Tetiever Khurbn

Edited by A. D. Rozental

(commissioned by the Odessa Region Committee of Idgezkom)
Published by the American Representatives
of the
All Russian Jewish Social Committee (Idgezkom)

New York, 1922

Translated by Dr. Ida Cohen Selavan
Cincinnati, Ohio

Permission given by: Jacki M. Zaslow



Of the 124 cities and towns in the province of Kiev in which Jews had lived before the war, 85-90 towns have been completely destroyed. In the countless villages where Jews had lived, almost the entire Jewish population has been wiped out. Of the half million Jews who had lived in the province of Kiev, 200,000, that is, two fifths of them, have been almost completely exterminated. Three fourths were killed by the Petliuras, Denikins, etc., and by hunger and various diseases. The tiny remanent, who had been spared death at home, had to take the wanderer's staff in hand and wander from town to town, hungry, naked, barefoot, and then laid to rest in the cemeteries of the larger towns. This, in brief, is the story of the Ukrainian Jews in general, and of the Jews in the province of Kiev in particular, in the recent past.

Tetiev suffered more than any other town in the province of Kiev, the slaughter was gruesome. Of the fourteen hundred Jewish families who lived there, 3/4 were completely wiped out. From there the fire spread out and ignited the surrounding cities and towns and many of them were completely destroyed.

We present here the facts, episodes, experiences and the story of the Tetiev self defense organizations (Zelbshuts) as well as the list of 704 murdered people, which we were able to derive from the homeless refugees of Tetiev now in Odessa.

Tetiev, Province of Kiev
Tarashcha Uyezd {District}



Part One: Tetiev Self Defense (Zelbshuts) and Tetiev Massacre

1. Founding of the Zelbshuts
2. Shmarkatiuk's Band. The Victory of the Zelbshuts
3. The Battle with Sakar's Band
4. Coming to Terms With The Bandits
5. The Red Army Imposes Order
6. The Battle with Zeleny's Band
7. Zeleny's Revenge
8. Sokolov's Band
9. The Pole Sakhnovski's Band Imposes "Order
10. Sokolov's Band and a Deputation of the Russian Intelligentsia
11. Petliura's Band. Denikin's Band
12. The Local Hooligans Protect the Town
13. Tiutiunik's Band
14. The Tetiev Commandant Denitshenko Settles Accounts with the Bandits
15. The Bandits Attack the Commissariat
16. The Massacre
17. The Destruction of Tetiev

Part Two: Survivors' Experiences

1. Told by Hirsh Shpitalnik, musician, 46 years old
2. Told by Mosbeh Gulka, Storekeeper, 63 years old
3. How my husband and children were murdered. Told by Havah Gurevitsh
4. Told by Esther Rudi Pikes, 42 years old
5. Abandoned Children. Yerahmiel Grinberg's children, as told by Shemuel Gusovski
6. The child Natan Kris, as told by Avraham Turi


Part One: Tetiev Self Defense (Zelbshuts) and Tetiev Massacre

1. Founding of the Zelbshuts

There were about fourteen hundred Jewish families in Tetiev. Life flowed along smoothly, as it did in the other towns of Ukraine. Most people were storekeepers, a smaller number were merchants, many were artisans, porters, and so on. The town had never had any very wealthy men. Jews bought and sold and made their meager livings. At the beginning of the war, when profiteering became the rage, the Jews of Tetiev also ventured into speculations, with greater or lesser success. Until the end of 1918 life flowed along quietly, there were no pogroms or attacks by bandits. Only at the end of 1918, with the fall of the Hetmanate, when the Directory with Petliura at its head took over, Jew hatred began to spread over Tarashcha Uyezd, in which Tetiev is found. News came that a band of peasants was heading towards the town.

The news aroused the town from its speculation stupor and people began to look for ways to defend themselves. A general meeting was called and it was decided to found a Zelbshuts (self defense organizations). Seventy-five men enlisted immediately. A large sum of money was collected, and arms were purchased from the gentile populations. In general there was no antagonism between the Jews and gentiles and the gentiles were very friendly to the Jewish Zelbshuts and gave it moral support.

The leader of the Zelbshuts was Hirsh Turi, thirty years old, a very successful merchant, who had served in he army and had received three decorations for his conduct during the war.

2. Shmarkatiuk's Band. The Victory of the Zelbshuts

On December 6, Hanukkah eve, a band of men appeared at the outskirts of town under the leadership of the former Russian officer Shmarkatiuk, a native of Tetiev, with his assistant, a peasant from the village of Tsherepinove. The band consisted of peasants from the nearby villages, Kaspirovke, Skubinits, and others. They were all on horseback. On the following day, at eight in the morning, a vanguard of six horsemen came into town. The Zelbshuts captured them and placed them under arrest. They did not treat them harshly, nor did they tease or torture them.

At three in the afternoon, a group of 21 bandits rode into town. Gunfire broke out between them and the Zelbshuts near the church. Two bandits were wounded, and they later died of their injuries. One of the Zelbshuts, the blacksmith Hayim Mogilievski, grabbed one of the bandits, took three revolvers from him, and started to beat him. Another bandit shot and wounded Hayim's father, Yosef, 84 years old. Hayim released the man he was beating and ran to his father's aid. Two of Hayim's comrades killed the bandit with their rifle butts. The Zelbshuts took 6 horses. When the bandits saw that they were under attack, they fled. Their leader, former officer Shmarkatiuk, was captured by the Zelbshuts.

He was jailed for eight days until a military unit came from Tarashcha, headed by Burtshok, a former teacher from the school in Birkivits (a village near Tetiev) who looked over Shmarkatiuk's papers and released him.

During the investigation, the local peasants participated and asked them: Who are you? Why have you come here? Burtshok had influence in Tarashcha and the Zelbshuts was given official recognition and allowed to carry arms.

The Zelbshuts along with 15 local peasants served as the city militia. They were supported by monthly payments from the wealthier people in town, as well as merchants who had to send merchandise and food out of town to be sold elsewhere. The wealthier members of the Zelbshuts who had resources received 100 rubles monthly, while those who had no other resources received 1500 rubles a month.

3. The Battle with Sakar's Band

From January 1919, until the beginning of May (Lag Ba-Omer eve) all was quiet. On Lag Ba-Omer eve, 1919, a suspicious character came to town. He was a middle aged peasant who came with a wagon and horses. There were rumors that the area was full of bandits. On the next day, Thursday morning, two suspicious gentiles showed up. All there were captured by the Zelbshuts and they were forced to tell who had sent them. They admitted that there was a band behind Dembina, a farm not far from town, a large band with thirty rifles and much ammunition. The three spies were taken to Skvira, where there was a detachment of the Red Army. The commander in Skvira at that time was Puzirov.

There were about 40 members of the Red Army in Tetiev under the command of Fishkov, a former teacher from the village Rasashke. The Ataman of the band, which was planning to attack Tetiev, was Sakar of Belaya Tserkov.

The Zelbshuts gathered and decided to act against the bandits. A group was sent eight viorst (almost 6 miles) from town to spy out and report. They consisted of: Finkelshteyn, 31 years old, Hayim Mogilievski, 38 (smith), Leyb Yanovski, 33 (smith), Gedalyah Litvak, 34 (smith).

They were armed with rifles and revolvers. Behind them were a group of 15 members of the Zelbshuts. Aside from this the entire town was encircled by a chain of Zelbshuts members. On Friday, gunfire broke out. It lasted until midnight. The result was that a few bandits were killed and the Zelbshuts used up most of their ammunition. On Saturday afternoon, two horsemen with a white flag came from the bandits and declared that they wanted to make peace and asked for a delegation from town to discuss peace terms. The representative of town demanded that one of the horsemen should remain there as hostage, then they would send a delegation. The horsemen agreed, and the town sent Hirshl Turi, the leader of the Zelbshuts, to hear the condition which the bandits would present. He was escorted by one horseman.

He found them encamped three viorst (2 miles) from town. The Ataman Sakar demanded 20,000 rubles, 10 pairs of boots, three pud of bread, one pud (6.7 lbs.) or barley and one third of the arms which the Zelbshuts had. The town agreed on all points except for giving up arms. Once more a battle broke out. The Zelbshuts was supported by the Red Army garrison under Commander Fiskhkov. The Red Army unit took a position in the center and the Zelbshuts took the flanks. The right flank, with Turi at its head, captured the bridge, and the left flank, with Avraham Finkelshteyn at its head, occupied the other side of town up to the bathhouse.

The result of the battle was: Four bandits were killed and some were wounded. Some of the Red Army units were wounded. When the bandits saw that they would not penetrate the town, they began to infiltrate through the gardens to the center. The first flank, along with the Red Army unit, retreated towards Skvira. Finkelshteyn, on the left flank, did not know that the right flank and the center had retreated and he did not halt the battle. Meanwhile, about 50 armed men streamed into town. Along with them came peasants, youngsters, old men, and women who carried axes, shovels, scythes, clubs, and so on. Finkelshteyn saw that the center and the right flank had left the battlefield. Representatives of the bandits came forward and demanded that the Zelbshuts give up its arms, and Finkelshteyn gave them up.

Some men broke their rifles before they surrendered them, others ran away and succeeded in hiding their arms. Only two members of the Zelbshuts, Leybush, the son of the hatter, and Hasi from the bathhouse did not notice that the battle was over, and they continued shooting. Near them were four boys, aged 14 to 17, who helped them. The bandits attacked these six and killed them, with great cruelty, stripped the corpses, and mutilated the bodies. This happened Saturday night, May 3, 1919.

