8. BH, P. 1; See Appendix II- Map of Belarus Today, p. 35.

9. UFO; See Appendix III- Map of Vitebsk Area, p. 36.

10. FACT

11. VWIK

12 EH, V.16, p.75.

13. VC

14. FACT

15. Forests of mostly fir and birch trees, and timber reserves cover about 38% of the region’s territory. IBID

16. See Appendix IX Pictures, Pictures 1 and 2, p. 41.

17. VT. p. 42.

18. The Jews were centered on the smaller side. IBID, p. 44.

19. FACT

20. VT, p. 129.

21. VC

22. HO, p. 403. This was since the year 1021. VC. See ft. 23.

23. This information comes from an ancient Russian document, from the year 1021. EH, V.2, p.75

24. IBID, V.16, p.75.

25. VC

26. EH, V.16, p.76.

27. VC, See Appendix VIII Coat of Arms of Vitebsk, p. 41

28. EH, V.16, p.76.

29. VC

30. EH, V.16, p.76.

31. IBID, V.16, p.76; EJ, V. 16, p. 191; VT, p.4.

32. VWIK

33. VT, p. 4.

34. VWIK

35. FACT

36. VC; See Vitebsk -After the War, p. 26.

37. VC

38. EJ, V. 16, p. 191.

39. EH, V.16, p. 75.

40. It was formerly known as the Tsarskoe Selo Station. The station, located at the crossing of the Zagorodny Avenue and the now-vanished Vvedensky Canal, was inaugurated in the presence of Nicholas I of Russia on 30 October 1837 when the first Russian train, named Provorny, departed from its platform for the imperial residence at Tsarskoe Selo. Today the station includes a replica of the first Russian train, a detached pavilion in memory of the Tsar and his family and a marble bust of Nicholas I. There are trains to Central Europe, Baltic States, Ukraine, major parts of Belarus, and the southern suburbs of St. Petersburg, such as Pushkin and Pavlovsk. FACT

41. IBID

42. BG

43. AMS; 21C.

44. EJ, V. 16, p. 192.

45.  This was the Jewish section of the (propaganda) department of the Russian Communist party from 1918 to 1930. This section was to aid the Jews in their complete assimilation. IBID,  pps. 779-81.  It was particularly active in Belarus, because of the need for its’ violent campaign of propaganda and persecution against the Jewish religion, way of life, and national solidarity. IBID, V. 2, p. 446.

46. EH, V.16, p.76; EJ, V. 16, p. 191.

47. BH, p. 2; EJ, V. 16, p. 192.

48. FACT

49. IBID

50. See The Holocaust, pps. 2-25.

51. VWIK

52. IBID; Famous Jews from Vitebsk, who appear on this list are told about in the next chapter Jewish History of Vitebsk, pps. 16-7,19.

53. HO, p. 403. There are records of Jews not having to pay a particular tax, in 1551. VT,  p.4.

54. FACT

55. EJ, V. 16, p. 190.

56. EH, V. 16, p. 76.

57. BH, p. 1.

58. EH, V. 16, p. 76.

59. VT, p. 4.

60. EH, V. 16, p. 76. They received this from the King, in addition to the rights granted to all the Jews of Lithuania in trade, building Synagogues, organizing cemeteries, they also had the right to own land and build houses, and only pay regular taxes for these rights. VT,  p.4.

61. BH, p. 1; EJ, V. 16, p. 190.

62. IBID;  VT, p.4.

63. EH, V. 16, p. 76; EJ, V. 16, p. 190; VT, p. 4. This is a ledger. The records of Jewish autonomous units were recoded in this way, since the middle ages. It contained minutes of meetings, bylaws, officers, disciplinary actions, taxes and fines, trials, special historical events, and other entities of the local community life. Guilds had their own Pinkas. EJ, V. 13, p. 537.

64. The reasons behind these rulings were not to embarrass the poor, and to have peace within the local community. VT, p. 4.

65. IBID.

66. There was a blood-libel there in 1823. The Jews were declared “not guilty” in 1835. IBID, pps. 203-5.

67. IBID,  pps. 203-39.

68. EH, V. 16, p. 76; EJ, V. 16, p. 190. This was in 1712. VT, p. 4.

69. EH, V. 16, p. 76; EJ, V. 16, p. 190; VT, p.4.

70. VT, p. 4.

71. EH, V. 16, p. 76; EJ, V. 16, p. 190; VT, p.4.

72. This was the central institution of Jewish self-government in Poland and Lithuania from the middle of the 16-century, until 1764. It represents the highest form of Jewish autonomy within a regional or national framework attained by European Jewry, both in terms of territory and/or duration. EJ, V.5, p. 995.

73. This was one of the three centers of  “The Council of the Land of Lithuania”, from 1623. IBID. It was situated near what was the Lithuanian-Polish border. At first it was the main center of Lithuanian Jewry, and afterwards was one of the leading Jewish communities in Lithuania. IBID, V. 4, pps. 1359-63.

