also known as: Szürte (HU), Surty (CZ), Syurte (RU)
48°30' N / 22°14' E
~ Introduction ~
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was part of the Kingdom of Hungary (11th century - 1920 and 1938-1944) with the name of Szürte
in Bereg megye (county), next part of Czechoslovakia (1920-1938) with the name of Surty
in Podkarpatská Rus (Sub-Carpathia), then part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1945-1991) with the name of Syurte and, since 1991,
known as Syurte, in the Uzhhorodskyi rayon (district) of Zakarpats'ka oblast (county) of Ukraine.
Other spellings/names for Syurte are Zaurte, Sjurte,
Sztrumkivka, Strumkivka, Sztrumkovka and Strumkovka.
Syurte is located about nine miles south of Uzhhorod (Ungvár).
Jews probably settled in Syurte in the first half of the 18th century.
In 1830, the Jewish population was 45.
By 1880, the Jewish population was 319 (of a total population of 1,664).
In 1921, during the Czechoslovakian period, the Jewish population rose to 1,099.
By 1941, the Jewish population rose to 1,423 (of a total population of 8,400).
Among the Jewish breadwinners were families that earned their livelihoods from trade (with about 60 business establishments) and crafts (with about 26 workshops). There were also seven factories and a bank that were in Jewish hands. In addition, there were professionals (a Doctor and a pharmacist) as well as public officials, clerical workers and commercial agents.
With the Hungarian occupation of Syurte in March, 1939, Jews were persecuted and pushed out of their occupations. In 1940, 150 Jews from Syurte were drafted into forced labor battalions and others were drafted for service on the Eastern front, where most died. Some Jews joined the Czechoslovakia Army organized in the Soviet Union to fight the Germans.
In August, 1941, a number of Jewish families without Hungarian citizenship were expelled to Nazi occupied Ukrainian territory, to Kamenets-Podolski, and murdered there.
The remaining Jews of Syurte, over 1,000, were deported to Auschwitz on 22 May 1944.
A great many of the Jews from Syurte were murdered in Auschwitz and a few survivors returned, but eventually settled elsewhere.
In 2001, Syurte had about 1,898 inhabitants and no Jews live there today.
Sources (portions): The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust, (2001) p. 1267
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