupy a dominant position in the economic life of the city.

Among the first riots of autumn 1917 in the Ukraine was a pogrom in Yampol October 29 (according to other sources, 6 November). Gang offenders previously arrested the chief of the garrison, and brought down telephone, defeated three quarters of Jewish shops, one of the quarters of the rioters burned down. In this massacre, "was killed and wounded a Jewish family." Arriving troops stopped carousing, and some arrest rioters.

In June 1919 in the pogrom, soldiers, troops arranged Ukrainian Directory, killing five people, affected 225 families. That same month, was a pogrom in Yampol massacre carried out by soldiers the army of General Denikin.

In February 1920, after an unsuccessful attempt to break parts of the General Delusional in Romania, during the retreat along the bank of the Dniester to the soldiers staged riots in several towns, including Yampol. .

In May 1920, Yampol established Soviet power.

Despite the fact that many Jews Yampol during the Civil War and early 1920s. fled to neighboring Bessarabia, at the beginning of World War II in the town had about four hundred Jewish families.

In 1939 he lived in a place of Jews in 1753 (24% of the population).

The occupation lasted Yampol July 17, 1941 to March 17, 1944, most Jews were not able to evacuate before it started.

Crossing over the Dniester near Yampol used as the advancing German and Romanian troops and convoys deported Romanian Jews to the territory of Ukraine.

A total of 1941 - 1942 years. by Jampol was about 35,000 Romanian Jews. In Yampol were housed the headquarters of one of the German troops and "eynzats-Team" specially engaged in the destruction of the Jews. Already in the early days of the occupation there were nine Jews were shot, repeated executions of July 28 and August 2.

July 29 the German High Command decided to return back to Bessarabia 29,000 Jews deported to Podolia. The convoy of deportees were driven to cross the Dniester in Mogilev-Podolsky, but the Romanian border guards refused to let them. Then the Germans transported the Jews of Bessarabia by Jampol, shooting people at the same time in 1265, stragglers from the column due to exhaustion.

September 1, 1941 in Yampol, as in the rest of Transnistria, the Romanian established civilian rule. Jampol became the administrative center of the newly formed district in the province Zhugastru Transnistria.

In the central part of the town was established a ghetto in which lived a few hundred survivors of the local Jews. They took residence in their homes about five hundred Jewish "experts" who were deported from Bessarabia and Bukovina (as of September 1, 1943 in Yampol had 156 and 348 Bessarabian Bukovina Jews). Yampolskaya Romanian Jewish community survived the occupation. In the postwar years Yampol lived about fifteen hundred Jews. According to a report authorized by the Committee on Religious Affairs under the USSR Council of Vinnitsa region Yampolskaya synagogue rabbi was elected PN Shmidel, born in 1862, before the Soviet regime, former teacher and later a merchant. The religious community, founded (according to the report) during the occupation, there were 16

In May 1947 it was part of 200 people, its administration was placed at number 2 on Komsomolskaya Street. After the war, there were two Yampol minyan, gathered in private homes until the early 1980's.

In the early 1990s, the few remaining Jews registered for Yampol new congregation, which became the chairman of the Faina Furman, then - Raisa Goldman. In addition to providing financial assistance to needy community leaders engaged in the organization of joint meetings, Saturdays and holidays. His room was not the community for holiday feasts are usually rented cafe.

Old center Yampol completely rebuilt in the same place there was only a market square, the impressive size vaulted cellars beneath it for being used as warehouses. One of these underground structures, preserving the original appearance as a whole, adjusted for a cafe.

Jewish cemetery in Yampol over the Dniester.
Near Yampol, on the road to the village there are two thresholds for the Jewish cemetery. On the bank of the Dniester River on the way to the ferry - the old cemetery with hundreds of carved grave stelae XVIII - XIX centuries. Many of the stelae are made of local pink sandstone with semi-circular end of the majority, there are also other shapes of the stele, including the completion of the form of an oak leaf. Most of the reliefs are simple in concept and execution, they are the ornament of rosettes, geometric or floral design. Some steles differ circular arrangement of lines epitaphs New Jewish cemetery is located closer to Jampol, opposite the Orthodox cemetery on it - the standard of the XX century gravestones and a high concrete wall with no inscriptions on the mass grave of Jews killed during the occupation.