4. Coming to Terms With The Bandits

Finkelshteyn and the other members of the Zelbshuts who were captured by the bandits were sent back to town with an escort in order to call a mass meeting of the Jewish population. All of the men, except for the few who had remained hidden, gathered in the synagogue. The Ataman Sakar and his entourage came to the meeting. He ascended the bimah and said: You Zhids should know that you are strangers here, and yet you want to rule over us! No, we will never allow this to happen. You deserve to die, all of you, but I will be magnanimous and let you live, if you obey these demands:

1) You hand over to us four people from the Zelbshuts so that we can avenge ourselves for the four men whose blood you spilled;
2) You surrender to us all of your weapons;
3) In addition, you give the partisans clothing, underwear, boots and tobacco.

While he spoke, he fired in the air a few times. The Jews stood with bent heads, trembling knees, and waited for death. The representatives of the community responded:

The number of Jewish victims is far greater than four. There are no weapons left, for they had already taken all of the weapons from the Zelbshuts. However, they would try and arrange to give them all the other things they requested.

The Jews collected 20,000 rubles which were given to Sakar. Sakar took the money and left with the entourage, but left some men guarding the synagogue to prevent anyone from leaving. These guards began searching the Jews' pockets, taking money, and tormenting them. Those bandits who were on the outside, along with the gentile population of the town, started rampaging through the Jewish stores and houses, looting them. All of this happened Saturday night. One of the Jews, Zalman Kris, managed to escape from the synagogue. When he saw the destruction wreaked by the bandits and the local peasants, he returned to the synagogue and reported what he had seen. The Jewish women came running and the men left the synagogue, came into town, and started collecting the dead bodies and bringing them to the synagogue. The guards left by the Ataman had disappeared. They were busy looting the stores and houses. The local peasants also came to the synagogue and made a show of pity, asking, "Why did you have to oppose them?"

Sunday morning the dead members of the Zelbshuts were buried. The whole town escorted them to their eternal rest. Even before the funeral was over, the bandits once more rode into town. The representatives collected 60,000 rubles and it gave the money to the bandits, whereupon they left.

5. The Red Army Imposes Order

There was no one in charge in town. The hooligans broke into peoples' homes at night, robbed and pillaged. The Jews lay hidden in their "mouseholes," in attics, cellars, and secret hiding places, heard the sounds of robberies, but were afraid to show themselves.

This raid lasted until Thursday, May 14. On that day, the Zelbshuts and the Red Army unit under Commander Fishkov returned from Skvira. They were accompanied by a detachment from the Skvira garrison. The Jews crept out of their hiding places.

Members of "Kombed" (Committee of the Poor) with chairman Yashi Bikov, came out of their hiding places and presented a list of the local peasants who had participated in the robberies. Commander Fishkov was accused of treason, because he was a brother-in-law of Shmarkatiuk, but he defended himself and was exonerated.

Among those accused was the local deacon. The deacon's father-in-law, Markov, the teacher of the Slabode school, pleaded with the Jews of Tetiev to let the deacon go free, and he promised that he and his son-in-law, the deacon, would always stand by the Jews in their need and would not allow any pogrom to occur. The Jews, who were afraid that after the Red Army unit would leave the deacon's family would avenge themselves, tried hard to defend him and to claim that he had nothing to do with the pogrom. After much effort the deacon was released. Yashi Bikov, the chairman of the Kombed, had personal grievances against the representative of the Jewish community, Dizik, and charged him with being a counterrevolutionary.

The Skvira garrison unit took four of the accused peasants, along with Dizik, and executed them near the church. The whole town mourned Dizik, for he had been very popular and had worked hard for the community and had done many good deeds.

6. The Battle with Zeleny's Band

In July 1919 a band of partisans from the village of Tilizshinets came and stopped in front of the headquarters. The town sent a delegation consisting of Hirsh Turi and Gavriel Tsheskis.

They came to an agreement with the bandits, giving them money, underwear, and tobacco and they left the town. The leader of the Zelbshuts, Hirsh Turi, escorted them for seven viorst, up to the village of Bunayavke. The town realized how important the Zelbshuts was and that the only reason they were saved from plunder by the Tilizshaners was the presence of the Zelbshuts. A general meeting was called and new members joined the Zelbshuts. They bought arms. A detachment was assigned to guard duty at night, to prevent surprise attacks. Indeed, there were pogroms and murders in all of the small towns around Tetiev, but in Tetiev it was calm. But this did not last long.

On the tenth of Av, on a Friday, word came that Zeleny was in Denikhovke and was planning to attack Tetiev. He came from Zshashkov where he had conducted a great massacre. On Saturday evening a few bandits broke into town and robbed the houses at the edge of town. The Zelbshuts met in the kloys [small synagogue] and decided that they would fight. The Zelbshuts immediately advanced towards the bandits. Shooting broke out. Two bandits were killed and six of their horses were captured. The fighting lasted from 10 PM until 2 AM. The bandits fled. Weary from battle, the Zelbshuts posted watch and went home to sleep.

Very early in the morning, at 6 AM, Zeleny came with a large band of partisans and stopped on the hill behind the town. They began shooting. The Zelbshuts was mobilized and responded, but there were many more partisans and they succeeded in surrounding the town. Turi, the leader, saw that the situation was bad, so he got his men together and broke through the encirclement and came out on Zshivotov road. In the process they killed some of the bandits.

7. Zeleny's Revenge

The bandits burst into town, thirsting for revenge. They killed whomever they met: Old, young, women and children. They tormented [raped] many women. They broke into homes and stores, looted, and broke what they could not take away. Then they started searching for Jews and took those they found to the synagogue. They brought benzine along as well. They set up machine guns opposite the synagogue and wanted to burn it down with the Jews in it. However, the local intelligentsia, along with the notary, Vasiliy Lukitsh Liantiuk, pleaded for the lives of the Jews and the Ataman finally agreed to spare the Jews in return for clothing and 200,000 rubles in cash. Since the Jews had no money, the local peasants borrowed the money from the Central Bank. The Jews were allowed out of the synagogue, but as they left, the bandits killed many of them.

Their cries and the screams of the women reached the Zelbshuts on the Zshivotov road, some viorsts from town. Turi, the leader, addressed his people: "Comrades, we are to blame for the death of our brothers and we have to return to town."

All of the members of the Zelbshuts opposed him. They argued that they would not be able to help the remaining Jews and they would be killed along with them.

"If you do not wish to return," Turi said, "I shall return alone. I shall say that I am the leader of the Zelbshutz, that I organized it and, that I am to blame for the opposition. Let them kill me, but let them have mercy on the innocent people who did not participate in the Zelbshuts."

His comrades tried to stop him, but could not. He returned to town. When he came near the house of Tanhum the wagoner, a peasant recognized him and told the bandits that the leader of the Zelbshuts was back in town. The bandits circled him and began to shoot at him. He defended himself and succeeded in killing five bandits, but he was badly wounded. The blood poured out of him, but he managed to reach Tanhum's house, where he lay down on a bed and died.

That is how the hero of Tetiev, Hirsh Turi, died.

[Photo of Turi on facing page]

8. Sokolov's Band

Zeleny's band finished its "work" and left. A few hours later Ataman Sokolov arrived with his band. The killing began anew. Sokolov came in around 3 PM. The bandits spread all over town, killed everyone they found, raped the women, robbed what was left from the previous raids, and laid the town waste.

One of the bandits came into a house where some women were hiding, among them Nehamah Turi, Hirsh Turi's sister-in-law. The bandit said ironically: "Gut Shabbes! Are you having a happy Sabbath today? This is happening to you because you opposed us." Seeing gold earrings on Nehamah Turi's ears, he wanted to tear them off, along with her ears, but she was able to remove them and hand them over.

The bandits rampaged until 8 PM. The number of those killed by the two bands were three hundred, with many more wounded.

Sunday morning the Jews crawled out of their hiding places, gathered the corpses which lay in the streets, in the houses, and on the fields, and carried them to the synagogue. The widows and orphans and the other Jews gathered there as well and their cries filled the air.

The local peasants came and looked at the corpses, shook their heads, and said, "Why did you have to oppose them?"

Suddenly there was a rumor that the bandits were returning. The Jews left the dead bodies behind and began to flee. Each person sought a hiding place, but after a few hours, when all was still, the relatives of the dead crept out and began organizing the burial of their dear ones. The wounded were carried into the synagogue, which became a hospital. The young people became nurses and walked among the wounded, many of whom had limbs cut off. Many of the wounded died.

9. The Pole Sakhnovski's Band Imposes "Order"

On Tuesday a group of partisans from the village Kashpirovke came in, under the leadership of a Pole, Sakhnovski, who had been employed in a sugar factory. He announced that the Jews could come out of hiding without fear, for Petliura had chased away the Bolsheviks. Now everything would be in order. He announced that the Jews could go about their business and no one would bother them. Naturally the Jews had little faith in his promise and they did not rush to come out of hiding. They showed themselves only when driven by need.

