Velyikyiy Bychkiv, Ukraine Великий Бичків, Yкраïна
also known as: Nagybocskó (HU), Velký Bočkov (CZ), Velikiy Bychkov (RU), Bitshkof (Yid)
47°58' N / 24°01' E
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was part of the Kingdom of Hungary (11th century - 1920 and 1938-1944) with the name of Nagybocskó
in Máramaros megye (county), next part of Czechoslovakia (1920-1938) with the name of Velký Bočkov
in Podkarpatská Rus (Sub-Carpathia), then part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1945-1991) with the name of Velikiy Bychkov
and, since 1991, known as Velyikyiy Bychkiv, in the Rakhivskyi rayon (district) of Zakarpats'ka oblast (county) of Ukraine.
In Yiddish, Velyikyiy Bychkiv was known as Bitshkof.
Other spellings/names for Velyikyiy Bychkiv are Nagy-Bocskó, Veľký Bočkov, Bocicoiu Mare, Veliký Bočkov, Velikiy Bochkov, Vel Bockov, Novyy Boksko,
Nad Bochko, Bockov Velke, Bočková and Bochkuv.
Velyikyiy Bychkiv is located about five miles east-northeast of Bila Tserkva (Tiszafejéregyháza), on the Tisza River and Romanian border.
Jews probably settled in Velyikyiy Bychkiv in the first half of the 18th century.
Two families were present in 1728.
After the Jews abandoned the town, the Jewish settlement was only renewed in the mid-19th century.
In 1880, the Jewish population was 520 (of a total population of 3,605).
By 1921, during the Czechoslovakian period, the Jewish population rose to 1,092.
Then by 1941, the Jewish population increased to 1,708.
Jewish families earned their livelihood through trade (about 30), crafts (16), a saw mill and a brickyard. A number of Jews were professionals and government officials. The Zionist youth organizations were active.
With the Hungarian occupation of Velyikyiy Bychkiv in March, 1939, Jews were persecuted and pushed out of their occupations. In 1940-41, dozens of Jews from Velyikyiy Bychkiv were drafted into forced labor battalions and others were drafted for service on the Eastern front, where most died.
In the summer of 1941, the Hungarian authorities identified more than 100 Nagybocskó Jewish families as "alien"—mainly the poorest ones—and deported them to German-occupied Galicia. The majority were murdered on 27-28 August 1941 near Kamenets-Podolsk, by German units and their Ukrainian hirelings.
The remaining Jews of Velyikyiy Bychkiv were deported to Auschwitz late May, 1944.
A great many of the Jews from Velyikyiy Bychkiv were murdered in Auschwitz and most survivors settled elsewhere. A small Jewish community existed here until 1950.
In 2001, Velyikyiy Bychkiv had about 3,457 inhabitants and no Jews live there today.
Sources (portions): Encyclopedia of the Holocaust in Hungary by Randolph BRAHAM The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust, (2001) p. 1381
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