The Jews of Krakow and its Surrounding Towns

 

Polish Occupations

(By Bruce Morgenstern)

For those of you who have struggled with Polish record translations, we hope that the work below will be helpful. The expanded list below was gleaned from about 500 Krakow birth, marriage, and death records by using various translation resources. 

Please note the following:

  • Polish Occupations contain no diacritical marks or special Polish characters.
  • Spellings have been changed slightly to match dictionary spellings, where appropriate.
  • Occupations came from 19th century Krakow vital records.
  • English Translations:
    • "dictionary entry" means that the translation is derived exactly from the Langenscheidt Polish dictionary.
    • "dictionary extrapolation" means that the exact entry did not appear in the dictionary, but there was an existing entry that could be logically modified into an occupation by following the same pattern used in other occupation translations.
    • "dictionary combination" means that the phrase did not appear in the dictionary.  The Polish words were looked up individually and combined.
    • "Jewishgen" means that the occupation could not be found in the dictionary, but was copied from the Jewishgen translation.
    • "LDS dictionary" means that the occupation could not be found in the dictionary, but it appeared in a pamphlet distributed by the Latter Day Saints (Mormons).
    • "?" means that the translation provided by the source indicated did not match the Langenscheidt dictionary entry.
    • "blank" means that a Krakow record indicated this occupation, but no translation could be found in any source examined.