VIEW: Yompol information on the JewishGen Community Database

  • Some background information on the town Yampol Yampolsky and county.

About the County
Jampol is located on the left bank at the confluence of a river Rusavy. Ya is located in the 1612 miles from St. Petersburg, 1325 miles from Moscow, 417 miles from Kiev and 186 miles from Kamenetz-Podolsk. Nearest railway station: Mogilev-Podolsky, 48 miles, 50 miles Popelyuhi.

Yampolsky county occupies space in the 3179.1 square meters. miles. Residents in the county, according to 1910, 330,546 people, of whom: 163,429 men, 167,177 women. The area of ​​the city is 458 dec. Residents Yampol 7467, of the low 3655 men, 3812 women. By Religion: Orthodox man 4783, 343 Catholics, Jews, 2331 people and a small number of Muslims and Protestants.


Precise data on the founding Yampol not, it is known that it existed in the 16th century and was then considered one of the major trading point edge. Tom contributed to its location on the river. The Dniester is a place where end Dniester rapids. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries belonged to the Zamoyski Jampol, Jan Zamoyski built in H. Castle and fortified it. In 1693, during the Cossack revolts, besieging the castle is one of the companions Kosinski - Kozatsky Colonel Ivan Loboda, but to no avail. In 1650, Jampol joined together with other localities in the Bratslav Regiment. In 1651 the Poles, under the command of Hetman Kalinowski, took Jampol. By order of the Kalinowski, Bratslav Governor Stanislaw Lyantskorunsky suddenly attacked Jampol, ruined castle, and destroyed more than 10,000 inhabitants, plundered their property.

After the terrible destruction Jampol long remained in ruins. In the early 18th century belonged to Potocki Jampol, who restored it and built a marina here.

In 1795, Jampol was annexed to Russia and was appointed chief town of Bratslav governorship, and with the transformation of Podolia remained the county town.

Neighborhoods Yampol very picturesque.

  • Jampol - County mountains.

Podolia Province. On a lion. low-lying edges. River. Dniester, at the confluence of a pv. Rusavy, 1.5 ver. above the rapids on the Dniester, in the 41 century. from the station. Kryzhopol South-West. It existed already in the XVI desk. and was considered a major trade center and a flourishing city. The blow was dealt to its prosperity in the 1651 surprise attack Bratslav governor Stan. Lyantskorunskogo, who plundered and destroyed the city and killed up to 1,000 inhabitants., Since a long time J. was in complete desolation. At the beginning of the XVIII century. new owners of the city, Potocki, tried to restore it and made it to the pier and stowage for goods delivered on the Dniester to the Black Sea. In 1795, the accession of Russia to the edge, Y. assigned county. Mountains. In 1798 the offices were transferred to the MST. Tsekinovku, but in 1804 returned to the Ya Ya Now - one of the poorest cities in the county Podolia Province., Like a big village with unpaved streets and vast squares, furnished a number of miserable huts and endless fences and fences, in there are no hotels, no restaurants. 910 estates, 6135 inhabitants. (3078 mzhch. Zhnsch and 3057.) Orthodox. 4134, 205 Roman Catholics, Lutherans 1, 1795 Jews, 3878 burghers, peasants in 1737, retired military 237, 168 nobles, merchants, 35, 26 foreigners, honorary citizens of the 17 spiritual 11, 26 commoners. Two Orthodox. church and a Catholic, 4 synagogues (all the buildings of stone), 255 stone and 962 wooden houses, 70 stone. and 365 trees. non-residential buildings, for the most part covered with wood or straw, rare tiles. Trade and industry are small, most of the population engaged in agriculture, viticulture, crafts, petty trade, shipping, work on the pier. Factories 9, with a turnover of approx. 21 thousand rubles. 43 of the vineyard, with a total area of ​​11 dec. Two hospitals in 22 shelter., 4 doctors and a pharmacy. Urban two-year college. In 1902, urban incomes 6487 rubles., Reserve capital 19 949 rubles., Belongs to the city in 1360 dec. land (including about 500 dec. arable). Pier on the Dniester is arranged only for loading and unloading firewood sales turnover of void.