74. VT, p. 4.

75. EJ, V. 5,p. 995.

76. BH, p. 1; VT, p. 4.

77. IBID

78. JP

79. EH, V.16, p. 76.

80. BH, p. 1; EH, V.16, p. 76.

81. See History of Vitebsk, p. 6.

82. EH, V.16, p. 76; EJ, V. 16, p. 191.

83. EH, V. 16, p. 76.

84. VT, p. 42.

85. IBID, p. 4.

86. EH, V. 16, p. 76.

87..  VT, p. 4.

88. VT. p. 134. See Appendix V- The Jewish Merchants of Vitebsk, p. 37.

89. This is a popular Jewish movement representing a way of Jewish life. It is especially characteristic of Lithuanian Jewry. The name means “opponents” and was designated due to the opposition to the Hassidim. It is distinguished by intellectuality and diligence in study.  A specific culture was developed. EJ, V. 12, P. 161. The founder was Elijah Ben Shlomo Zalman, the Gaon of Vilna (1720-1797). EJ, V. 6, Pps. 651-658

90. This is a popular religious movement, which has special patterns of Jewish community life, leadership, and social outlook. It developed in the second half of the 18 century, in Southern Poland. It is distinguished by socio-religious traits, which are: ecstasy, group cohesion and charismatic leadership. EJ, V. 7, pps. 1390-1432. The founder and first leader was the Ba’al Shem Tov (c. 1700-1760); IBID; V. 9, pps. 1049-1058.

91. This is a trend of the Hassidic movement. Shneur Zalman of Lyady, who was disciple of Dov Baer of Mezhirich and Menachem Mendel of Vitebsk, ft. 97, p. 98, founded it. When Menachem Mendel immigrated to the land of Israel, Shneur Zalman, ft 98, p. 1,1replaced him as leader of the Hassidim of Belarus. He then formulated his doctrine on the conceptions of G-d, the world, and of man and his religious obligations. Intellectuality is stressed: and this caused the name, which is an abbreviation of the Hebrew words for Wisdom, Understanding and Knowledge. This organization has established many Yehivot, helped Jews, and spread their propaganda throughout the world. IBID, V. 7, pps. 1013-4.

92. VT, p. 42.

93..  FACT

94. Rabbi Areh Leib wrote a book titled ” Devrei Areh” (The Sermons of Areh) from this book; we know that he ran a Yeshiva in Vitebsk. VT, p. 181.

95. Rabbi Hefetz became a Rabbi in Vitebsk , in 1765. He wrote a book titled “Bet Ya’akov Fire” (The Importance of the House of Jacob), dedicated to Rabbi Jacob Feiwel. From the dedications in this book, which were written by famous rabbis of the period, we learn that he was a very well known Rabbi. IBID

96. Details about all of these rabbis can be found in the Vitebsk Memorial Book. VT, pps. 176-9.

97. Rabbi Menachem Mendel of Vitebsk was perhaps the best student of the Ba’al Shem Tov. He was spokesman for the Hassidim.  In 1777, he came on Aliyah with many followers. He became the leader of the Jews here, and was also still considered the leader of the Jews in the Belarus area. He sent messengers to Europe to collect money for Israel.  He stressed the importance of faith even beyond logic and rational reason. EJ, V. 11, pps. 1310-12; VT, pps.  177-80.

98. Rabbi Shneur Zalman married the daughter of the Jewish Nobleman Yehuda Leib Segal, who in turn supported him. He used his practical-scientific knowledge as an aid to his study of the Torah. He became a strong follower of Hassidism and promoter in Vitebsk. IBID, pps. 181-2.

99. HO, p.403.

100. EH, V. 16, p. 76; EJ, V. 16, p. 191.

101. Rabbi Yisrael MePolozk came on Aliyah together with Rabbi Menachem Mendel. He was an excellent speaker and organizer. Because of the hard economic situation here, he went abroad to collect charity and succeeded in organizing a permanent charity fund for this goal. He died while he was on this trip. VT, pps. 180-2.

102. IBID, pps. 180-2.

103. EH, V. 16, p. 76.

104. This is the title by which Hassidic Rabbis are known. It is an abbreviation of the Hebrew words which mean” our lord, teacher and master”. EJ, V.2, p. 293.

105. BH, P.1; The official name for this task was “Kazyonny Ravvin”. This was the title given to the officials, who were elected by the communities of Russia, between 1857 and 1917, in accordance with instructions from the government. This job was part of the attempt of the Russian government to influence and control Jewish communal activities. Their job was “to supervise public prayers and religious ceremonies so that the permanent regulations were respected; to regularize the laws of the Jews and clarify the problems connected with them, to educate in the true spirit of the law”. In practice the “official rabbis” represented their communities before the authorities. They delivered patriotic speeches, mostly in Russian, on festivals and on the czar’s birthdays, which extolled the government. They supervised Jewish government schools, administered the oath to soldiers who had been enlisted in the army, and kept records of births marriages and deaths. IBID, V. 10, pps. 860-2; V. 14, p.441.

