Bobruisk District Historical Economic Summaries
The Minsk Historical Genealogy Group
Oleg Perzashkevich, Director
City of Bobriusk
Bobruisk before 1917
V-VI centuries A. D. - a small rural settlement of Balts existed on the same place, where Bobruisk was founded later.
XIV century - Bobruisk was founded as a possession of Minsk Prince Skirgaylo son of Godemin. In that time’s records its names were: Bobrovsk, Bobruesk and Bobrusek.
1502 - Crimean and Akkerman (South Steppes of Ukraine) Tatars attacked Bobruisk and robbed it. They were defeated by the troops of Duke Semen Olelkovich (a military commander of Great Lithuanian Princedom).
Early XVI century - after Tatars invasion a castle was constructed in Bobruisk.
1508 - Bobruisk was attacked by the troops of the Duke Mikhail Glinsky (a leader of anti-Roman Catholic rebel in Great Lithuanian Princedom). They were defeated by the troops of Polish King Sighizmund I Old.
1506-1793 - a shtetle in Rechitsa District of Minsk Province of Great Lithuanian Princedom.
1511 - King of Poland and Great Lithuanian Prince Sighizmund I Old awarded Bobruisk with a privilege to pay taxes directly to the State Treasury without any local mediation.
XVI century - Jewish population appeared.
1615-1627 - local magnate and high military official of Rech Pospolitaya Peter Tryzna constructed here a Roman Catholic cathedral of St. Peter and Paul and founded a residence of Jesuits. Jesuits founded a school.
1648 - Bobruisk was captured by Cossack brigade of colonel Poddubitsky (one of Bogdan Khmelnitsky’s troops commander). Cossacks stayed there for about a year.
1649 Cossacks were defeated by state troops of Great Lithuanian Princedom under the commanding of Lithuanian Hetman (supreme military official) Duke Yanush Radzivill. During the final battle the old castle was burned away. The Cossack leaders were executed, but local population was not punished, because the people agreed to open the gates of the city at once after Yanush Radzivill proposed to do it.
1651 - Bobruisk Jesuit Residence was destroyed temporally.
1665 - Bobruisk was captured and robbed by Cossacks.
1780s - any activity of Bobruisk Jesuits was stopped. Jesuit schools were substituted initially with the "academic", later with District (both 3-years state) ones.
1788 - the Rechitsa District Court was moved to Bobruisk.
Since 1793 - in Russian Empire.
Since 1795 - a District Town of Lithuanian Province.
1801-1917 - a District Town of Minsk Province.
1810 - a fortress was constructed. It had 14,000 soldiers as a garrison, and was a significant strategic object.
1812 - Bobruisk fortress was beseiged by troops of general Dombrovsky (Napoleon commander).
1853-1863 - a secondary state school existed in Bobruisk.
1826 - Orthodox Church of St. Luka was built in wood by local believers.
1829 - Orthodox Church of St. Sophia was built in wood by colonel Rosen-Mark.
1855 - Orthodox Cathedral of St. Nicholas with a shelter was erected of wood by state.
|Date||Jews||Non-Jews||Comments||% Total Pop.|
|XVI century||Jewish population appeared|
|1766||359||No info||Male adults only||No info|
|1861||8,866||No info||Both sexes||No info|
|1897||20,760||14,060||Both sexes||59.6 %|
|1909||39,816||Both sexes||No info|
|1913||41,300||Both sexes||about 49%|
|1917||54,675||Both sexes||No info|
In 1673 the Sejm (Parliament) of Rech Pospolitaya (federal state of Polish Kingdom and Great Lithuanian Princedom) declared, that Jewish community of Bobruisk should pay annually 40 zloty as a post tax.
On May 6, 1702 the Tribunal (Supreme Court) of Rech Pospolitaya conferred Bobruisk Jews to "infamia" - deprivation them of status of citizens - for the Jews had not paid the post tax for two previous years.
After the construction of Bobruisk fortress on February, 1812, Jews were prohibited to have any real estate there.
In 1880 in Bobruisk there were:
- Jewish school;
- Jewish hospital.
In the 2nd half of the XIXth century all local trade was under Jewish control.