10. Sokolov's Band and a Deputation of the Russian Intelligentsia

A few days before Rosh Hashanah, on a Wednesday, there was a rumor that Sokolov was in the village of Pogrebi, about 16 viorst from town, and had called upon the residents of nearby villages to arm themselves and attack Tetiev. The Jews sent someone to find out if it were true. The peasant whom they sent returned and confirmed the rumor.

The entire town, except for those too sick to go such a long way and those who did not want to leave their possessions behind, fled to Piatygory, about 20 viorst distance. On Saturday, a group of bandits came into town and began to rob the houses and stores. Early on Sunday Sokolov came with his whole band. The Christian intelligentsia sent a deputation to ask that he should not harm the town, for it had suffered enough and had enough victims. Sokolov promised them that he would order that no one should be killed. The Jews should stay at home and not go out in the streets. He asked for a "contribution." The few remaining Jews collected as much as they could and borrowed the rest from the Christians. Sokolov watched his men so that they should not go into the houses. However, the bandits managed to break into the empty houses which had been locked up, and to loot them. They killed those Jews they encountered in the fields and on the roads.

The Jews returned to town Rosh Hashanah eve. There was no authority in town. The local hooligans took everything that was left. Fear of death was over all and the passage from Scripture came true: " In the morning you will say when will evening come and in the evening when will day break, and you will fear a falling leaf." [Deuteronomy 28,67]. This was the situation until Sukkot.

11. Petliura's Band. Denikin's Band.

On Sukkot, 1919, some of Petliura's men from the village of Nenarare came, Tshaikovski and Sliepanski, with their militia, and took over the authority. They demanded contributions of money and provisions from the Jews and quarters in Jewish homes. However they did not rob and did not disturb the peace. They also began drafting Jewish men into their militia.

This lasted a few months. In November of 1919 the Denikins appeared not far from Tetiev and the Petliuras retreated. On Tuesday a detachment of Denikins came and demanded 2 million rubles to be given within an hour, as well as many pairs of boots.

Meanwhile they spread all over town, looted the houses and stores, raped women, and beat everyone they found.

They were given some money. At night they took 15 horses left behind by the Petliuras, and left. On Wednesday another detachment of Denikins came from Zshivatov and again demanded a contribution and again robbed the town. Two days later another group of Denikins came and again they demanded a contribution of money and clothing. They murdered Yehoshua Melamed and wounded some people. After that there was an entire week of quiet. On the Sunday of the second week a fresh group of Denikins came. They stopped at the home of Beril Baltag near the outskirts of town, and took some sacks of sugar from him. Then they sent for Yisrael Tsheskis and other representatives of the congregation. They demanded money. When they were told that the town had been robbed and that every detachment demanded contributions and that there was no more money, they beat the men severely. The Jews had to empty their pockets. They collected whatever they could and gave it to the bandits, who then left town.

12. The Local Hooligans Protect the Town

At that time a group of local hooligans organized themselves, led by Balakhovski, who had himself set fire to a row of stores. They proposed to the Jews that they protect the town, and asked for a nice sum of money in return. The Jews, who knew these newly hatched "guardians" quite well, also knew how much they could trust these "loyal guardians" and that this was simply a way to extort money, but were afraid to refuse them, and so they agreed to the conditions and gave them monthly wages.

Naturally when a band of bandits would enter the town, the guardians would disappear, and when the band left, they would suddenly show themselves and begin to rob. The Jewish residents suffered more from the guardians than they did from the bandits.

Every night there was shooting and they terrorized the town. As soon as night fell the Jews would go to their hiding places. No one could sleep at home in his own bed. Many Jews came to agreements with local gentiles to hide their families. The town did not have one quiet day. If there were no roving bands, then the local hooligans came to rob, and to add insult to injury, they were being paid wages.

At the beginning of December 1919, a group of Makhnovtses came in. The leader called in the representatives of the town and demanded a contribution. They robbed, raped the women, and murdered Mordekhai Bikov, a glazier, and wounded a number of people. They rampaged for one night and left.

In December 1919, a detachment of Denikins came through from Belaya Tserkov. Among them was Count Lvov. They sent for the representatives of town and demanded contributions, but before the deadline for collecting the money was past, the soldiers had spread through town and started robbing. They also incited the local peasants to help them. This happened on Thursday. They were paid what they had demanded, but this did not halt the pogrom. They had decided to lay the town waste. They warned the gentiles who lived near the Jews to leave their homes, lest they suffer alongside the Jews.

It is impossible to describe the cruelty with which the Denikins tortured the Jews to make them reveal the hiding places of their gold and silver and other valuables. They would hang people up until they were almost dead, then take them down, revive them, and hang them again. Some people escaped with their lives, after handing over all they owned. Others were tortured to death, even after they had given up their possessions. What the Denikins did not rob they broke into bits so that nothing should remain whole. The ordinary soldiers were not as wild as the officers. They incited the local population to take revenge on the Jews.

In the house of Boymgarten (a Christian) the head of the Invalid Cooperative, a number of officers met. In response to the question, "Why are you so cruel to the Jews?" they said, "What we are doing to the Jews is not enough. They deserve much more!"

The pogrom lasted until Friday night. On Friday they set fire to the stores of the butchers, two rows of stores, about 40 in number, then they burned down the flour stores, groceries, about 100 stores, and 20 houses, wrecked some factories and homes, and took much merchandise, killed more than twenty Jews, wounded over 100, and raped many women. Saturday morning the bandits left town. The Jews crawled out of their holes. The destruction was dreadful. Soon there were epidemics. In every approaching gentile the Jews suspected a lurking bandit, and they crawled back into their mouseholes. Only shadows, not people remained, and Balakhovski was their guardian.

His followers would break into Jewish homes every night, fire their rifles and take whatever was left, and make a tumult, as if they were fighting bandits, so they would get their wages as "guardians."

13. Tiutiunik's Band

A few days later Tiutiunik came into Tetiev with his band. The representatives of the town sent a delegation to him. Tiutiunik said to them: "Tell your Jews to be calm, we will not harm them. I have joined the Government forces and will defend your interests."

The Jews quartered Tiutiunik's men in their homes, gave them food and drink, and all was quiet in the town. When the soldiers bought goods from the Jews and wanted to pay with Galician currency, and the Jews refused, he commanded them to pay with sugar. Tiutiunik also punished a drunken soldier who had yelled in the street: "Zhid Communist!" They spent about a week in town.

14. The Tetiev Commandant Denitshenko Settles Accounts with the Bandits

Once more the town was left without an authority, and the hooligans rampaged through the town. This happened in 1920. Then news arrived that the Soviet Union was chasing out the Denikins and was once more taking over in Ukraine. In January the sailor Denitshenko, born in Skibinets, came with a detachment of partisans from the Soviets and they established themselves in town. Tshaikovsky, a former Petliurnik, was made commissar of the militia. Denitshenko was a very energetic man. He assembled the Jews and told them not to fear the bandits. He would pursue them until he had wiped them out.

On their part, the bandits sought for ways to avenge themselves on Denitshenko. One night, when Zshukov, a former railroad official came to Tetiev, sent by the Prodkomgov [Commissariat of Products], and sat in the Commissariat with Denitshenko and some other guests, the bandits attacked and killed Zshukov. Then they escaped. Denitshenko was even more eager to destroy the bandits, and for a while the town was quiet.

15. The Bandits Attack the Commissariat

It was the beginning of the month of Nissan. The snow was melting in the fields. The spring sun was showing itself in the heavens. The peasants started plowing their fields, and the bandits also started their "work". There were frequent attacks on travelers in Tarashcha Uyezd. Motl Landoy and his brother were killed on their way to sell soap in Pogrebishtshe. They were killed and their merchandise was taken.

In Pogrebishtshe itself, 17 viorst from Tetiev, bandits severely wounded a Jew from Tetiev. He was carried home and he died a day later.

The Jews understood what was happening. They remembered the pogroms of the recent past and they were terrorized. The wealthier Jews began to leave. When Commandant Denitshenko learned of the fear that pervaded Tetiev, he called the Jews together, and told them that as long as he was there, they had nothing to fear. But on their part, the Jews would have to support the authorities. He suggested that they once more form a Zelbshuts.

The Jews, who remembered the victims of their previous Zelbshuts, rejected the idea, but promised to support the authorities with money. The prevailing fear did not diminish, and more and more Jews left the town. On Tuesday, the fifth of Nissan, at 11 PM, there was the sound of shooting from rifles and cannons. A group of local bandits, about 30-40 men, under the leadership of the Tetiev resident Ostrovski (of Jewish origin), who owned a cheap restaurant, attacked the Commissariat. One of them threw a bomb into the building, planning to kill the Commissar, but the bomb rebounded and burned out the eyes of the man who had thrown it. He was caught and bound. There were only 20 soldiers in the Commissariat. The local Commissar, Tshaikovski, did not extend any assistance to the commandant. But the commandant did not lose control. In order to see how to direct his return fire, for the bandits were shooting from all directions, he ordered a store to be set on fire. The battle lasted all night and the bandits finally withdrew.

16. The Massacre

During the night, Commissar Burmas of Kashpirovke (7 viorst from town) was killed. He had come to Tetiev for orders. Denitshenko organized a ceremonial funeral, with music, for him, But the procession was disrupted. The Commissar decided to leave the town. He started out on the road to Piatygory. There he was attacked by bandits. From there he went to Slobode near town, but there, too, he was attacked. The Red Army detachment, which was with him, joined the bandits. The Commissar was left with one soldier and an automatic weapon. They succeeded in escaping to Tarascha.