Yampolsky is located in the southern county. of Podolia Province., on the coast of p. Dniester. The greatest stretch of the county with a C in the SW (from the upper rf. Kudashovki up with. Voronkov) 100 ver., W on B (from p. Pylypiv up with. Ilyashevki) - 69 ver. At the county Yu J. p. Separated from the Dniester in Soroca. Bessarabian Province. The area of ​​the county 3179.1 square meters. ver. or 331 156 dec. In terms of relief from Ya. Russian belongs to the South Hills. County dissected by numerous rivers and deep valleys (left Prov. Dniester), ravines. In the county the measured elevation station in South-West. yellow. dor. Yaroshenko - 152.8 blacks.; Krasnovka - 151.4; Rakhno - 150.6; the fatty - 150.3; Yurkovka - 147.5; Zhuravlevka - 146.0; Vapnyarka - 146.2; Knyazhevo - 142.4; Kryzhopol - 136.2, in the middle and southern parts of the county - have to. Borovka - 127.5 blacks., At p. Petranevki - 130 blacks., At p. Mironovka - 94.5 blacks. The average slope of the surface with a C on S is 0.0112. Accordingly, the direction of the tributaries of the Dniester River, the major watersheds within the county are drawn narrow strips of C in the south county is simple geological structure. Traces of the dislocation is found, all the sedimentary rocks lie horizontally County. The oldest rocks are of red granite and hornblende gneiss, acting on the river. Dniester in the form of lower thresholds, the Yampol; on the uneven surface of crystalline rocks are Silurian sandstones (zhernoviki) and quartzites, in which the white chalk and Tertiary (Neogene) Limestones, covering an entire surface of the county, all of these rocks are exposed in the steep banks of the river and almost generally covered by thick layer of loess. The mineral wealth of the county exhausted building stones (granite, quartzite, sawing stone - limestone), zhernovikami, chalk and brick loam. The soils of the county belong almost exclusively to the typical Loess black earth, only in some places come across islands of degraded forest-steppe chernozem and clay loams. The most important river of the county Dniester flows through southern. the boundary for 100 ver. (From p. Sadkovtsev up with. Lublin), of its principal tributaries: Murafa with Murashko, Bush and Lozowy, Rusava (Rossava) with Trostyantsem and Dzygovkoy, Markovka (Shumilovka) with Yalantsem and Olyshankoy, all of these rivers are not navigable, they many ponds and water mills (147). About the climate, flora and fauna - see Podolsky lips. - The population of the county (excluding city Yampol) to 265,648 people in 1903. (131 704 mzhch. And 133,914 zhnsch.), With an average population density - 86.1 people. 1 sq. m. ver. (Population density county occupies the 8th place in the province, in space - 3rd place). The population is made up of Ukrainians, Jews, Poles and Moldovans. Nobles in 2082, the clergy 656, 832 honorary citizens, merchants, 159, 29 739 burghers, peasants, 214,572, Jewish farmers - in 1446, retired military and their families - 15,321, foreigners - 841. 212,280 Orthodox, schismatics, popovtsy - 2211, Catholics - 25 807, Lutherans - 496, Jews - 24,817, Muslims 37. In addition to 100 ver. waterway on the Dniester in H. county has 130 ver. broad-yellow. dor., 22 Ver. narrow-gauge, 32 Ver. paved roads and a lot of good ground, at a vertex. roads have 6.5 square meters. ver. space. In the county 142 328 buildings, including 6612 (or 4.6%) of stone. 48,442 dwellings, 93,706 non-residential. Most of the buildings (96%) are covered with straw. 11 hospitals with 111 beds, a prison hospital, several outpatient clinics in rural. 10 pharmacies. A rural two-classroom school, a road-zhel. School of Art. Vapnyarke. By January 1, 1903 there were 94,751 rubles of arrears. Peasant societies owned 162 469 dec. and in addition to the razverstannyh nerazverstannyh and estates owned by 125,377 farmers dec., landlords and the government owned 43 310 dec. (13% of the land). Nenadelnoy land from peasants dec 6206. 14 rural banks. 