106. This was 70%. BH, P. 1

107. This was the common name for the old fashioned elementary school for the teaching of Judaism. It was a privately run institution. It was generally housed in a room, which is the literal meaning of the word. EJ, V. 8, p. 241.

108. This was a communal institution, which was maintained by the community, for teaching poor children whose parents couldn’t pay the fees. IBID.

109. BH, p. 1; EH, V. 16, p. 76; EJ, V. 16, p. 191.

110. He was the author of "Ahabat Yiddidim" (Warsaw, 1881-82) FACT

111. IBID.

112. This term represents the territory within the borders of czarist Russia, where Jews were allowed to reside. EJ, V. 13, pps. 24-8.

113. This was after Warsaw, Odessa, Lodz, Vilna, Kishenev, Minsk, Bialistok, Berdichev, and Yekateroslav. VS.

114. See Appendix V  The Jewish Merchants of Vitebsk , p. 37.

115. SV

116. This is the Hebrew term for the Enlightenment movement and ideology, which began within Jewish society in the 1770’s. The movement was influential; it spread, with fluctuations, until the early 1880’s. EJ, V. 7, pps. 1433-1452.

117. BH, P. 1.

118. This is the movement that was the link between the forerunners of Zionism in the middle of the 19 century, and political Zionism which began with Herzl and the First Zionist Conference in 1897. The literal meaning is “Love of Zion”. The members were called “Hovevei Zion”. The literal meaning is “Lovers of Zion”. The movement spread to Jewish communities all over the world. Each area had their own particular way of expressing their Zionism. EJ, V. 8, p. 463.

119. This is an abbreviation for the Yiddish words, which mean  “General Jewish Workers ‘ Union in Lithuania, Poland and Russia”. This was the Jewish socialist party, which was founded in Russia, in 1897.  It was associated with a devotion to Yiddish, autonomism, and secular Jewish nationalism. It envisioned Jewish life, as lived in Eastern Europe. It was opposed to Zionism and to other conceptions of worldwide Jewish national identity. During WWI, the Bund, began to side with the Communists. After WWII its’ center was in the USA. IBID, V.4, pps. 1497-1507.

120. VT, pps. 259-61.

121. IBID, pps. 263-4.

122. IBID, pps. 264-5.

123. IBID, p. 265.

124. IBID, pps. 265-6.

125. IBID, p. 265.

126. IBID, p. 265.

127. IBID,  p.279.

128. IBID,  p. 271.

129. The importance involved in going on Aliyah, and working the land of Israel. ZA, KKL1/110.

130. VT, pps. 232-438.

131. ZA,KKL1/110-17/7/11.

132. IBID, KKL1/110-28/7/11.

133. VT, P. 319.

134. IBID, p. 273.

135. IBID, 175-6.

136. IBID, pps. 171-4.

137. IBID, pps. 170.

138. IBID,  pps.169-70.

139. IBID,  pps.167-8.

140. IBID,  pps.161-4.

141. IBID, pps 157-8.

142. IBID, p. 271.

143. IBID, pps. 271-3.

144. IBID, p. 276.

145. IBID, p. 276.

146. IBID, pps. 244-252.

147.IBID,  pps. 157-176.

148. Rabbi Brook was also a doctor. He came on Aliyah in 1920, and was a representative to the XII Zionist Congress, in 1921. In his way of believing in Zionism, he was a true follower of Herzl. IBID, pps. 110-27

149. This is the general name for the law-making body in Czarist Russia. It stopped operating in on March 12, 1912.  A few Jews served as representatives. EH, V.12, pps. 157-8.

150. EH, V. 16, p. 76, EJ, V. 16, p. 191.

151. Zvi Meirovitz (b.1872-d.1936) was a publicist, who strove for the promotion of the middle-class. He organized the activities of the HeHalutz organization in the Diaspora, and promoted the study and use of the Hebrew language. He succeeded in coming on Aliyah in 1935, but died a year later. VT. pps. 165-8

152. The literal meaning is the pioneer. This was an organization of Jewish youth, whose aim was to prepare its members to settle in the land of Israel. The idea of the movement began after the Pogroms of 1881, in Russia. The movement spread in Eastern Europe and then westward. EJ, V. 8, pps. 247-55.

153. Joseph Trumpeldor (1880-1920) was the symbol of armed defense in Israel. He lost his left arm in the Russo-Japanese War (1904). He received an honorable rank, despite his being Jewish  .In 1912 he came to Israel, worked in agriculture, and during WWI formed the Zionist Mule Corps. In 1917 he went to Russia, with the aim of forming Jewish Regiments in the Russian army. After the peace treaty of 1918, he devoted himself to the establishment of He-Halutz movement in Russia. He returned to Israel in 1919, and was asked to organize the defense of the settlements in Upper Galilee. He died of his wounds in Tel Hai. His last words were ‘Never mind; it is good to die for our country” IBID, V.15, pps. 1410-3.