The horrible massacre began. First the bandits came to the Ukrainian Cooperative Store, and immediately murdered all the Jews they found there. Binyamin Shnayder, or as he was called, "The Odessa tailor", approached a bandit he knew and stretched out his hand. The bandit responded with his bayonet, which pierced Binyamin's heart. Then the bandits scattered over town, looking for Jews in their hiding places, pulling them down from the attics and murdering them with great cruelty. They did not spare children, women, or old people. This happened on Wednesday during the daytime. At night they went to the Bet Hamidrash where about 1500 Jewish men, women, and children hiding in the attic. The entrance to the attic was hidden. The bandits brought wood and straw lit them. The smoke went up to the attic. The Jews there saw that they would be asphyxiated, so they sent a deputation of three men to the bandits. They asked that the bandits let them live in exchange for all their possessions.

But the bandits were thirsty for blood...

They killed the three men, among whom Rabbi Shimon Rabinovitsh, Yosl Kalikhes, and another man. Meanwhile the fire had completely enveloped the Bet Hamidrash, many were burned alive, many were asphyxiated. Some tried to escape through the windows, but were immediately murdered by the bandits. Only a small number were saved.

Thursday morning, masses of peasants came for the market day, and they helped the bandits burn down the houses, kill whoever was left, and they loaded their wagons with Jewish goods. The local peasants did not sit by idly, they also killed Jews who had come to an agreement with them to hide their families. That is how the sailor Roga murdered his partner Shual'ke Perlshteyn with his wife and two children, who were hidden in his home. This happened in many other peasants' homes.

The peasants who did not murder the Jews hiding in their homes, handed them over to the bandits who then killed them. The killing and the burning lasted until Thursday night. Almost the entire town was burned down. The local peasants looked on indifferently at what was happening. But when the bandits started burning down Tsiprevi street, near the peasant neighborhood and Yakov Yosi Turi's house was set on fire, and the fire ignited Mordekhai Glezer's house, they were afraid, that the fire would spread to their homes so they began put out the fire in Glezer's house.

Friday morning all was still. The bandits had drunk their fill of blood, they found the small remnant of surviving Jews and told them that there would be a new authority in town. They ordered them to collect the dead bodies. The few survivors crept out of their holes, and saw the destruction. Only a few houses were left standing among the ruins and the mounds of bricks, stones, and ashes. Here and there the fires were still smoldering and brands were smoking. Among the ruins lay dead bodies, burned and mutilated.

The Jews started collecting the dead bodies but the bandits, who celebrated their victory by getting drunk, could not forego the opportunity shooting at them, while laughing with devilish glee. Thus some of the survivors were murdered as well. That is how Kranski's wife, Aharon Shvarts's wife and others were killed. Boymgarten, a former manager of the Ukrainian cooperative, said to Yaakov Yosi Turi:

"Now you are busy with your dead, but when it's your turn and you are dead, who will take care of your corpses?"

The Jews left the dead bodies and ran once more to hide in their hiding places. They lay the until Sunday morning, hungry, thirsty, and cold.

17. The Destruction of Tetiev

On Sunday morning, the Jews saw through the cracks in their roofs that some of the houses in the village were burning. This was the reason: The representative of the Kombed [Committee for the Poor] Finkelshteyn escaped to Pogrebishtshe when the massacre began. There he found a military unit with Commandant Rimski at its head. Rimski and his soldiers came to Tetiev Sunday morning and set some houses on fire in the village.

Finkelshteyn and his friend, Mosheh the son of the hunchback, came along, to arrest the peasant a bandit leader. The hunchback's son decided to take some of the booty found in Isak's room. Meanwhile Isak escaped and informed his comrades of what was happening. The peasants got together and sent off a delegation of eight men to Commandant Rimski. Rimski ordered them killed. The peasants attacked the Red Army unit and started shooting at them. Finkelshteyn and Rimski saw that they would not be able to hold out for long, so they called to the Jews in hiding to run away as quickly as possible. Jews fled just as the battle between the soldiers and the peasants began, and some of them were shot by the bandits. The sexton of the church went up into the bell tower to ring the bells but a soldier's bullet killed him. Meanwhile masses of peasants arrived. The Red Army unit could not hold out against them and had to retreat.

Very few of those who fled survived. Many were killed by the bandits, some died from fear, fell in the mud, hungry and weak and died from exhaustion. This is how the daughter of Leyb Novopaplovski died on the road. Mothers abandoned their children and ran in every direction. The children expired from hunger and cold. Aharon Kroyman and his wife were killed by the bandits. When the confusion began, their six year old son ran away and lay under an overhang. He cried and pleaded, but no one paid any attention. He continued crying until he died.

Sunday afternoon Commandant Denitshenko returned with a military unit from Tarashcha, but he had to retreat. The bandits returned to town, destroyed the remaining houses, and killed the few Jews who had not been able to escape. Those who were able to escape fled to Pogrebishtshe and from there they scattered to Belaya Tserkov, Kiev, and Odessa.

Of the seven thousand Jews who had lived in Tetiev, only two thousand remained alive. Five thousand died at the hands of the bandits—killed or burned alive. The town was completely destroyed.

Part Two: Survivors' Experiences

1. Told by Hersh Shpitalnik, musician, 46 years old.

The Christian population was extremely upset with the Tetiev Commandant Denitshenko because he had pursued the bandits so vigorously and had killed many of them. The relatives of those killed organized themselves and were joined by the other Christians and decided to revenge themselves on the "Commandant of the Zhids" as they called him. On Tuesday, the fifth day of Nissan, 1920, they attacked the Commissariat, planning to kill the Commandant. Instead they killed the Commissar of Kashpirovke, Burmas, who had come to Tetiev that day. A bandit named Ostrovski (of Jewish descent) who owned a cheap restaurant, threw a grenade into the Commissariat, but the grenade rebounded and burned his eyes out.

Denitshenko and his few soldiers succeeded in driving the bandits back. Wednesday morning Denitshenko arranged Burmas' funeral with a musical procession. The local bandits reorganized. As the procession crossed the bridge, they attacked. A battle began, with shooting, and the militia went over to the bandits' side. Commandant Denitshenko managed to escape on horseback.

The bandits returned to town and began to avenge themselves on the Jews. A great massacre began. They burned down many houses with the inhabitants within. Those Jews who were able to run away were killed on the roads. Those who sought refuge with local Christians were killed by them.

I and my family lay hidden on Wednesday until midnight. We heard the screams and cries and the wailing from the neighboring houses and waited for an attack by the bandits at any moment. At night we decided to flee. We ran to a local peasant, Maksim Lambutski, but he refused to let us in. Then we went to the Parkhun River. On the way we were shot at, but were not hit. We lay on the riverbank until Thursday morning. Then we returned to Yanitski's hamlet, about 2 viorst from the village.

We walked in the water, because we were afraid of bandits on the road. It was very cold and we were in the water up to our necks. We finally reached the hamlet, with much difficulty. Yanitski received us cordially. He told us to take our wet clothing off to be dried, but there was something suspicious about him. There was too much whispering with his wife, and then he said out loud, "Annu, go into town and see what is going on."

We were afraid to remain there and we left. On the way we were met by the bandit Kondrat Firdun with another two bandits. I was carrying a four year old child. I hid, with the child, in a ditch. My wife and the other children ran into the field and hid there. The bandits did not see me, but they found my wife and children. They wanted to kill them, but my wife was able to beg for their lives. The bandits took their coats and my wife's shawl and her money, but did not kill them. I came out of my hiding place, and carrying my child, went to look for my wife and children. I found them and they told me what had happened. We continued walking to the village of Zvenyatshe, a 6 viorst distance. On the way we were met by Yanitski's son with two other bandits. They threatened to kill us. Yanitski's son shot at us but did not hit us. It seemed that he ran out of bullets. The bandits took my shoes and galoshes, and my money and left.

We continued on our way. In Zvenyatshe the peasants did not want to let us in. We turned back. On the way we came across a deserted watchman's hut, and we hid there, hungry and frozen, until midnight.

Late at night we started walking to Pogrebishtshe, 31 viorst away. We stumbled through the fields all day long. Completely exhausted we arrived in Pogrebishtshe. There we found a Jewish Committee that supplied us with food and shelter. From there we continued on to Odessa.

2. Told by Mosheh Gulka, Storekeeper, 63 years old.

On Wednesday, the fifth of Nissan, when the bandits broke into Tetiev, I was out in the street. I ran home immediately. I left the house standing open and went up to the yard of the warehouse, which had a hidden door. In the warehouse were about 100 men, women, and children hiding. They were afraid that the cries of the children would reveal the secret hiding place so the women and children went up to the attic, and took along money from their husbands, so that they might be able to ransom themselves from the bandits.

Wednesday and Thursday passed quietly. We looked out of the cracks of the warehouse and saw the horrible happenings in town, how bandits, mostly young gentiles, hacked Jews to death in the street, killing everyone they found with great cruelty. We saw a bandit chasing Shelomoh Stolier, catching up to him, and chopping off his head. One bandit caught the son of Yoel the butcher, Eliezer, 18 years old. The boy promised him money and the bandit followed him home. Later he was found dead in his house.