In 1896 there were the following Jewish institutions in Bobruisk:
- synagogue (Rabbi Vilensky Yakov son of Samuil);
- 25 praying houses;
- Jewish hospital (30 beds):
- Doctor: FEYERTAG Isidor son of Samuil
- Ayzenshtat Khaym son of Isaak
- Estrin Isaak son of Izrael
- Etinger Berka son of Leyba
- Galbershtat Ghirsh son of Meyer
- Golant Yakov son of Borukh
- Katsnelson Nison son of Osip
- Margolin Osip son of Mikhel
- Margolin Zalman son of Simon
- Matlin Zalman son of Khatskel
- Rabinovich Bous son of Isaak
- Sliozberg Leyba son of Iosel
- Zalkind Mordukh son of Vulf
During that year there were 447 patients in the hospital. 396 of them were cured, 33 died, 18 stayed for the next year. Annual cost of maintenance of the hospital was 6161 roubles 6 kopecks.
- primary 1-year Jewish school: Director: ZINGOL Osip son of Elya Honourable supervisor: ESTRIN Isaak son of Izrael Assistant of teacher: FRIDLYAND Shlema son of David Teacher: KAGAN Felix son of Yefroim Doctor: FEYRTAG Isaak son of Samuil
- private 2-year Jewish school for women with primary class (mistress LAZAREVA Khana);
- private 2-year Jewish school for women with primary class (mistress YAKESBERG Sara);
- private 1-year Jewish public school (master BASIN Aron);
- Talmud-Torah (Chief Teacher ZINGOL Osip son of Elya).
In 1896 in Bobruisk:
432 boys and 188 girls were born, 240 men and 114 women died.
Traditional activities of local Jewish population were trade with grain, agricultural products, vodka and cloth making. Since early time Berezina and Bobruyka rivers were main roads for Bobruisk inhabitants. And the most famous feature of Bobruisk were beavers (animals). That animal’s Slavic name "Bobr" gave the names to the river Bobruyka and the town itself. But as a result of hunting, beavers were almost eliminated by the end of the XIXth century.
In the time of the Great Lithuanian Princedom, Bobruisk was a possession of Dukes Radzivills, then Gashtold and Tryzna noble families. It reached its maximal prosperity in the 1st half of the XVIIth century.
According to the Register for 1620 in Bobruisk there were:
- 409 houses;
- 75 stores;
- a flour mill.
That was why in 1639 Bobruisk was presented to Polish Queen Tsetsyliya-Renata. After Khmelnitsky uprising (1648-1651) and the wars between Rech Pospolitaya and Muscovy Russia (1654-1667) the town fell into decay.
During Russian principality vodka trade was under state hard control and became less popular among Jewish businessmen. But Russian authorities did a lot to develop the region because of military and fiscal reasons mostly. First of all, old communications were reconstructed there:
- road Chernigov-Rechitsa-Zhlobin-Bobruisk -Igumen-Minsk;
- road Bobruisk - Slutsk;
- road Bobruisk - Rogachyov-Propoysk;
- Bobruisk harbour.
In XIX, because of development of the All-Russian Market, new types of communications appeared there:
- highway Moscow-Warsaw (1848);
- highway Bobruisk - Moghilev (1860s);
- telegraph station (1870s);
- railway station [a station of Libava - Romny railroad (1873)].
By 1880 in Bobruisk there were:
- 8 stone houses;
- 1,982 wooden houses;
- 8 factories (soap, candle, vodka, beer, mead). Their total annual turnover was 300,000 roubles.
The town occupied 8,760 hectares.
At the end of the XIXth century Bobruisk fortress lost its significance and was transformed into a warehouse.
In 1897 Bobruisk harbour exported 25,600 tons of wood. In 1900 the harbour total turnover was 2,400 tons (mostly wood, then grain and salt from the southern provinces of the Empire).
In 1900, Bobruisk railway station turnover was over 37,600 tons (mostly wood).
By 1900, in Bobruisk there were:
- 9 potters, their total income was 1,600 roubles.