22,774 peasant households, including the taxpaying 3829, 12,238 foot soldiers, landless man. floor in 2519. On lands of peasant land is divided as follows: under 12 610 homesteads dec., Pastures, and 3500 editions, gardens and levadas 843, arable land, 111,813, 23,598 hay, forests and bushes 77, 10 025 land unsuitable dec. Cash capital had food on the face of January 1. 1903 206 816 rubles. In loans and arrears - 3181 rubles. Agriculture is the main occupation of the population. The principal crops - wheat, rye, corn, potatoes, peas and beetroot. Sown in 1902: 27,252 quarters of rye, wheat 53 401, 903 spring wheat, oats, 37,778, 20,280 of barley, buckwheat, 2518, 15 672 other spring grains, potatoes, 78,380; collected in quarters: winter rye, 211,028, 405,025 of winter wheat, spring wheat 5917, 265,873 of oats, barley, 118,981, 18,119 of buckwheat, 214,101 other spring grains, potatoes, 676 214. Grassland in the county there is little, the area of ​​grassland is 3861 dec., Including the flood in 1061 dec., Nezalivnyh 2800 dec., Forage grasses planted in 2385 dec. Hay harvested in 1902, TR 529 237. Forestry has no importance. All forest cottages, subject to oversight committee lesoohranitelnogo, 320, a total area of ​​24 318 dec., Including treasury departments of Forests 3566 dec., Forests owned by the monasteries, churches, cities and other agencies, 419 dec., Private landowners owned 20 333 dec. including forests, are not recognized by the protective, 15 568 dec. and protective, with the approved plans for the economy, 617 dec. Horticulture and gardening is very common, and deliver significant revenue to the population. Peasant gardeners listed 3391. Under the gardens (larger size) is 2248 dec., Besides the mass of small gardens. Cattle developed, but encounters difficulty in the lack of pastures and meadows. In 1902, there were horses in the county of 45,337, and the horn. of cattle 41,449 goal., simple sheep 68,103, pigs 56,509, goats 1231, 3789 fine-wool sheep. Horse plants 4. Viticulture and winemaking are underdeveloped, the main vineyards are concentrated in the valley. Dniester River, dressed in 1902 about 2800 buckets of wine. Tobacco growing significantly, but tobacco is cultivated chiefly the lower grades (as referred to. Bakun), at the cost of 2 to 5 rubles. per pood. Beekeeping is common, and in 1902 there were 4800 Stump (hives), received 965 ng of honey. Wax and 379 ng. Fishing (the Dniester) is largely irrelevant; fisheries, sericulture and handicrafts are negligible. Craftsmen in the county 4455. A small population give the earnings of shipping but the Dniester and the work on the pier. Factory and factory activity is low, the economic importance have only sugar factories. All of factory facilities 230, with an annual capacity of 4,675,926 rubles. and 3086 workers, namely: six sugar factories with production 4,122,273 rubles. and 2450 slave., 161 Water Mill (p 203 605. and 347 slave.), 9 distilleries head. (P 163 978. And 133 workers.), 8 vapor. Mills (79 155 rubles. and 41 workers.) 2 spirtoochistitelnyh plant (42 528 rubles. with 4 workers.), a head. oil-based paints (26 742 rubles. with 32 workers.), a vapor. Sawmill (22 100 rubles. with 21 workers.), a brewing head., 24 windmills, 7 dairies, 3 head of soap., 6 kruporushek, a cloth factory, 2 mead factory, a tannery, two horse-mills, 1 salotopenny Head ., 7 fragile limestone building (stone cutting), 5 millstones fragile sandstone, with an annual production of 1,000 pieces of millstones, with 100 workers, with a copy of kaolin. Palanca. Trade in H. county for the most petty character and is concentrated in the towns. In 1902 chosen different trade certificates in the amount of 30,332 rubles. The main items of trade - the bread, alcohol, wine, sugar, tobacco, wood, timber products, fish, salt, metal products. Sales of these products provided by the railroad and shipping along the Dniester. Size of trade turnover in the larger centers, in Kryzhopole - up to 4 mil. TR. different goods at the station. Vapnyarke - up to 3 mill. TR. on Art. Rakhno - up to 2 mill. TR. on Art. Yurkovke - up to 800 thousand TR., On the wharves: the MST. Yaruga to 95 thousand pounds. (Mainly corn) and in up to 28 thousand Yampol TR. (Wood).