On Thursday night I heard someone moaning near the warehouse. I went out and found Peysi the butcher's son, a 16 year old boy, badly wounded, with the blood pouring out of him. He asked for a drink. We carried him up to the attic, laid him down, and bandaged him and gave him a drink and something to eat. Friday morning the bandits went up to the attic. The leader was Lulke, a local gentile, about 24 years old, who had served in the army. The women began to cry and scream and when Lulke saw that the wounded boy was still alive he shot him. Afterwards he demanded money from the women. The women gave him all their money and he let them alone.

When the bandits came down, and walked by the warehouse, they heard someone coughing. Since the door was hidden, they wanted to break down the walls, but we called out to them that we would come out.

"Nu crawl out!" Lulke called to us in Yiddish. We came out of the warehouse. They took all our money. They took my two sons who were in the Red Army, and separated them from the rest of us. Lulke said to them: "I am going to shoot you because you are Bolsheviks." But my sons had hidden away some rubles. They gave the money to him and begged him not to kill them. Then Lulke said to us: "If you do not want to be killed, go collect your dead and bury them." The young people went looking for another hiding place, but we older folk went to look for dead bodies. We took ladders in place of stretchers, and set out on our task.

First we went into Aharon Putser's house. He was badly wounded. There were more than twenty dead in his house. One woman sat on a stool with her head resting on the table. Two little boys, eight or nine years old, were still gasping, their mouths opening and closing like those of fish out of water. We poured drops of water into their mouths, but they could not swallow. Since the dead were in a house, we continued on our way. We approached the synagogues. In Tetiev the big shul, the bet hamidrash, and the kloyz, were next to each other. The area near the synagogues was full of dead bodies which others had brought there.

I and a few other men went to the bridge near the water-mill because we were told that there were many dead there. We came to the river and found it full of children, little boys and girls, even infants. It seemed as if they had been lying there dead for a few days because their bodies were floating on the surface. We could not reach them because the river was deep. We took sticks and tried to draw the bodies to shore. The little bodies reached the shore. We placed them on the ladders and carried them off. There was no more room left near the synagogues, so we placed them in front of the houses which were near the synagogues. We continued this work until about 4 PM. At that time three wagons drawn by oxen came along with a student sanitarian who told us to put the bodies in the wagons. We wanted to separate the men and women, but the sanitarian honored us with a Russian "blessing" and told us to put them in together.

We loaded the wagons and they were taken to the cemetery, where grave diggers had already prepared graves. A few drunken hooligans came to the cemetery and started teasing the gravediggers, and even shot two of them to death. Drunken bandits were wandering around town and there was unrest. We had to interrupt our work and go hide once more. We hid in Litman's attic until Sunday morning, when a detachment of Red Army came in along with the representative of the community, Finkelshteyn, and we were told to flee. We ran to Pogrebishtshe and after much suffering, we came to Odessa where we are now.

3. How my husband and children were murdered. Told by Havah Gurevitsh.

This happened on Tuesday, the fifth of Nissan, around noon. The bandits came into town and started the slaughter. I and my husband, Yosl David Gurevitsh, dealer in hides, 70 years old, with our children, left the house and we went to hide at the home of Nahum Hayim Godil's, near the bathhouse. There were a few dozen people already there, men, women, and young children. It was quiet until Thursday. Then a band of local peasants, of whom about ten were adults, led by Semon, and the rest were boys, 14-16 years old, came in. I immediately told my two sons, Mordekhai, 25, and Leyb, 22, to go hide in the cellar, because during all of the pogroms, the bandits had never searched the cellar. I hid under a bed in an alcove. The bandits began firing into the house, screaming and yelling. Then they began hacking away with axes and scythes. I heard one bandit demand money from my husband. He replied: "I do not have any money. I'll give you my coat." But the bandit only wanted money. Since my husband did not have any money, the bandit hit him in the head with his scythe. My husband began to scream. The bandit hit him again and my husband fell down. Froth came from his mouth, there was a rattle from his throat, and he died.

Then the bandits set fire to the closet and other furniture. The smoke began to choke me. I left my hiding place. There were more than thirty dead bodies in the house: Men, women, and small children. Among them I saw Itisk Shnayder's wife, Rahel, 26 years old, who had been killed by a bullet in her throat. With her lay her three dead little children. I went out into the entrance and saw my son Mordekhai, black with smoke. He told me that the bandits threw burning straw into the cellar and burned him out. I began to scream: "Get Leyb out of the cellar!

But Leyb could not be revived, he had been asphyxiated. My daughter Esther, 18, who had not been hiding with us, came to see how we were doing. Her hand had been wounded. We ran to hide in different places. Mordekhai ran to hide in a peasant's garden. He was murdered there. My daughter ran somewhere, I ran to the river, where I found the dead body of Aharon Kovel. I lay down on him, figuring, that since there were only dead bodies, the bandits would not come there. As I lay there, I saw a whole gang of little gentile boys chasing three women into the river. One of them was my daughter Esther, whom I recognized by her shawl. The river was very deep and my daughter and another woman drowned. The third woman, Elki Nahum's daughter, swam to the shore and called to me that I should stretch out my hand and help her out. Since I was afraid to get up, because the bandits might see that I was alive, I stretched out my leg to her, she grabbed it, and pulled herself out on the bank. She began to groan. I was afraid that the bandits would overhear her, so I begged her to be quiet. She moved aside and in a short while expired.

I remained lying on Aharon Kovel's dead body until nightfall. Then it began to snow. I ran away and slipped into a cellar. I remained there all night. Early in the morning I returned to the house where my husband had been murdered. I did not find it. It had been burned to the ground. I found my husband's body outside, with his coat lying alongside. I do not know who carried him out of the house. Near him stood a pig, gnawing at his ripped open belly, pulling at his intestines.

I went into a neighbor's house, took a sack, and laid the dead body on it. Two neighbor women came to help me. We carried the body to my house and laid it on the ground near the house. I also found the body of Aharon Udkes, a tailor, near the burned house. It seems that he had been hiding in the attic, and when the smoke of the fire began to choke him, he jumped down to his death. He still had his thimble on his finger.

I went to look for a place to hide. I came to a house where there were eight women in addition to the family that lived there. Friday night we made wicks out of pieces of cloth and blessed the Sabbath candles. Meanwhile, a bandit came and demanded money. We replied that we did not have any money. He threatened that he would lock us in the house and set it on fire. We collected two hundred rubles among ourselves, gave the money to him, and he left.

The next day I went to see how my son Avraham, who was hiding in a secret place, was doing. I found him alive and well. I wanted to stay with him, but the owner of the secret place refused, because it was too crowded. The bandit Lulke met me and told me that if I did not want to be killed, I should go collect the dead bodies. I told him I would do so. I wanted to go home, but I was so bewildered that I forgot where my house was. Then I remembered that my house was near that of Eliezer Idl Melamed. I went there and remained in my house until Sunday, when the Bolsheviks came and told us to run away. Then I came to Pobrebishtshe.

4. Told by Esther Rudi Pikes, 42 years old.

Wednesday, the fifth of Nissan, 1920, when the massacre began in Tetiev, I and my husband, Hayim Pikes, a tailor, 46, together with our children, were in the home of my father, Mosheh Karal. My brother, Hirsh Karal, 50, and his family and Yaakov Karal, 16, were also there.

We ran to a village, where we thought we would hide at the home of a peasant we knew, but we saw that there was no where to hide. The road to the village was full of corpses. The bandits killed whomever they met with great cruelty. Many who had run to hide in the river had been pulled out by the bandits and murdered.

We ran back to town and ran to the home of Eliezer Lutskes, near my father's house. As soon as we arrived, bandits armed with revolvers and iron rods came in. Eliezer Lutskes' axe stood near the door. One bandit grabbed the axe and split open the head of my son Yosi, 18. They also split open the head of my brother Yaakov, 16, and chopped off my brother Hirsh's hand. He died. His wife Brayne was killed in a dreadful fashion. My son Itsik, 20, who had been hiding, was found and killed. The bandits cruelly killed whomever they found in the house. They killed the entire family of twelve of Eliezer Lutskes (Klotsman). They killed eight members of my family: My husband, two sons, my little girl, Gitl, Noah Glezer's wife, sixty-odd years old. They were covered by dead bodies and so choked to death. My little son Yeshaiah was also lying under a pile of corpses, covered with blood. But with great effort we were able to pull him out from under the dead bodies.

I lay hidden with two children under a bed in a second alcove, and saw and heard everything that was happening. Not far from me lay the dead body of Genendl Rahel Pesi's. I took off her shawl and covered myself, so that I should not be seen.

After the bandits left, Eliezer Lutskes' granddaughter, daughter of David Lutskes, Hannah, 16, holding a baby in her arms, went out to shut the door. Immediately a bandit came over and shot her in the head. The girl fell and the baby fell out of her arms. Pigs came along and pulled it aside and tore it apart.

At night the bandits came back and set the house on fire. I do not know how my husband died, whether he was burned alive, or killed on the road. At night I took my three children and went to Beril the watercarrier's house and hid there. We stayed there a few days, until three days before Passover. There were over thirty women and three men hiding there.