By 1900, the largest enterprises in Bobruisk were:
- the largest in Minsk Province vodka & yeast factory, owned by Rabinovich (annual turnover was over 50,000 roubles);
- the flour mill, owned by Galbershtam (annual turnover was about 60,000 roubles);
- the brick factory, owned by Rosenberg;
- 4 timber factories;
- 1 smaller brick factory;
- 1 smaller flour mill;
- 2 tobacco factories;
- 1 leather factory;
- furniture factory;
- butter factory;
- beer factory.
Total number of workers: 304 persons. Total annual turnover was 576,000 roubles.
In 1900 the town income was over 73,000 roubles.
At the end of the XIXth century the maximal economical damage to Bobruisk was made by fire. In 1896 the damage was 22,910 roubles. Reasons:
- negligence (30.8%);
- defective stove construction (21.8%);
- arson (13.5%);
- lightning strikes (4.8%);
- unknown (29.1%).
Annual maintenance cost of antifire brigade was 4,324 roubles 56 kopecks. In the same year Bobruisk citizens bought 1,000 goose carcasses and paid 550 roubles for hunted birds.
In the early XX century in Bobruisk there were:
- 19 factories and plants (total number of workers - 582 persons):
- timber goods;
- vodka and yeast;
- several mills;
- 191 crafts workshops (1,077 craftsmen);
- 3,000 buildings (172 of them were made of stone).
In 1914 in Bobruisk there were 23 factories and plants (total annual turnover was 1 million roubles). But the main goods were still wood and grain.
Here is the list of major business and trade enterprises of Bobruisk and the Subdistrict for 1902.
|Name of owner||Type of business||Address||Religion|
|ACHIKOVSKY Ghirsh son of Kivel||Fish store||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|ALTSHUL Leyvik-Itsko son of Arya||Leather factory (11 workers)||Shosseynaya st.||Jewish|
|ASHPIZA Falka daughter of Movsha||Grocery store||2nd Slutskaya st.||Jewish|
|Barbash David son of Movsha||Fabrics trade store||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|Belenky Leyba son of Mordukh||Furniture shop||Semenovskaya st.||Jewish|
|Chernyak Zelik son of Leyba||Herring store||Olkhovskaya st.||Jewish|
|Dayun Meshel son of Itsko||Fabrics trade store||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|Dukhon David son of Mordko||Herring store||Bazarnaya square||Jewish|
|FRIDLYAND Ghenya||Publishing house||No info||Jewish|
|Ghelfer Nokhim||Photo shop||No info||Jewish|
|Gherchikov Mordukh son of Zalman||Grain & bread store||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|GHETSEV Mordukh son of Vulf||Wood processing factory (24 workers)||Krivoy kryuk||Jewish|
|GHINZBURG Yakov||Book store||No info||Jewish|
|GOLANT Yankel son of Borukh||Grocery store||Bazarnaya square||Jewish|
|Goldin Ghirsh son of Shevel||Leather store||1st Slutskaya st.||Jewish|
|Golodets Mordukh son of Kiva||Fabrics trade store||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|Grudonskaya Sophya daughter of Maxim||Sausages store||Opermanovskaya st.||Orthodox|
|Gurvich Simon son of Dovid||Ironware store||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|Irgeher Yankel son of Iosel||Flour store||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|Iserlis Govsey son of Kiva & Ghendman Iosel son of Leyba||Leather store||Romanovskaya st.||Jewish|
|Kagan Abram son of Bentsian||Fur shop||Pushkinskaya st.||Jewish|
|Katsenbogin Zimel son of Abram||Furniture shop||Shosseynaya st.||Jewish|
|KATSNELSON Paulina daughter of Moisey||Pharmaceutical store||Shosseynaya st.||Jewish|
|KATSNELSON Paya-Brayna daughter of Movsha||Wood processing factory (engine - 50 h. p., 60 workers)||Berezinsky forshtat||Jewish|