Polish                       English                              Translation Source
adwokat                      lawyer                               dictionary entry
agent handlowy               commercial agent                     dictionary combination
akuszerka                    midwife                              dictionary entry
aptekarz                     chemist/druggist                     dictionary entry
arendarz                     lease-holder, innkeeper              Jewishgen
artysta                      artist                               dictionary entry
bakalarz                     teacher                              LDS dictionary
bankier                      banker                               dictionary entry
belfer                       assistant melamed in cheder          Jewishgen
bez zatrudnienie             without occupation                   dictionary combination
blacharz                     tinsmith                             dictionary entry
boznica                      synagogue                            dictionary entry
browarnik                    brewer                               dictionary extrapolation
brukarz                      paver                                dictionary extrapolation
buchhalter                   bookkeeper                           German Dictionary
budowniczy                   builder                              dictionary entry
bufetowy                     barman                               dictionary entry
burmistrz                    mayor                                dictionary entry
byly                         former/past/old/ex-/late             dictionary entry
ceglarz                      brickmaker                           dictionary extrapolation
chazan                       cantor                               Jewishgen
cieslak                      carpenter                            dictionary entry
cukiernik                    confectioner                         dictionary entry
cyrulnik                     barber-surgeon                       LDS dictionary
czapnik                      capmaker (also hatmaker)             dictionary entry
czarownik                    sorcerer/wizard                      dictionary entry
czeladnik                    journeyman                           dictionary entry
czlowiek studiujacy          student                              Jewishgen
doktor                       doctor                               dictionary entry
domokrazca                   peddler/hawker (huckster)            dictionary entry
domu czynszowy               landlord                             dictionary extrapolation
dozorca                      guard/overseer                       dictionary entry
dozorca boznica              synagogue caretaker                  dictionary extrapolation
drobny kupiec                small merchant                       dictionary entry
drobny handlarz              shopkeeper                           dictionary entry
drukarz                      printer                              dictionary entry
duchowny                     clergyman                            dictionary entry
dziedzic                     landlord                             Jewishgen
dzierzawca                   tenant                               dictionary entry
ekonomia                     bailiff, land-steward (?)            Jewishgen
ekspedytor                   forwarding agent                     dictionary entry
fabrykant                    manufacturer                         dictionary entry
faktor                       agent/broker                         dictionary entry
farbiarz                     dyer                                 dictionary extrapolation
felczer                      assistant surgeon                    dictionary entry
fryzjer                      barber                               dictionary entry
furman                       carter                               dictionary entry
galanternik                  seller of fancy goods and garments   dictionary extrapolation
garbarz                      tanner                               dictionary entry
garncarz                     potter                               dictionary entry
golarz                       barber                               Polish translator
gornik                       miner                                dictionary entry
gorzelnik                    alcohol distiller                    dictionary extrapolation
gospodarz                    farmer/landlord                      dictionary entry
grabarz                      grave-digger                         dictionary entry
handlarz                     dealer/trader                        dictionary entry
handlarz bydlo               " in cattle                          dictionary entry
handlarz chmiel              " in hops                            dictionary entry
handlarz drzewo              " in wood/timber                     dictionary entry
handlarz gesi                " in goose                           dictionary entry
handlarz koral               " in coral                           dictionary entry
handlarz korzenie            " in spices                          dictionary entry
handlarz kosz                " in baskets                         dictionary entry
handlarz mak                 " in poppies                         dictionary entry
handlarz mebel               " in furniture                       dictionary entry
handlarz nabial              " in dairy products                  dictionary entry
handlarz nafta               " in oil                             dictionary entry
handlarz obuwie              " in footwear/shoes                  dictionary entry
handlarz papier              " in paper                           dictionary entry
handlarz plotno              " in linen                           dictionary entry
handlarz produkt             " in produce                         dictionary entry
handlarz skora               " in skins                           dictionary entry
handlarz starzyzna           " in junk                            dictionary entry
handlarz stroje damskie      " in ladies dresses                  dictionary entry
handlarz szklo               " in glass                           dictionary entry
handlarz towary galantaryjnyc" in fancy goods                     dictionary extrapolation
handlarz wiktual             " in victuals (provisions, food)     dictionary entry
handlarz wino                " in wine                            dictionary entry
handlarz zapalek             " in matches                         dictionary entry
handlarz zboze               " in grain                           dictionary entry
handlarz zelazo              " in iron                            dictionary entry
introligator                 bookbinder                           dictionary entry
jalmuznik                    alms giver                           Jewishgen
jubiler                      jeweller                             dictionary entry
kahalny                      senior kahal member                  Jewishgen
kamieniarz                   stone cutter                         dictionary entry
kandydat adwokack            advocate (lawyer) before taking the bPolish translator
kantor                       cantor (also money changer)          Polish translator
kapelusznik                  hatter                               dictionary entry
kapicier                     roofer                               Dictionary of Jewish Surnames
karabelnik                   hawker, peddler                      Jewishgen
karczmarz                    innkeeper                            dictionary entry
kelner                       waiter                               dictionary entry
komornik                     renter                               dictionary extrapolation
kominiarz                    chimney-sweep                        dictionary entry
komisyoner                   commissioner                         dictionary extrapolation
kotlarz                      coppersmith, brazier                 Jewishgen
kowal                        smith                                dictionary entry
kramarz                      stall keeper                         LDS dictionary
krawcowa                     dressmaker                           dictionary entry
krawiec                      tailor                               dictionary entry
krawiec damski               dressmaker                           dictionary entry
krawiec meski                men's tailor                         dictionary entry
kreslarz                     draftsman                            dictionary entry
krochmalnik                  starch maker or merchant             dictionary extrapolation
kucharz                      cook                                 dictionary entry
kufernik                     coppersmith                          Dictionary of Jewish Surnames
kupiec                       merchant/tradesman/dealer            dictionary entry
kusnierz                     furrier                              dictionary entry
laznik                       bath attendant                       Jewishgen
lekarz                       physician                            dictionary entry
