Alternate spellings: Raczki
[Pol], Rotzk [Yid], Rachki [Rus], Rackos [Lith], Rotchky, Ratzk
Northeast Poland -12 mi
NW Augustow, 10 mi SW Suwalki -
53°59' N, 22°47' E. (Raczki is both a town and administrative district
(Gminy Raczki). 2001 Polska Organizacja Turystyczna
Raczki Historic Timeline
|650-400 BC first settlements on
banks of the river Rospuda.
Sigismund I (from Vilnius) gives privileges to Rackowicz
brothers. Stanislaw Rackowicz builds the famous Dowspuda
|1795 After the 3rd partition of Poland
and all of Suwalki were under Prussian rule in the department of
|1799 Raczki had 168 houses and 1008
who were mostly farmers.
|1807 Duchy of Warsaw was established and Raczki
was assigned to the department of Lomza.
Kingdom of Poland (Congress Poland) part of Russian Empire. Raczki is
part of Augustow wojewodztwo
(province). See Jewishgen
|1826 Encyclopedia Londinensis Vol XXI
reports population of 600, chiefly Jews.
Economic stagnation, lack of prospects for development, frequent fires
result in only 140 numbered houses and 1279 inhabitants.
|1863 resurrection by insurgents of Russian
begins and by 1870 Raczki lost its town charter.
|1867 Kingdom of Poland divided into 10
gubernias and 84 powiats (sub-districts). Raczki is now part
of Augustow powiat in Suwalki Gubernia. See Jewishgen
|1886 Raczki had 2807 inhabitants and 194
11 brick. There were two breweries, tanneries, candles makers
and 19 trade companies. Of the 16 streets, only one leading
to the bridge was paved.
|1888 fire burnt down 98 houses
Russian defeat in war with Japan results in weaking of Tsarist regime
and outbreak of revolutionary struggles in the area.
|1907 another great fire burns a large part
town including 73 residential buildings
|1914 Raczki receives rail link from Suwalki
Prussian border and WW1 begins
|1921 Raczki has 252 houses and 1558
|1938 Raczki has population of 1841 with
Roman Catholic, 413 Jews, 27 Evangelicals, 5 Orthodox, and 19
September - Raczki seized by Russians. In an agreement with Germany
Russians left at beginning of October and Germans occupied.
Jews were deported first to Suwalki, then to Lithuania and the death
19th Century Raczki
News of an 1863
Jewish Taxpayer List for Raczki with 263 names surfaced at the
2013 IAJGS conference in Boston. This list includes
the name, occupation, and town for each Raczki taxpayer.
262 men and 1 person with the given name of Sera. There are 243
residing in Raczki and the remaining 23 from nearby
small towns (many near Augustow). While this document is
lacking in details it is
one of only a very few documents with a comprehensive list of Jewish
residents at one point in time in the 19th century.
This document consists of about 8 mostly
sub-lists. While the significance of the sublists is not specified they
could roughly correspond with the number of streets in 1863
on population growth and the 1886 count of 16 streets. The 23 people
outside Raczki appear at the end of the list in
town order which is another indication the list is based on
Many individuals with identical surnames are listed together
possibly indicating they are living in the same house and even more
likely to be closely related. In many cases they also list the
same occupation. The most numerous
is the Polish word handlarz
which can mean merchant, dealer, peddler or huckster. The 2nd and 3rd
largest occupations are tailor and shoemaker. Most other
occupations are basic trades. The top 12 occupations are listed below:
Click here to see the 1863
|15 others occupations
list was discovered by Alex Friedlander at the Suwalk Archives during a
2012 research trip to Poland. The
document was on microfilm made at the Vilnus
the Suwalk Gubernia Jewish Community.
- Jewishgen Communities DataBase on Jewishgen.com
Gminy Raczki - official Polish
Translate - Polish to English
translate text, web pages or documents. note: this
100% accurate and was erroneously translating 'Raczki' as 'Handles'
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Polish State Archives - databases
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Updated on October 18, 2013
visits to this page since 2 October 2013