|Katsnelson Shevel son of Shmuylo||Flour store||Shosseynaya st.||Jewish|
|KHURIN Ghershon||Book store||No info||Jewish|
|Kitain Bentsian son of Abram||Gold & silver shop||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|Kleynerman Iosel son of Dovid||Bank||Shosseynaya st.||Jewish|
|Kostelyansky Gheshel son of Mordukh||Fabrics trade store||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|Kozlin Khaya daughter of Khaym||Photo shop||Rodionovskaya st.||Jewish|
|KREYNIN Idel son of Menakhem||Publishing house (7 workers)||2nd Slutskaya st.||Jewish|
|Kutner Movsha son of Srol||Iron trade store||Olkhovskaya st.||Jewish|
|Lapidus Iosel son of Borukh||Flour store||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|LIKHAREVSKY Fedor son of Gavriil / renter SVENTSITSKY Ilya son of Kazimir)||Pharmacy||No info||Russian / Russian|
|Livshits Ilya son of Khaym||Haberdashery store||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|Livshits Itska son of Yankel||Transport agency||Shosseynaya st.||Jewish|
|Livshits Khaym son of Aron||Haberdashery store||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|LOZINSKAYA Rokhlya||Book store||No info||Jewish|
|Lozinsky Ghirsh son of Mordukh||Grocery store||Fortress||Jewish|
|LOZINSKY Yevel son of Mordukh||Brick factory (63 workers)||No info||Jewish|
|LUBETSKY Nakman son of Ghesel||Beer factory||Krivoy kruk||Jewish|
|Margolin Khasha daughter of Mordukh||Grocery store||Bazarnaya square||Jewish|
|Margolin Zalman son of Simon||Flour store||Shosseynaya st.||Jewish|
|Marinbakh Khaym’s son of Ayzik legal successors||Gold & silver shop||Shosseynaya st.||Jewish|
|Matskevich Nokhim son of Niftolel||Fabrics trade store||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|MATYSKEVICH V. & GONESTY R.||Wood processing factory (engine - 28 h. p., 12 workers)||Novoshosseynaya st.||No info|
|MENDELSEN Samuil son of Mark||Pharmacy||No info||Jewish|
|Mirkovich Yefroim son of Aron||Fabrics trade store||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|Nager Zelik son of Kopel||Haberdashery store||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|Nagherov Zelik son of Kopel||Fabrics trade store||2nd Slutskaya st.||Jewish|
|Nemets Yankel son of Movsha||Iron trade store||Bazarnaya square||Jewish|
|NEZABYTOVSKY Karl son of Konstantin & BULGAK Edgar son of Ignaty||Alcohol distillery||Staro-Slutskaya st.||Roman Catholic|
|Nisenbaum Fishel son of Ghirsh||Grocery store||Shosseynaya st.||Jewish|
|OREL COMMERCE BANK||Bank office||No info||No info|
|Peymer Simon son of Meyer||Grocery store||Bazarnaya square J||ewish|
|Pines Yankel-Shmuylo son of Nevakh||Fabrics trade store||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|Pruzhinins Kalman & Elya sons of Zalman||Brick factory (13 workers)||Near cemetery||Jewish|
|Rabinovich Abram son of Leyba||Ironware store||Bazarnaya square||Jewish|
|RABINSKY Khaym son of Yuda||Dishes store||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|Ravikovichs Aron & Benyamin sons of Borukh||Fabrics trade store||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|Raykhinshteyn Khaym-Izrael son of Abram||Fabrics trade store||Bazarnaya square||Jewish|
|Rendel Shimen son of Yudko||Photo shop||Shosseynaya st.||Jewish|
|ROSENBERG Ghirsh son of Iosel||Brick factory (50 workers)||Berezinsky forshtat||Jewish|
|Rozovsky Berko son of Mordukh||Flour store||Olkhovskaya st.||Jewish|
|Saltsevsky Movsha son of Yankel||Herring store||1st Slutskaya st.||Jewish|
|Saltsovsky Samuil son of Yankel||Grocery store||Bazarnaya square||Jewish|
|Savitsky Anton son of Vasiliy||Grocery store||Fortress||Orthodox|
|SHABSHAEVICH Mordukh||Book store||No info||Jewish|