154. VT, p. 47.

155. BH, p. 2; EJ. V.16, p. 192.

156. Exodus 30, 15: The rich are not to give more than a half shekel and the poor are not to give less when you make the offering to the LORD to atone for your lives. VT. p. 274.

157. Mr. Beilin succeeded Mr, Meirovitz in this important task. IBID,  p.366; ZA, KKL1/110- 9/12/11

158. IBID, KKL-1910- 1915.

159. IBID, KKL1/149- 13/2/13

160. Grodno is located in the northwestern corner of Belarus. See  Appendix II  Map of Belarus Today, p. 34.

161. They wanted conditions that weren’t always possible to fulfill. ZA, KKL1/110- 9/12/11.

They wanted it listed as received from “The Corporation for Building the Land of Israel, Vitebsk”. IBID, KKL1/110- 9/12/11; IBID, KKL1/32- 24/6/13.

They wanted the names and reasons for the donations listed; for example: “pupils of the Zevirov school and their parents for ‘contributions to the acquired area’ ”, IBID, KKL1/110-9/12/11, or “in honor of a wedding”, IBID, KKL1/149- 21/7/13; “by students of Zionist oriented schools and by members of the Kadimah organization” IBID, KKL1/110- 9/12/11. 

A question was asked if everything was actually listed or only in the basic correspondence? Charity was sent for the planting of trees, and was listed in the Jewish National Fund Golden Book, and this in turn in the local newspapers. IBID, KKL1/149-21/7/13. A thank-you note for receiving “Tree Certificates” was received, IBID, KKL1/110-28/7/11.

162. Mr. Beilin asked that charity be collected on Purim for “The Redemption of Jerusalem”. Then the noblewoman Sheina Rasie Herschman gave quite a substantial donation. IBID, KKl137 By her name, I understand that she must have been related to our Family.

163. IBID, KKL137-16/3/13.

164. Arthur Ruppin (1876-19430, a sociologist and economist was responsible for the changing from political Zionism to practical Zionism. He realized the importance of promoting the building of the land of Israel and its’ people. He was in charge of the political side of this outlook. EJ, V.14, pps. 430-2.

165. Ruppin sent a thank-you note for a sent donation. ZA110-287/11.

166. IBID, KKL1/110-28/7/11.

167. IBID.

168. VT, P. 344

169. ZA, A13/24-1912

170. This was the first professional Hebrew theater in the world. It was founded in Moscow in 1917. It is now located in Tel Aviv and known as the National Theater of Israel. EJ, V. 7, pps.1028-33.

171. One of delegates was my Great Uncle, the lawyer Mathias Herschman. VT, p. 367-85.

172. BH, p. 2;  EJ. V.16, p. 192.

173. VT. p. 287

174. IBID, p. 289.

175. The announcement was received by telegram. This was the way all urgent news was then received. IBID, pps. 290-1.

176. Beilis was arrested in Kiev, on July 21, 1911, for kidnapping a little girl for the use of blood in baking matzot. The case received universal attention. He was declared ”not guilty”, on October 28, 1913. EJ, V 4, pps 399-400.

177. VT, p. 301.

178. BH, p. 2.

179. Yehuda Pen (b.1870-d.1937) was interested in drawing from his youth. His very religious upbringing caused a problem.  He studied in the Petersburg Art Academy and eventually, was able to open his own art school in Vitebsk. There were hundreds of young students in his school, including many from surrounding areas. Pen was greatly interested in the Jewish ``type'', Jewish surroundings, Jewish traditional customs, and most especially in the characteristic Jewish image. Pen handled all of this in an appropriate way through his religious/romantic manner, as an honest artist of his time could do. PT, 1001.

180. Marc Chagall (b.Vitebsk, 7/7/1887-d.France, 28/3/1985), was a famous painter, printmaker and designer. His images were based on emotional and poetic associations.  His works were among the first expressions of psychic reality in modern art. They include sets for plays and ballets, etchings illustrating the Bible and stained glass windows. He was inspired by Parisian art and French   landscapes. Vitebsk is the background theme in much of his work. Today they appear in museums all over the world. He is distinguished for his surrealistic inventiveness ART, PT, EJ, V. 5,Pps. 318-24.  After the 1917 Revolution Chagall was appointed commissar of fine arts in Vitebsk and director of the Vitebsk Arts Academy. FACT.


181. Solomon Yudovin (b.1894-d.1954) was born in the small shtetl of Beshenkovichi of the Vitebsk Gubernia.  He showed interest in drawing at a very young age and was noticed by Yehuda Pen, one of the famous Jewish artists of the time, who took him under his wing. In 1910 Yudovin was taken to St Petersburg’ by S. Anski, to study painting. He had his first exhibition in Petrograd in 1917 and produced an album of Jewish ornaments, a theme, which remained important in his work throughout his career. He participated in Anski’s folklore expedition, from 1913 to 1914, and thus collected material for his future output. Yudovin belongs to the modern graphic artists with a remarkable approach, rich sentiment and clarity of form.  Some of his work resembles that of the Vitebsk artist Pen. In Yudovin's woodcuts, one can see much more sharply the characteristic face of the town of Vitebsk, with her little houses and streets. Most especially vivid were the Vitebsk Jewish types. This is the reason the critics comment that his creations carried a strong Jewish national character. ART, PT.