Three days before Passover, some local bandits came, pulled us out of the house, and took us to the road to Belaya Tserkov. They killed the three men: Hayim Stolyar, 40, Yehiel Beker, and Aryeh Leyb Soroker, a cobbler. Then they wanted to kill the women and children. We began to cry and plead. Two elderly women suggested that they lock us up in a stall, which was nearby, and go to the city hall and ask what should be done with us. They did not kill us, but tortured us in many ways. They raped many of the women, then made us lie in the mud and rode over us with their horses. We lay in the stall for two days and two nights, wet and cold. They released us Passover eve. We went to Belaya Tserkov. The rain beat down on us. Hungry, tired, and weak, we stumbled along. Many women abandoned their little children along the way, because they could no longer carry them. The children cried until they expired, and the mothers heard their cries. Their hearts were broken, but they could not do anything. After much effort we came to Belaya Tserkov.

[Page 52 is a photograph of refugees from Tetiev in Odessa]

5. Abandoned Children. Yerahmiel Grinberg's children, as told by Shemuel Gusovski

Yerahmiel Grinberg left Tetiev before the First World War and went to America. He left behind his wife and two children: a girl, Peril, and a boy, Nahum. The following members of his family were killed in the Tetiev massacre: Shelomoh Grinberg, his father; Hayim, his brother; Brakha, his sister; Gitl, his wife; Mosheh Rabinovitsh, his father-in-law; Sarah Lazebnik, his sister-in-law; and her husband.

Gusovski relates: During the time of the massacre I was hiding with another 52 people in a secret hiding place belonging to the Pole Gulievitsh. We received food from the Tetiev "Judicial group" the Justice of the Peace Tshirits and the peasant Stepan Plevak.

One time Stepan Plevak came and informed us that Yerhamiel's children were lying in the creek, wounded, frozen, covered with ice. We asked him to bring them to us in our hiding place. We warmed the children, bandaged their wounds, and revived them. When the bandits set the town on fire, we had to flee, and I wanted to take the children along, because Grinberg is my relative. But Stepan Plevak warned me not to do so because if I would take along sick and wounded children I would endanger my own family. With the greatest despair and sorrow I left the children behind.

I came to Pogrebishtshe and from there went to Belaya Tserkov. We spent four months in Belaya Tserkov and at that time some of the peasants from Tetiev brought a group of children who had been abandoned. Yerahmiel Grinberg's children were not among them. I thought that they were probably dead. I was told that the peasants had taken 50 badly wounded children out of the hospital and had buried them alive.

In the middle of July 1920, my family and I left Belaya Tserkov and went to Odessa. On the way we passed through Tetiev. I thought I might find some of my possessions. But, except for two silver spoons and two forks, which I had given to a friendly peasant to hold for me, I found nothing. I started asking questions about Grinberg's children and discovered that they were in the village of Tsherepine, 7 viorst from town. I went there and found only the little girl. The little boy had been taken by the Red militia which had passed through.

I asked the peasant and his wife to let me have the girl, but they absolutely refused. The peasant's wife said that she did not have any children and she loved this little girl very much and she wanted to raise her as her own. The little girl did not want to leave.

I had to use all my persuasive powers to convince them to let me have the child. I told the little girl that her father had come from America and was waiting for her in Odessa. I took her back with me to Tetiev. There I also found her brother and I took them along with me to Odessa.

Photograph on page 55. (Refugees from Tetiev in Odessa)

6. The child Natan Kris, as told by Avraham Turi.

The entire Kris family was wiped out in the Tetiev massacre. Only a four year old child, Natan, was left. A childless peasant took him as his own. The peasant and his wife tried to win the child s love and to persuade him that the "Zhids" were corrupt people, murderers who had killed his parents and his brothers and sisters, and that they had succeeded in rescuing him from the hands of the "Zhids". The child believed all of the stories they told him and developed a terrible hatred for Jews, the murderers. The child learned how to speak Ukrainian. If someone called him by his Jewish name, Natan, he became very angry and stamped his little feet and screamed, "No, My name is not Natan, it's Ivan." One of the child's relatives managed to see him when the peasant and his wife were not home. He took him away with him to Odessa. The child is now with a relative in Odessa. He speaks only Ukrainian and curses the "Zhids" with terrible curses because they killed his whole family. He does not want to be called by his Jewish name, Natan, but insists that his name is Ivan.

