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DUBOSSARY is a town on the Dniester River in the eastern part of The Republic of Moldova. Founded at the end of the 17th century as a Russian fortress, Dubossary developed as a nearby settlement. The inhabitants were employed in the timber trade and log rafting. Other researchers, first mention Dubossary at the period of the Mongol invasion in the region, 1260-1360. The town was established in XIV century as a capital of one of the Tatar regions. The name Dubossary is from Turkic "Tembosary" or "Dembossary" meaning yellow hills.
From 1360 to 1385, Dubossary was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; from 1385 to 1410, it was part of Poland, from 1410 to 1430; then it went back to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. From the second part of the 15th century Dubossary belonged to Crimean Khan, and it was part of the Tatar region with several fortified towns which included Dubossary. In the 18th century, Dubossary was a center of a district with 41 localities in the district. At that time, Nogay tatars governed the region, but also living there Velikorossy, Malorossy, Moldavians, Jews, Greeks, and Poles. Finally after the 1771 Russo-Turkish war it became part of the Russian Empire and became a districttown with 13 smaller towns in Ochakov region.
Dubossary was not part of the Moldova Principality before 1812, and in the 19 century it was not in Bessarabia. It was part of the Russian Empire, Kherson gubernia (principality). Although the history of Dubossary was always influenced by neighboring Moldova. After 1812, when Russia annexed part of the Moldova Principality, which became Bessarabia, the strategic importance of the border town diminished, until 1918 when Romania annexed Bessarabia.
From 1918 Dubossary was part of Ukraine, Soviet Union. In 1924 the Soviet Union decided to establish the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic inside the Ukraine Soviet Socialist Republic. The capital of that region was Balta, and later became Tiraspol. Even the majority in that region was not Romanian/Moldovans (only about 30%). The establishment of an autonomous republic was mostly political, in order to tell the world that the USSR did not recognize the annexation of Bessarabia by the Kingdom of Romania.
In 1939, the USSR and Nazi Germany signed a 10-year non-aggression treaty, called the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact. Soon after that Germany occupied part of Poland, and USSR occupied Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia and in 1940 occupied Bessarabia. On August 2, 1940, Dubossary became part of the newly established Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, with the capital in Kishinev.
After the Second World War, Dubossary became part of Moldavskaya SSR in the Soviet Union and on September 2, 1990 Dubossary became part of Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Republic also named Transnistria Republic.
Starting from 18th century or even before, Jews lived in Dubossary and surrounding arears. Theytraded in grain, wine, and prunes. They also grew tobacco. By 1847, there were 2,506 Jews living in Dubossary (about 1,000 in the town itself) and its vicinity, including the towns of Grigoriopol and Ananyev.
In 1897, there were 5,220 Jews in Dubossary, 43% of the total population. In April 1882, a pogrom occurred. Two Jews were killed, and much property was looted and destroyed. In the beginning of the 20th century, the community operated a talmud torah, nine chederim, and four private schools. An attempt to resuscitate the *blood libel was made in 1903. During the civil war of 1918–20 Jewish *self-defense was organized and the community remained relatively free from the pogroms occurring at the time. Thousands of refugees making their way to Romania in 1920–22 passed through the town, and many from Dubossary itself also crossed the border. There were 3,630 Jews in Dubossary in 1926 (81% of the total population), dropping to 2,198 (total population 4,250) in 1939. In the 1930s there were about 400 Jewish artisans organized in nine cooperatives, and 227 farmers raising tobacco, while others worked as laborers and clerks.
|For details of Jewish life in Dubossary, please go to Yizkor Book (Dubossary Memorial Book) (Hebrew) Published in Tel-Aviv, Israel, 1965 and translated into English at www.jewishgen.org by Sarah Faerman.
In 1999 the Russian Edition of the book was published.
From September 3, 1941
"Six Jews who refused to serve on the Jewish Council at Dubossary, Ukraine, are publicly hanged. Later, 600 elderly Jews were driven into Dubossary’s eight synagogues and burned alive when the synagogues were set ablaze." Find it at The New Your Times
28 Video Testimonies of HOLOCAUST SURVIVORS from Dubossary
presented at University of Southern California Shoah Foundation Institute for Visual History and
Here is a list of 28 people from Dubossary who recorded their testimonies, some of them were in Ghettos, and in concentration camps. Full video you can order from the foundation, but all testimonies are indexed and you can find the names and places mentioned in the video and also see part of it online.
Go to http://vhaonline.usc.edu/search.aspx and if you seatch for Dubossary you will see all of them. For more Information please visit www.college.usc.edu/vhi.
“Dubassar” - Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities in Romania, Volume 1. Published by Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, 1969. Translated at www.jewishgen.org by Shula Laby, M. D. and Morton Laby, M.D.
Holocaust Memorial to Victims of fascism, Dubossary, Moldova/Transnistria.
Photographs are courtesy of Ozias Ukshteyn, the Director of Jewish Community of Dubossary, Moldova/Transnistria, 2012.
List of the Jews killed in the autumn of 1941 and buried in the Mass Graves,at a place where now it is a Memorial of Victims of Fascists in Dubossary, Moldova/Transnistria. (18 thousand people were murdered at that place, we collected only 757 families totaling 2984 people's names killed. They were from many towns in Odes'ka oblast, Moldova, Moldova/Transnistria.) Prepared by Ozias Ukshteyn, Director of Dubossary Jewish Community. Translated by Janet Furba, 2012.
JewishGen / Holocaust Database / Jews Killed in 1941 in Dubossary, Moldova/Transnistria. Database include 757 family records with total of 2,984 Jews killed in Dubossary.
|2009 Holocaust Remembrance Day
Please send me any comments about or corrections to these memoirs, and also please send me new stories.
|Building of Former Synagogue
- Address: Dubossary, 197 Lomonosov Street
- Size: 300 sq.m
- Date of construction: second part of XIX century
- Up until 1933 was a synagogue
- At the present time there is an office of Network system
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Updated May, 2014
Copyright © 2014 Yefim A Kogan
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