182. Abel Pann-Pfefferman (b1883-d.1963) was a successful painter and cartoonist. He studied in Pen’s art school. He caused a sensation with his drawings of the czarist pogroms. He settled in Palestine and was one of the first teachers in the Bezalel Art School. His goal was to illustrate the Bible in its original settings. EJ, V. 3, p.609.

183. Amos Zadkin (b. 1890-1967) was a sculptor and a watercolor artist. He studied in Pen’s art school. He lived and painted for a while in Paris. In 1993 he came to Israel and taught in Bezalet Art School. His work was mot associated with the Vitebsk motif. He was also publisher of lithographs with biblical and Israeli themes and content. VT, p. 107. His most famous work was entitled “Destroyed City” VX.

184. PT.

185. BH, p. 2.

186. PT

187. VT, p. 5.

188. S. Anski (b. 1863-d.1920) was an author and folklorist. This was his pseudonym, as his real name was Solomon Zainwel Rapaport. He joined the Haskalah movement at the age of 16. He wrote mainly in Russian, but became best known for his works in Yiddish. He belonged to the Socio-Revolutionary party. His poem Die Shvueh (The Oath) was set to music and became the theme song of Russia's Jewish Socialist party (See FT. 122) He traveled around Eastern Europe collecting material and became an authority on Jewish folklore, he wove folk themes into his otherwise realistic stories, of which the best known is Between Two Worlds, or The Dybbuk (1916; translation 1926). He adapted it for the stage. The play has been used as the basis for operas. His works include poems, plays, narratives, memoirs, folklore, and observations about the havoc of WWI. EJ, V. 3, pps. 34-5; ENC.

189. Chaim Zhitlovsky (b.1865-d.1943) was a Yiddish philosopher and writer, and the chief theoretician of Diaspora nationalism and Yiddishism. He became a Russian socialist and estranged from Jewish interests; but the pogroms of the 1880’s returned him to Vitebsk and his roots. He believed in Jewish nationalism, but not Zionism. He became a member of the Bund (See FT. 122), in 1898. The Kishenev pogroms, in 1903, caused him to incline toward territorialism. He influenced the programs of all Jewish nationalist parties, in the Russian Pale and among American Jewish immigrants, in his struggle against assimilation. His theoretical justification for the existence of Yiddish was in his use of this language to spread his ideas.  EJ, V16, pps. 1009-11.

190. Moses Segal (b.1876-d.1968) was a Bible scholar. He was educated at London and Oxford Universities. He became a lecturer in Bible studies and Semitic languages, at he Hebrew University in 1926, and a professor in 1939. He was an expert in the Hebrew language, and wrote on this subject. In his writings about the Bible, he doubts the Documentary Theory, by modifying the traditional doctrine of Mosaic authorship.  He was awarded the Israel Prize for Jewish Studies in 1954. IBID, V.14, pps.1107-8.

191. EH, V. 16, p. 76; EJ, V. 16, p. 191.

192. He was a physician, a historian, a cosmological crackpot (or a visionary?). FACT

192.01 Lists

(These lists were found and translated by MaR..)

1. Known Socialist Revolutionaries in Vitebsk - ENGLISH
(JP, GS, 1905, 1800, ch.34, l.7)
Secret to number 8061 November 15, 1905

Active members
"Vitebsk of the Socialist Revolutionary Party" (1904-1908 years) (Based on Russian Affairs Police Department in the funds TSGAOR USSR)

? Name, O. Age, years Situation role in the group, nicknamed by Observer JP Address residence