A List of Tetiev Victims

1 Ashkenazi, Simhah, son of the rabbi, 30, bookkeeper
2 Leah, his mother, 65
3 Arbetman, Yosi, 62, hatter
4 Feyge, his wife, 60
5 Heni, his daughter, 28
6 Peysi, his son-in-law, 30
7 Eydelman, Beril, 16
8 Feyge, his sister, 17
9 Efrayim, his brother, 14
10 Arliand, Avraham, 56
11 Ite, his wife, 54
12 Motil, his son, 21
13 Ostrovski, Gedeliah 50, baker
14 Mosheh, his son, 15
15 Avraham, his brother, 45, storekeeper
16 Ostrovski, Yehiel, 28
17 Oystaytsher, Natan, 43
18 Rahel, his daughter, 20
19 Perl, his daughter, 18
20 Bershteyn, Getsi, 50, manufacturer
21 His wife,46
22 Bikov, Nahum Ben Tsiyon, 45, fishmonger
23 Aharon, his son, 22
24 Shemuel Leyb, his son, 18
25 Sarah, his mother, 75
26 Bikov, Yaakov, 23, baker
27 Bikov, Mordekhai, 50, storekeeper
28 Soni, his wife, 40
29 Yaakov, his son, 20
30 Bikov, Akiva, 45
31 Leah, his wife, 40
32 Soni, his daughter, 18
33 Bikov, Nahum Mikhl, 45
34 Sarah, his wife, 42
35 Rahel, his daughter, 20
36 Leyb, his son, 12
37 Avraham, his son, 9
38 Bikov, Yaakov, 18
39 Benderski, Leyb, 50
40 Budman, Getsi, 40
41 Budman, Shelomoh, 40
42 Budman, Berta, 20
43 Budman, Aharon, 15
44 Baltak, Zaydel, 50
45 His wife
46 Burshteyn, Mikhl, 55, musician
47 Tove, his wife, 53
48 Baltak, Beril, 40, manufacturer
49 Bayavski, Noah, 45, cooper
50 Dobrish, his wife, 42
51 Tobu, his daughter-in-law, 22
52 {Her two young children
53 }
54 Berditshevski, Beril, 42, carpenter
55 Leah, his wife, 40
56 Hedi, his daughter, 18
57 {Two young children
58 }
59 Bernshteyn, Yisrael, 48, storekeeper
60 Havah, his wife, 46
61 {Their six children
66 }
67 Blekher, Yankel, 48, innkeeper
68 Esther, his wife, 45
69 Barshtshivker, Shimshon, 62
70 Hinde, his granddaughter, 8
71 Blekher, Slave {Mosheh Dov's daughter}, 56
72 {Her three young children
74 }
75 Bikov, Mordekhai, 52
76 Toybe, his wife, 52
77 Hantsi, his daughter, 30
78 Mosheh, his son-in-law, 32
79 {Two young children
80 }
81 Granavski, Yaakov Yehoshua, 36, watercarrier
82 Malkah, his wife, 35
83 Beni, their son, 8
84 Havah, their daughter, 2
85 A child a few days old
86 Ayzer, Zaydel, 40, bookkeeper
87 His wife, 38
88 Yosi, his brother, 30
89 Hanah, Yosel's wife, 30
90 {Their three children
92 }
93 Garetski, Zelig, 50
94 Goldshteyn, Mosheh, 35, storekeeper
95 Yosi, his brother, 50
96 Itsi, his brother, 30
97 Gurevitsh, Yosl David, 70
98 Mordekhai, his son, 25
99 Leyb, his son, 20
100 Esther, his daughter, 17
101 Grinberg, Berl, 70, butcher
102 Liber, his son, 23
103 Garetski, Leyb, 40, storekeeper
104 Yosi, his father, 70
105 Hanah, his daughter, 20
106 Granavski, Velvel, 48, porter
107 Hanah, his daughter, 20
108 Galabratke, Zlate, 18
109 Garadetski, Shalom, 74, merchant
110 His son, 7
111 Giezer, Beni, 55, glazier
112 Risl, his daughter, 22
113 Grinberg, Shelomoh, 60, merchant
114 Yerahmiel, his son, 35
115 His daughter-in-law, 32
116 Hershman, Avraham, 63
117 Hayah Boni, his wife, 60
118 Rive, his daughter, 22
119 Nehamah, his daughter, 20
120 Yehoshua, his son, 40, fishmonger
121 Motil, his son, 30
122 Menuhah, Motil's wife, 28
123 {Their three children
125 }
126 Goldberg, Hayim, 60, butcher
127 Yankel, his son, 26
128 Yisrael, his son, 22
129 Beyle, his daughter-in-law, 22
130 Gurliand, Gitl, 20
131 Leah, her sister, 15
132 Brakhah, her sister, 8
133 Yosl, her brother, 13
134 Alikhes, Batyah, 55
135 Her daughter, 16
136 Goldberg, Shifrah, 32
137 Grabilak, Yehiel, 35, hatter
139 Rahel, his sister-in-law, 20
139 Groysman, Golde, 56
140 Goldberg, Yosil, 35, storekeeper
141 Sime, his wife, 33
142 Her child, 4
143 Grinberg, Rahel, 55
144 Gardinski, Duta, 42
145 Mani, her daughter, 18
146 Her daughter, 8
147 Shual, her son, 3
148 Dizik, Avraham Ber, 35, printer
149 His wife, 33
150 {Their two children
151 }
152 Draker, David, 30
153 Leah, his wife, 30
154 Mosheh, his son, 10
155 Brayne, his daughter, 6
156 His child, 4 They lay hidden in a cellar which was set on fire and they were asphyxiated by the smoke
157 Heyzeriker, Fayvish, 37, cobbler
158 Halik, Batyah, 50
159 Hoyzman, Yisrael, 75
160 Vartman, Hayim Yaakov Mosheh's and his children:
161 Zeydil
162 Sender
163 Keyle
164 Hanah
165 Mahli
166 Peril
167 Rahel
168 Vayszak, Zusya
169 Rivkah, his wife
170 Roze, his daughter
171 A son
172 Valakh, Beyle, 24 [sic! obviously an error, perhaps age was 42] and her children:
173 Sarah, 18
174 Pesi, 12
175 Yosil, 8
176 Verbovski, Levi, 60, baker
177 Toybe, his wife, 58
178 Beni, his son, 25
179 Vartsman, Efrayim, 70, salt merchant
180 Vaynman, Moshch Aharon, 70, tailor, and his children:
181 Hirsh, 23
182 Hayah, 15
183 Vaysbakh, Leyb
184 Brakhah, his wife
185 Esther, his daughter
186 Zilberman, Tuvyah, 58, merchant
187 Yerahmiel, his son, 35
188 Yerahmiel's wife, 33
189 Zilberman, Mosheh, 40
190 Batyah, his wife, 38
191 His daughter, 12
192 His son, 12
193 Zvanitski, Shelomoh Eli, 40, storekeeper
194 Frume, his wife, 38
195 Zavalyik, Helye, 35
196 Her child, Peril, 7
197 Zubrinski, Barukh, 43
198 Hanah, his wife, 40
199 {Their six children
204 }
205 Zubrinski, Meir, 65
206 Ite, his wife, 61
207 {Their three children
209 }
210 Khristinovski, Mendl, 7
211 Tshizik, Shalom, 15
212 Hadasah, his sister, 13
213 Tender, Hayim, 42, carpenter
214 Shifrah, his wife, 40
215 Peril, his daughter, 18
216 Rahel, his daughter, 8
217 Toltshinski, Yosl Leyb, 55, hatter
218 Gitl, his wife, 50
219 His daughter, 10
220 His daughter, 8
221 Yakhnes, Shemuel, 50, merchant
222 Sarah, his wife, 45
223 Sani, his daughter, 5
224 Batyah, his daughter, 3
225 Perl, his sister, 35
226 Yalavitski, Blume, 40
227 Leyb, her son,19
228 Lifshits, Barukh, 35, flour merchant
229 Sarah, his wife, 34
230 Lifshits, Havah, wife of Nisl, 45, and children:
231 Freyde, 20
232 Ida,16
233 Arke, l
234 Levinski, David, 60
235 Kalman, his son, 35
236 Brakhah, his daughter, 9
237 Levinski, Kalman, 55, butcher
238 Hanah, his daughter, 22
239 Risl, his daughter, 20
240 Levinski, Brakhah, 60
241 Levinski, Eti Gitl, 45
242 Levinski, Rahel, 30
243 Levinski, Boni, 20
244 Levinski, Nahum Hirsh, 45 and his children
245 Rahel, 18
246 Reyzil, 9
247 Itsik, 6
248 Peril, 4
249 Lubtshenko, Zisl, 70, and his children:
250 Hadasah, 30
251 Yehudit, 22
252 Lukashovski, David, 35
253 His wife, 32
254 {Their two children
255 }
256 Lerman, Havah, 50, and her children:
257 Pini, 25
258 Beni, 20
259 Landoy, Kalman, 45, baker
260 Malkah, his wife, 43
261 Shalom, his son, 23
262 Liberman, Velvel, 60, flour business
263 Liberman, Mendil, 45
264 Rahel, his daughter, 18
265 Lev, Mosheh, 60, and his children:
266 Golde
267 Mani
268 Motil
269 Buzi
270 {Another two children
272 Litvak, Gedalyah, 35
273 Bobe, his wife, 30
274 Lize, their daughter, 12
275 Rahel, their daughter, 7
276 Their infant
277 Yagilinski, Avraham, 45
278 Miryam, his wife, 40, and their children:
279 Idil, 20
280 Zalman, 14
281 Peril, 16
282 Magidavitsh, Malkah, 36, and her children:
283 Yente
284 Bobe
285 Miryam
286 Rive
287 Hirsh
288 Menuhes, Shemuel Leyb, 35, flour dealer
289 Melamed, Mosheh, from Skvira, 43, teacher
290 Maron, Avraham, 17
291 Mindis, Malkah, 55
292 {Her four children
295 }
296 Mogilievski, Yosef, 80
297 Feyge Pesi, his wife, 70
298 Mogilievski, Masi, 55
299 Itsi, his son, 35, carpenter
300 Mogilievski, Zalman, 72, dealer in hides
301 Mogilievski, Yaakov, 50, storekeeper
302 Margan, Libe, 60
303 Hayke, her daughter-in-law, 35
304 Mastov, Eli Yaakov
305 Freyde, his wife, and their children:
306 Misha
307 Avram
308 Soli
309 Magidovitsh, Hayim Shemuel, 53, storekeeper
310 Miryam, his wife, 50, and their children:
311 Mendil, 24
312 David, 20
313 Modistke, Hanah, 26
314 Mazovski, Lipa, 17
315 Mazovski, Malkah, 36, and her children:
316 David, 10
317 Itsik, 6
318 Beylah, 8
319 Navah[p?]astavski, Mosheh, 36 storekeeper, and his children:
320 Soni, 9
321 Zeydel, 3
322 Navapastavski, Genendel, 35, and her children:
323 Buzi, 12
324 Soni, 6
325 Zeydel, 3
326 Novopostovski, Bobe, 35
327 Shimon, her son, 15
328 And two young children [Only one is counted]
329 Novopostovski, Zanvil, 45
330 Novopostovsld, Beril, 22, cobbler
331 Nekhamkes, Miryam, 30
332 {Her four children
335 }
336 Sire, Mendi, 68, wagoner
337 Mosheh, his son, 40, hatter
338 Spektor, Mosheh, 40, merchant
339 Ite, his wife, 44, and their children:
340 Sarah, 19
341 Shelomoh, 17
342 Peril, 10
343 [Space is blank, perhaps to fill in number omitted in 328]
344 Taybil, 7
345 Beril, 4
346 Yankel, 2
347 Spektor, Natnael, 60, tailor
348 Genendel, his wife, 58