Encyclopedic Dictionary Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary Brockhaus and Efron. Russia, St. Petersburg, 1890-1907 Yampolsky thresholds →
List of articles ESBE: Yakovlev, Vasilii Yakovlevich - Yashchenko.


  • "The Holocaust in the USSR", published in the Moscow Encyclopedia in 2009.
    Submitted by Alexander Vishnevetsky


Jampol (from September 1941 to March 1944 - Zhugastru) - small town, regional center, Vinnytsia region, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (now the Republic of the audience ¬ Ukraine). In 1939 in the village lived a Jew in 1753 (24.39% of us.), In the villages of the district - 1495 Evreux ¬ s. After the outbreak of World War II, many Jews tried to escape but had to return because of the rapid advance of German troops. Nazi occu ¬ feasting July 17, 1941. On July 22, 1941 for a week in Yampol was Sonderkommando 10a, which is shot in the village of nine Jews. July 28, 1941 ¬ HN rooms in Vinnitsa region flown 29 000 Evreux ¬ s from Bessarabia and Bukovina, which the German security police ¬ Kai (Operational Team 12) at the beginning of August 1941 deported beyond the Dniester near Yampol, while on the site were considered ¬ shoot 38 Jews.
From autumn 1941 to spring 1944 Jampol was a member of Transnistria (the administrative center management Zhugastru). In the central part of the Neu ¬ Yampol was established ghetto and transit camp. At the end of January 1942 for Yampol were 35,276 local and deported Jews. The majority of them ¬ stvo gradually resettled on Human Settlements of the county. In the ghetto there are about 600 local and 500 deported Jews. They had to wear a yellow armband on his sleeve. The Jews were engaged in forced labor in the handicrafts ¬ GOVERNMENTAL workshops and farm work. Prisoners were very crowded, and most slept on the floor. In August 1942 and August 1943 the Romanian gendarmes fired at races ¬ Yampol respectively, 41 and 17 Jews. On September 1, 1943 remained in the ghetto Jew, 504 Bukovina and Bessarabia. In February 1944, Yampol were killed 33 Jews. 76 Jews during the occupation died from torture, and torture. During the air raid on the village in March 1944 the advancing Red Army killed several Jews. Released on March 3, 1944. At the new Jewish cemetery on the mass mo ¬ Gilea victims of occupation established a concrete wall, the inscription without specifying the nationality of the victims.
Lit:. CA Wine. F. P-2988. Gn. Three. D. 81; mapping ¬ destruction of the Jews of the USSR during the German occupation (1941-1944). I., 1992, 100 Jewish settlements in Ukraine. No. Two. Podolia. St. Petersburg., 2000, The Life and Death in the era of the Holocaust: Witnesses and documents ¬ ments. T. 1. Kiev, 2008; Apsel Jeap. Transnistria, 1941-1942. The Romanian Mass MurderCampaigns. Vol.1. History and documents Summaries. Tel Aviv, 2003.




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