1 Bezhas Leyba, 20 (1905) Vitebsk tradesman, without employment of members of the party, a member of the brigade combat
2 Berlas Pepper 20 (1905) Vitebsk tradesman, a student member of the military pharmacist squads Nikolskaya str. at public Jewish school
3 Bogorad Moses I. Ya Vitebsk tradesman Party member
4 Budnevich Tsalka burghers Party member (1904), a member of the military squads (1905)
5 Voyhansky Israel 21 (1906) Urban tradesman Party member
6 Glezerman Esther E. 20 (1908) The daughter of a merchant, without the employment of members of the party, "Girlfriend"
7 Gurevich Joakim Bourgeois member battle squads (1905)
8 Gurevich Tsyv'yan II 18 (1908) Vitebsk petty bourgeois, without the employment of members of the party, "Matt"
9 Davydova Eyga M. 17 (1905) Vitebsk lower middle class woman, a former member of the schoolgirl's Party (1904), Smolenskaya Str. Dobrin house 10 De George Alexander 17 (1905), a nobleman, without occupation, Belorussian Party member
11 De George Peter B. Noble, a student, Belorussian Party member 1912 Dobrin Maria G. 24 (1904) Wife merchant without employment, owner safe house, "Theatrical" 1913 Dobrin
13 Solomon J. 20 (1905), son of a merchant, without the employment of members of the party, a member of the militant squads (1905), Smolenskaya Str. own house
14 Dyatkin Chaim I. 20 (1905) Vitebsk tradesman, without employment of members of militant squads (1905) Piyarskaya Str. House Feinberg
15 Evelev Itska Bourgeois Party member (1904), a member of the brigade combat
16 Iofin Yankel II 19 (1905) Vitebsk tradesman, clerk, printer-compositor member battle squads (1905) Under Investigation in Vitebsk Prison (1905)
17 Kaplan Naum I. son of a merchant member of the Party (1904), a member of the militant squads (1904)
18 Kobrin Mindl B. 19 (1908) Shklovskaya petty bourgeois, stocking member of the party when the parents Vitebsk
20 Koldobskii Abram Bourgeois Party member (1904), a member of the military squads (1905)
21 Lifshitz Tanhel Z. 22 (1908) Bourgeois, without the employment of members of the party, "Good"
22 Malkin Rachel J. 17 (1905) Vitebsk lower middle class woman, a former member of the schoolgirl's Party (1904), Smolenskaya Str. Dobrin house
23 Palkin Abram L. 23 (1905) Vitebsk tradesman, a private teacher, member of the Party (1904) Piyarskaya Str. father's house
24 Pohost Malka M. 17 (1905) Vitebsk petty bourgeois, seamstress member battle squads (1905) Part 1. New Slobodka. Vitebsk disappeared.
25 Pruss William A. 24 (1905) Student St. Petersburg University, member of the party, Head of combat squads (1904) Novo Monastic per. father's house
26 Tevelson Riva E. 23 (1908) burghers, without the employment of members of the party, "Tulovskii"
27 Teitelbaum Iosel Abelev 16 (1905) Vitebsk tradesman, without employment of members of the party, "Nicholas" member of the military squads (1905) Piyarskaya Str. father's house
28 Freidson Leiser B. Bourgeois Party member (1904), a member of the military squads (1905)
29 Tsetlin Malka Z. 19 (1905) Shklovskaya Mogilev province petty bourgeois, a former member of the schoolgirl's Party (1904) Cross-Peter Str. Home Fogelson
30 Tsetlin Michael Z. 18 (1905), Shklovsky Mogilev province tradesman, a former high-school student, without the employment of members of the Party (1904), "Beautiful" Cross-Peter Str. Home Fogelson
31 Shaykiina Dveyra M. Vitebsk petty bourgeois party member
32 Sheaf Zalman A. 20 (1905) Vitebsk tradesman Party member
33 YAKERSON Esther I. 20 (1905) Vitebsk lower middle class woman, a former member of the schoolgirl's Party (1904), Smolenskaya Str. House Dobrin
34 Yakovlev (Semenov), Ivan J. 20 (1905) Farmer Smolensk Province Member of the Party (1904), a member of the military squads (1905) No fixed abode, had disappeared from Vitebsk
35 Yakhnin Nachman Y. 22 (1908) Bourgeois, without the employment of members of militant squads, "Substitute" 4. Berlas Peppers Vitebsk tradesman, 20 years old, studying for a pharmacist. Signs: below-average growth, brown hair, has a small mustache, medium build, a Jew. Location: Vitebsk, Nikolskaya street, in public Jewish school. Reasons for which is considered in this institution: On Intelligence.
19. Davydova Eyga Dysya Meerova, Vitebsk lower middle class woman, aged 17, a former schoolgirl. Signs: below-average growth, light brown-haired, round face clean, his hair thick, medium build, was a Jew. Location: Vitebsk, Smolensk street, Dobrin. Reasons for which is in the organization: In 1904 was involved in the inquiry in the case of SR in the town of Vitebsk.
29. Rachel Malkin Haimovna, Vitebsk lower middle class woman, aged 20, a former schoolgirl. Signs: Growth poor, brunette, round face, clean, medium body, a Jewish woman. Location: Vitebsk, Smolensk street, Dobrin. Reasons for which is in the organization: In 1904 was involved in the inquiry on the case mug SR in the town of Vitebsk.