lesnik                       forester                             dictionary extrapolation
listonosz                    postman                              dictionary entry
maczarz/macznik              miller                               LDS dictionary
majster                      master/foreman/boss                  dictionary entry
malarz                       painter                              dictionary entry
malarz pokojowy              house painter                        dictionary extrapolation
meklarz                      broker                               Dictionary of Jewish Surnames
mleczarz                     dairyman                             LDS dictionary
mlynarz                      miller                               dictionary extrapolation
mosiaznik                    brass worker, brazier                Jewishgen
murarz                       bricklayer/mason                     dictionary entry
muzyk                        musician                             dictionary entry
mydlarz                      soap-boiler                          dictionary entry
nadkonduktor                 overseer                             dictionary extrapolation
najemnik                     hireling                             dictionary entry
nauczyciel                   teacher                              dictionary entry
negocyant                    negotiator                           dictionary extrapolation
oberzysta                    tavern keeper                        Jewishgen
ogrodnik                     farmer, gardener                     dictionary extrapolation
pachciarz                    tenant                               LDS dictionary
palacz                       stoker/fireman or distiller          Jewishgen
parasolnik                   parasol (umbrella) maker             Polish translator
parobek                      farmhand                             dictionary entry
piekarz                      baker                                dictionary entry
pisarz                       writer                               dictionary entry
piwowar                      brewer                               dictionary entry
poborca podatkowy            tax collector                        dictionary entry
podkahalny                   lesser kahal member                  Jewishgen
podrabin                     assistant rabbi                      Jewishgen
poeta                        poet                                 dictionary entry
pogrzebacz                   poker, grave digger                  Jewishgen
policjant                    policeman                            dictionary entry
pomocnik handlowy            assistant shopkeeper                 dictionary entry
poslugaczka                  servant, porter                      dictionary entry
prawnik                      lawyer                               dictionary entry
producent                    manufacturer                         Jewishgen
propinator                   tap room keeper
prywatyst/prywatny           private person                       Polish translator
przedsiebiorca               contractor/builder                   dictionary entry
przekupian                   hawker (huckster)                    Jewishgen
przemysl                     industry                             dictionary entry
przewoznik                   ferryman, carrier, boatman           dictionary entry
przybor                      outfit, equipment, fittings          dictionary entry
przy rodzinie                living with parents                  dictionary extrapolation
przy tesciu bawiacy          staying with in-laws                 dictionary extrapolation
rabin                        rabbi                                dictionary entry
radzic                       advisor                              dictionary entry
radzorca                     overseer                             Jewishgen
realnosc                     real estate                          dictionary entry
rentier                      pensioner(?)                         dictionary extrapolation
rewizor                      controller                           Jewishgen
robotnik                     worker                               dictionary entry
robotnik rolny               farmhand                             dictionary entry
rolnik                       farmer                               dictionary entry
rybak                        fisherman                            dictionary entry
rysownik                     draftsman/sketcher/designer          dictionary entry
rzemieslnik                  artisan/craftsman                    dictionary entry
rzezak                       mohel                                LDS dictionary
rzezbiarz                    sculptor                             dictionary entry
rzeznik                      butcher                              dictionary entry
sklepikarz                   shop keeper                          dictionary entry
skornik                      tanner                               Jewishgen
slodownik                    maltster                             Jewishgen
slusarz                      locksmith                            dictionary entry
sluzacy                      servant                              dictionary entry
smolarz                      pitch-burner                         Jewishgen
spekulant                    speculator                           dictionary entry
stelmach                     cart/wheel maker                     LDS dictionary
stolarz                      carpenter                            dictionary entry
straznik, stroz              guard/watchman                       dictionary entry
stypendysta                  scholarship holder                   dictionary entry
sukiennik                    draper                               dictionary entry
szafarz                      cabinet/cupboard maker               Polish translator
szewc                        shoemaker                            dictionary entry
szklarz                      glazier                              dictionary entry
szkolnik                     rabbi's assistant/teacher            LDS dictionary
szmuklarz                    lace maker                           Jewishgen
szpektor                     teacher's assistant                  Jewishgen
szpekulant                   money-lender                         Jewishgen
szpitalnik                   hospital worker                      dictionary extrapolation
szwaczka                     seamstress                           dictionary entry
szynkarz                     tavern keeper                        Polish translator
szyper                       skipper                              Dictionary of Jewish Surnames
talmudyst                    talmudist
tandeciarz                   old-clothes man                      Dictionary of Jewish Surnames
tapicer                      upholsterer                          dictionary entry
targownik                    peddler                              LDS dictionary
terminator                   apprentice                           dictionary entry
tkacz                        weaver                               dictionary entry
tokarz                       turner (lathe)                       dictionary entry
towar                        goods                                dictionary entry
traktyernie                  innkeeper                            Dictionary of Jewish Surnames
ubogi                        poor                                 dictionary entry
uczen                        school boy/pupil                     dictionary entry
uczony                       scholar                              dictionary entry
urzednik                     clerk                                dictionary entry
waciarz                      quilt maker                          Jewishgen
wapniarz                     lime burner                          Jewishgen
wexlarz                      banker/money changer
wiernik                      trustee                              Jewishgen
winnik                       wine maker                           Jewishgen
wlasciciel                   proprietor, owner                    dictionary entry
wlasciciel realnosc          property owner                       dictionary extrapolation
wloscianin                   farmer/peasant                       dictionary extrapolation
wyrob ponczuch               maker of stockings                   dictionary entry
wyrobnik                     laborer                              dictionary entry
wyszynkarz                   innkeeper                            Jewishgen
wytw?rca                     manufacturer                         dictionary extrapolation
zarobnik                     worker                               dictionary entry
zebrak                       beggar                               dictionary entry
zegarmistrz                  watchmaker                           dictionary entry
zlotnik                      goldsmith                            dictionary entry
znachor                      medicine man                         Jewishgen
zniwiarz                     reaper                               dictionary entry
zotnierz                     soldier                              dictionary entry