349 Spivak, Hayah Rahel, 55
350 Alik, her son, 30
351 His wife, 30
352 Child, 1 1/2
353 Stanislavski, Yosi, 43, smith
354 His wife, 40, and their children:
355 Esther Rive, 20
356 Zeydel, 14
357 Mosheh, 11
358 Hirsh, 9
359 Lyube, 5
360 Stanislavski, Reyze, 55
361 David, her son, 23
362 Spivak, Avigdor, 65, dealer in hides
363 Etil, his wife, 63
364 Yaakov, his son, 25
365 Spektor, David, 43, storekeeper
366 Reyzil, his wife, 40
367 Saranes, Henikh, 32
368 Biltsi, his wife, 30
369 Ite, their daughter, 3
370 Rive their daughter, 1
371 Saranes, Yosil, 60
372 Sarah, his wife, 60
373 Sokolik, Nekhi, 65
374 Soroker, Aharon Leyb, 50, cobbler
375 Yaakov, his son, 20
376 Slabodnik, Aharon Leyb, 40
377 Seri, Gedalyah, and his brothers:
378 Yaakov
379 Velvel
380 Smakon, Sarah 30
381 Sokol, Leyb, 70, carpenter
382 Serer, Yosl, 40
383 Tsirl, his wife, 38, and their children:
384 Bat Sheva, 13
385 Rahel, 13
386 Alte, 12
387 Liber, 8
388 Child, 4
389 Child, 3
390 Child, 2
391 Pudrik, Eliezer, 58, teacher
392 Ite, his daughter 25
393 Fridman, Yisrael, 50, dealer in hides
394 Fridman, Itsi 40, and his children:
395 Sender, 25
396 ltsil [Idel?] 15
397 Fridman, Ayzik 55
398 Hayah, his wife, 50, and their children:
399 Sender, 25
400 Efrayim, 18
401 Tsipah, 26
402 Heni, 15
403 Mendil, 30
404 Tsirl, his wife, 30
405 {Their two children
406 }
407 Fridman, 60, cooper
408 His daughter, 30
409 His daughter, 20
410 Pikovski, Shalom, 55, sexton
411 His wife
412 His child
413 His child
414 Pikhoyz, Hayim, 45, cobbler and his children:
415 Yosi, 17
416 Itsi, 19
417 Hayke, 2
418 Peker, Mosheh, 36, town elder
419 Leah, his wife, 35, and their children:
420 Itsi, 12
421 Leyb, 7
422 Gitel, his mother-in-law, 65
423 Pyatigarski, Mosheh, 40, glazier
424 Leah Zisl, his wife, 38
425 Hanah, their daughter, 18
426 Fayvishenko, Hanah, 60
427 Her daughter, 20
428 Platyanski, Noah, 70, glazier
429 Gitl, his wife, 68
430 Child, 22
431 Child, 18 [Grandchildren?]
432 Pastukh, Yisrael, 30, metalworker
433 Feder, Melekh, 58, smith and his children:
434 Kalman, 30
435 Hanah Feyge, 25
436 Malkah, 20
437 Fayvishenko, Barukh Meir, 35, bread merchant
438 Yosil, his son, 2
439 Feldman, Yozef, 45
440 Devoralh, his wife, 42
441 Picker, Yisrael, 28
442 Fishman, Leyb, 50
443 Etil, his wife, 42, and their children:
444 Nim[?], 22
445 Hirsh, 20
446 Miryam, 25
447 Podolsky, Nahum, 55, lawyer
448 Hayah, his wife, 52
449 Batyah, their daughter, 12
450 Feldman, Mosheh, 18, burned alive
451 Perlshteyn, Shalom, 30, commissar
452 Havah, his wife
453 {Their three children
455 }
456 Portnoy, Sarah, 40
457 Pyatigorski, Mosheh, 40, storekeeper
458 Zisl, his wife, 40
459 Nehamah, his daughter, 18
460 Pekers, Tsaiel, 40, storekeeper
461 Pekers, Peysi, 60, warden [of a synagogue]
462 Pesi Hanah, his wife, 58, and their children:
463 Hanah [sic!], 28
464 Itsi, 22
465 Brayne, 13
466 Feyges, Avraham Itsi, 50, cobbler
467 Shemuel, his son, 12
468 Feyges, Mosheh, 48, merchant
469 Batyah, his wife, 46, and their children:
470 Yankil, 20
471 Gitl, 16
472 Pesi, 10
473 Palishtshuk, Yankil, 60, dealer in tar
474 Sosi, his wife, 58
475 Yente, their daughter, 25
476 Feyges, Mani, 70, teacher
477 Pastakh, Hirsh, 35, tailor
478 Nesi, his wife, 40
479 Hine, their daughter, 9
480 Tsukrov, Shneur, 45
481 Tsaravski, Pini, 70, merchant
482 Krants, Leyb, 60
483 Beyle, his wife, 60, and their children:
484 Perel, 20
485 Shemuel, 18
486 Kotlyar, Tsipeh, 65
487 Sender, her son, 26
488 Klayman, Yosef, 40
489 Rahel, his wife, 36
490 Kravits, Esther, 38
491 Reuven, her son, 9
492 Kravits, Feyge, 25
493 Miryam, her daughter, 5
494 Babrits [i.e. Kabrits], Hirsh, 25, tailor
495 Mosheh, his brother, 23
496 Klatsmakh hak, 28
497 Rive Leah, his wife, 61
498 Esther, their daughter, 36, and her children:
499 Beyle, 9
500 Rahel, 7
501 Klatsman, Avraham Yits and her children:
502 Batyah [Mosheh's daughter], 19
503 Kupershmid, Brayne, 65
504 Yosi, her son, 25, tailor
505 Kaganovski, Leyb, 35, cobbler
506 Yosil, his brother, 38, butcher
507 Rahel, Yosil's wife, 35, and their children:
508 Sarah, 16
509 Avraham, 8
510 Nehamah, Yosil's sister, 28, and her children:
511 Hirsh, 5
512 Mosheh, 4
513 Karbats, Leyb, 60, dealer in eggs
514 Klatsman, Yehoshua, 63, cobbler
515 Klatsman, Batyah, 50,[Klatsman?], Mosheh, 63, baker
516 Alte, 25
517 Beni, 11
518 Klezmer, Zusyah, 35, musician
519 Hanah, his wife, 33, and their children:
520 Beril, 10
521 Child, 2
522 Karal, Hirsh, 55, cobbler
523 Brayneh, his sister, and her children:
524 Hanah,19
525 Hayim Leyb,17
526 Soni, 16
527 Karal, Yaakov, 16
528 Sarah, his sister, 19
529 Kopat, Hayim Ber, 50, merchant
530 Miryam, his daughter, 18
531 Kuptsin, Yehoshua, 45, iron works
532 Nehamah, his wife, 40, and their children
533 Itsi, 13
534 Avraham, 8
535 Genesi, 10
536 Rahel, 5
537 Shifrah, Yehoshua's sister, 43, and her children:
538 Rahel, 14
539 Beni, 12
540 Beril, 10
541 Klatsman, Eliezer, 60, merchant
542 Elke, his wife, 60, and their children:
543 David, 35
544 Yosi, 30
545 Miryam, Yosi's wife, 28
546 David's children: Hanah, 15
547 Beni, 7
548 Brakhah,l
549 Klatsman, Eti Beyle, 55
550 Dobe, her daughter, 25
551 Leyb, Dobe's husband, 30
552 Klatsman, Yehudit, 70
553 Klaynman, Ezra, 35, and his children:
554 Hirsh, 15
555 Malkah, 8
556 Kagan, Hanah Toybe, 50
557 Khine, her daughter, 16
558 Klatsman, Shifrah, 40
559 Klaynman, Yaakov, 55
560 Menuhah, his wife, 52
561 Rahel, their daughter, 18
562 Kuperman, Rahel, 38, and her children:
563 Miryam, 18
564 Beyle 16
565 Rive, 12
566 Hayim,4
567 Zelig, 2
568 Klatsman, Efrayim, 23
569 Brakhah, his wife, 22
570 Kazak, Zalman, 45, tailor
571 Menuhah, his wife, 43, and their children
572 Hayah, 23
573 Yisrael, 16
574 Shalom, 7
575 Krasni, Hayah Feyge, 60
576 Gitl, her daughter-in-law, 35
577 Kadikhes, Yosl, 60
578 His wife, 56
579 {Their three children
581 }
582 Kramer, Avraham, 45
583 Bobe, his wife, 43
584 Efrayim, their son, 5
585 Kramer, Mosheh Aharon, 40
586 Hanah, his wife, 32, and their children:
587 Nahum, 10
588 Brayneh, 8
589 Child, 5
590 Child, 2
591 Maid, Hanah, 20
592 Kaprov, Yaakov Mosheh, 60
593 Sime, his wife, 57, and their children:
594 Nehamah, 25
595 Peril, 14
596 Keselman, Yisrael David, 50, dealer in flour
597 Katlyar, Mosheh Nisels, 50
598 His wife, 48
599 His brother, Yisrael, 60
600 Kris, Zalman, 35, watchmaker
601 {Four children
604 }
605 Kats, Havah, 46, and her children:
606 Pesi, 18
607 Hanah, I10
608 Hayah, 8
609 Esther, 13
610 Karlshteyn, Sarah, 62
611 Klatsman, Yehoshua, 60, storekeeper
612 Blume, his wife, 58
613 Hayim, his son, 18
614 Krakovski, Rekhtsi, 30
615 Klatsman, Heni, 45, and her children:
616 Itsik Leyb, 16
617 Hayim, 17
618 Girl, 10
619 Child, 8
620 Kanditar, Mosheh, 40
621 Rahel, his wife, 40
622 {Four young children
625 }
626 Kramer, David Yosi, 56, storekeeper
627 Dintsi, his wife, 52
628 His son, 24
629 Daughter, 18
630 Child, 5
631 Child, 4
632 Child, 2
633 Kabrits, Aharon son of Perets, 5
634 Kushnir, Nahum, 50, merchant
635 Leyb, his son, 18
636 Kavil, Aharon, 44, smith
637 Rahel, his wife, 40
638 Leyb, their son, 8
639 Kogan, Yeshayahu, 70, feldsher [paramedic], and his children:
640 Gedalyah, 22
641 Hanah, 18
642 Mosheh, 15
643 Brakhah,24
644 Koyfman, Malkah, 52
645 Kagan, Yisrael, 63, and his children:
646 Hanah, 26
647 Hayim, 17
648 Naftali, 14
649 Rabinovitsh, Shimon, 40, Rabbi of Tetiev
650 His children
651 Rabinovitsh, Bobe, 45
652 Rabinovitsh's second daughter {Mosheh's}
653 Ras, Beyla, 30
654 Ras, Freyde, 50
655 Shvarts, Aharon
656 His wife
657 {His two children
658 }
659 Shub, Shelomoh, 80, ritual slaughterer
660 Toybe, his wife, 75
661 Hayim, his grandson, 22
662 Shpitalnik, Zavl, 50
663 Shekhtman, Itsi Mosheh, 36
664 Toybe, his wife, 34
665 Daughter, 8
666 Shkolya, Yaakov, 70
667 Feyge, his wife, 68
668 Shkaravski, Motil, 30
669 Rahel, his wife, 30
670 Basye, his daughter, 8
671 Yehudit, his daughter, 6
672 Shikirinski, Ozer, 60, merchant
673 Eti, his wife, 57
674 Avraham, his son, 20
675 Shekhter, Hayim, 18
676 Shvarts, Sheyndl, 33
677 Child, 1 1/2
678 Shofer, Pini, 50, flour business
679 Shmargan, Hayim, 75
680 Beynush, his brother, 70
681 Yisakher Mehli, 45
682 Shimshon Aharon's, 30, merchant
683 Tshama, his wife, 28, and their children
684 Sarah, 7
685 Rivkah, 7
686 Itsi, 5
687 Zisl, 3
688 Shvarts, Sheyndl, 35
689 Child, 2
690 Shmargor, Yankel, 60
691 {Avraham, his son, and another 5 children
696 }

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