2. List of Socialist-Revolutionary Party Members - English
(Mar. 14, 1904) an extract from an inventory of stock 102 (Police Department Internal Affairs), 7 th Paperwork, 1904, the contents of case number 392. Contents of the case - in essence - part of Vitebsk of the Socialist-Revolutionaries "at the time of its inception"<br />
Russian to English translation TSGAOR USSR, fund 102, JP, Opis201, D7 - 1904 case No. 392
(Excerpt from an inventory of cases)
"On the faces constituting the criminal circle calls himself Vitebsk Party of Socialists-Revolutionaries 14.03.1904 Total liters.
Part 1 - About deadhead Gurevich 3 liters.
Part 2 - About Hirsch Gurevich 3 liters.
Part 3 - On Israel Leibson 4 liters.
Part 4 - About Yankele Knohinove 3 liters.
Part 5 - About Mordukh Leibson 4 liters.
Part 6 - About Leiser Freydson 5 liters.
Part 7 - On Nohime Gurevich 4 liters.
Part 8 - On Tsalka Budnevich 4 liters.
Part 9 - About Movshev Gurevich 6 liters.
Part 10 - About Ivan Yakovlev (aka Seed) 3 liters.
Part 11 - On Abram Koldobskaya 4 liters.
Part 12 - About Otero Levinson 3 liters.
Part 13 - About Nahum Kaplan 11 liters.
Part 14 - About Michael Likhach 14 liters.
Part 15 - About Neeson Leibson 3 liters.
Part 16 - On Hannah Knohinovoy 2 liters.
Part 17 - On the Rivet Leibson 3 liters.
Part 18 - About Itske Eveleve 6 liters.
Part 19 - On Abram Tsadkina 5 liters.
Part 20 - About Malt Tsetlin 6 liters.
Part 21 - About Mikhail Tsetlin 7 l.
Part 22 - About Berke Fogelson 3 liters.
Part 23 - About Evsee Kagan 3 liters.
Part 24 - About Eyge Davydova 4 liters.
Part 25 - About the Osher Baytin 4 liters.
Part 26 - About Nohume Baytine 5 liters.
Part 27 - About Estere YAKERSON 2 liters.
Part 28 - About Rachel Malkina 3 liters.
Part 29 - On Samuel Posin 3 liters.
Part 30 - About Hirsch Wolfson 4 liters.
Part 31 - About Iosele Leib Ringo 11 liters.

193. VT, pps. 289-93.

194. IBID, pps. 310-14.

195. Thousands remained. BH, p. 2.

196. EJ, V. 16, pps. 191-2.

197. VT, pps. 318-20.

198. IBID, pps. 321-3.

199. Rabbi Israel Meir Ha-Kohen /Kagen (b.1838-d.1903) was known as the ‘Chafetz Chaim”. This was the title of his first book. He was a rabbi, ethical writer and Talmudist; and was one of he most saintly figures in modern Judaism. His home became a yeshiva. He was the spiritual leader of many Jews. EJ, V.9, pps. 1068-70.

200. Afterwards the young boy was questioned, because of his alleged crime. He was sent back to the “Chafetz Chaim”, and the local police didn’t go after him. VT, pps. 323-7.

201. VT, p.327.

202. IBID, p. 330.

203. IBID, p. 331.

204. VT, pps.331, 333.

205. IBID, p.335.

206. BH, p. 2;  EH, V. 16, p. 76.

207. EJ, V. 16, pps. 191-2.

208. SV

209. VT, pps. 336-9.

210. IBID, p.343.

211. YV, P. 1.

212.VT, P.343.

213. About 70% of the Jewish population had serious economic problems. IBID, p. 386.

214. Many of these people, were older and their children had previously left Vitebsk; so they actually had no reason to stay there. IBID, p. 344. This was the case with my Greatgrandparents, who died in 1923 in Veliky Luki.

215. IBID, p. 344-58.

216. YV, p. 1.

217. VT, p. 358-60.

218. IBID, p. 362-6.

219. IBID, p. 366.

220. LT, p. 84.

221. This is because they spoke in a particular style of Yiddish. This was mainly noticed in the pronunciation of “ש ” (sh) like  "ס" (s). They also pronounced “oui” more like “ow”. EH, V. 21. p. 773.

222. EJ, V. 16, p. 192.

223. VT, pps. 386-410.

224. BH, p. 2

225. VT, pps. 410-23.

226. EJ, V. 16, p. 192.

227. VT, p. 424-30.

228. BH, p. 2.

229. IBID; EJ, V. 16, p. 192.

230. YV, p. 1

231. FACT

232. EJ, V. 16, p.. 192; HO, p. 403; YV.

233. HO, p. 403.

234. A non –Jew was found, about 10 years after the war, who was an eyewitness to what happened and able to tell the story. VT, p. 449. It is very interesting that he sides with the Jews.

235. IBID, pps. 440-1; YV3; YV4.

236. HO, p. 403.

237. Films were one of them. YV3, YV4.

238. VT, pps.  444-6.

239. IBID, p. 444. After the outbreak of the war, 4000 Polish Jewish refugees came to the Vitebsk area. Many settled in the city. YV, P. 1. See Appendix IV The Jewish Population of Vitebsk , p. 36.

240. ADE

241. VT, p. 444.

242. YV, p. 1.

243. VT, p. 444.

244. BH, p. 2; EH, V.16, p. 75; EJ, V. 16, p. 192.

245. YV, p. 1.

246. The Germans, from July 9 to July 11, captured Vitebsk. YV, p. 1. The Nazis claim that everything went according to plan. YV. 1.

247. BH, p. 2; HO, p. 403. YV, p. 1. The Nazis claimed that the Jews were guilty of starting the fire. VT, p. 445.The Nazis claimed that the Russians blazed Vitebsk. YV1.