|SHABSHALEVICH Mordukh-Leyba son of Itsko||Pharmaceutical store||Shosseynaya st.||Jewish|
|Shapiro Berko son of Elya||Grocery store||1st Slutskaya st.||Jewish|
|SHMULEVICH Elya son of Berko & MAKHTIN Leyzer son of Zalman||Tobacco factory (9 workers)||Staro-Slutskaya st.||Jewish|
|SHMULEVICH Elya son of Berko||Fish store||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|Shostak Yermiya son of Osher||Oats trade||Bazarnaya square||Jewish|
|SLOBODIN Leyba||Book store||No info||Jewish|
|SOKHOR Sholom son of Meyer||Lithographic publish house||Politseyskaya st.||Jewish|
|SOLOVEYCHIK Ghitlya||Book store||No info||Jewish|
|SORKIN Mendel son of Movsha||Pharmaceutical store||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|Stison David son of Noson||Tobacco store||Shosseynaya st.||Jewish|
|STISON Shlioma son of Dovid||Tobacco factory (9 workers)||Shosseynaya st.||Jewish|
|Tanezer Lazar son of Berko||Gold & silver shop||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|TSYNKIN Abram||Book store||No info||Jewish|
|VILENSKY Izrael son of Zalman||Butter factory (engine - 35 h.p., 13 workers)||Shosseynaya st.||Jewish|
|VILNO PRIVATE COMMERCE BANK||Bank office||No info||No info|
|VINOKUR David||Book store||No info||Jewish|
|VINOKUR David son of Itsko||Pharmaceutical store||Olkhovskaya st.||Jewish|
|volfson Ghirsh son of Shlema||Fabrics trade store||Shosseynaya st.||Jewish|
|VOLNER R.||Book store||No info||Jewish|
|Voronov Aron son of Ovsey||Haberdashery store||Muravyevskaya st.||Jewish|
|YAKOBSON Pinkhus son of Shmuil||Paper boxes workshop||Lagheranya slobodka||Jewish|
|YAKUBOVICH Fishel son of Abram||Vodka & Yeast factory (engine - 17 h.p., 30 workers)||Rozenmarkovskaya st.||Jewish|
|YANKOVSKY’s legal successors / renter GARKAVY Nakman son of Borukh||Pharmacy||No info||Russian / Jewish|
|Yukhved Zalman son of Idel||Fur shop||Olkhovskaya st.||Jewish|
|Zagorsky Konstantin son of Ivan||Grocery store||Bazarnaya square||Orthodox|
|ZAGORULKO Martyn son of Feder||Wheels workshop||Muravyevskaya st.||Orthodox|
|Zarubo Adrian son of Alexander||Sausages store||Bazarnaya square||Orthodox|
General cultural information
In 1880 in Bobruisk there were:
- stone Roman Catholic Cathedral, built in 1629;
- wooden Orthodox Cathedral, built in 1855;
- 3 Orthodox churches;
- progymnasium for boys (4-years secondary school). Subjects: Theology essentials (Orthodox and Roman Catholic); Russian language, Latin language, Ancient languages (Greek and Hebrew), Mathematics, History, Geography, Modern languages (French, German, English); Visual arts essentials, Calligraphy.
- public 1- year school;
- post office & telegraph station;
- military hospital;
- a doctor;
In 1896 new institutions in Bobruisk:
- the school on fruit and hop growing was opened instead of the public school in Petrovichi;
- public 1-year school for women (free);
- 4-year school for women;
- civil hospital (20 beds). During that year there were 199 patients in the hospital. 165 of them were cured, 14 died, 20 stayed for the next year. Annual cost of maintenance of the hospital was 6,161 roubles 6 kopecks;
- charitable society for aid to poor students of progumnasium;
- 3 pharmacies (instead for one).
In 1902 in Bobruisk there were 16 different educational institutions (primary and secondary).
Copyright 1997-1998 Oleg Perzashkevich
Reproduced for the web with permission. All rights reserved. Any use of this material is prohibited without permission from:
Minsk Historical Genealogy Group
Republic of Belarus
Minsk - 07, Zhukovskogo 9-2-190
Bobruisk Interest Group, Don Mopsick, Shammes
Content last updated Friday, May 01, 2015 at 07:17 AM Mountain Daylight Time