248. HO, p. 403 .

249. VWIK

250. YOMH

251. YV, p. 1.

252. They refused to go. YV, p. 1.

253. HO, p. 403. They were shot on one of the streets of the city. YV, p. 1.

254. YV, p. 1.

255. VT, p. 445.

256. This was the Jewish city council. This was organized by order of the Nazis in all the places that they captured. HO, p. VIII.

257. YV, p. 1.

258. YOMH

259. YV, p. 1.

260. BH, p. 2; YOMH.

261. EJ, V. 16, p. 192.

262. The Nazi propaganda film-newsreel shows the Jews walking there, carrying their belongings. YV1.

263. YV, p. 1.

264. VT, p. 447.

265. YV, p. 1.

266. YV, p. 1.

267. YV, p. 2.

268. Close to 500 Jewish intellectuals (doctors, teachers, students) were murdered on August 26. IBID.

269. IBID.

270. Some of these looked like Aryans. VT, p. 447.

271. It is true according to only a few sources that these family members remained. YV, p. 2.

272. IBID

273. EBI

274. See Appendix III  Map of Vitebsk Area, p.35

275. VW2

276. This is from the Testimony of Abraham Apelronitz who was a partisan in the Vitebsk area. A non-Jew gave him this information.  He met him at the end of the war, after he had met up with the Russian army, was on vacation, and his way to the Vitebsk area. . His 2 sisters were killed here. YV3

277. VW2.

278. There was a typhus epidemic. VT, p. 447.

279. YOMH

280. This systematic liquidation took place from October 8 through October 10.  BH, p. 2; YV, p. 2. According to another witness report, this took place on November 5.  IBID.

281. VW2; Mr. Ya’akov Moses  Izkowitz, who lived in a Vitbsk suburb and his cousin Lubow Barken, who was about 19-20 years old and helping him, were there at this “final decision”.  Mr. Izkowitz showed his pocket watch to an SS soldier. When the soldier approached him he spit in the soldier’s eye. He and his cousin were both shot. He felt that he died as a martyr. This was told in the Testimony of his grandson Vladimir Peskin. YV4.

282. YV, P. 2

283. They were taken to the Ilovskiy (Tulovkiy) Canal, which was near the city. YV, p. 2.

284. VT, p. 451-2.

285. FACT

286. The Nazi propaganda film-newsreel shows how well the Nazis did this. YV2

287. FACT

288. IBID.

289. VW2

290. HO, p. 403.

291. VT, p. 2.

292. VT, p.458.

293. FACT

294. There are quite a few Japanese and German tourists who come to visit Vitebsk. NCSJ.  A Japanese site has some very nice pictures of Vitebsk.YUKO.

295. NCSJ

296. FACT

297. See Appendix IX  Pictures:  2.Modern Vitebsk, C.The Chagall Museum, p.42

298. FACT

299. HO, p. 403; VWIK

300. IBID

301. IBID; ft. 410.

302. This includes a range of consumer goods, including electrical instruments, such as televisions, textiles and foodstuffs, which include meat and dairy products BR; FACT. Factories for the production of construction materials, and light industries, also have branches in Vitebsk. BE.

303. BR; EH, V.16, p. 75.

304. The latter preserve protocols of the administrative commission of prisons and agricultural settlements. FACT

305. The establishment of export-oriented enterprises in the FEZ "Vitebsk" is the shortest and most beneficial way for effective sales promotion to the Russian market as well as to markets of other countries including CIS-countries. Products manufactured here are duty-free. IBID

306. FACT

307. IBID

308. See  Appendix IX  Pictures: 2. Modern Vitebsk,  A. The City Center, p.42

309. IBID

310. MD

311. VWIK

312. See History of Vitebsk, P. 5.

313. VC

314. BVIS

315. See Appendix IX Pictures, 3.Modern Vitebsk, C. The Chagall Museum, p. 42.

316. ARZA

317. See Jewish History, pps 17-8.. Mark Chagall, the world famous artist, who died in Paris but he always dreamed about Vitebsk. His native town of Vitebsk, which he often depicted in his works, inspired him. VC, BR, EH, V.16, p. 75. Vitebsk streets and squares, houses and lovers are present in many pictures of Marc Chagall. FACT

318. See previous paragraph. IBID

319. IBID

320. NJT. There is also an exhibition that was organized as part of the 14TH FESTIVAL OF JEWISH CULTURE, in Crackow. It presents works by one of the 20th century's most outstanding artists - Marc Chagall. The pieces on view come from the Marc Chagall Museum in Vitebsk. The exhibit consists of a collection of seventy-two prints (lithographs, aquatints and etchings) on religious subjects, produced by the artist between 1931 and 1979. FACT

321. Many Jews settled in Vitebsk because of its proximity to the Russian border. RF

322. BH, P.2; HO, P. 403

323. TCA

324. RF

325. RF

326. See  Appendix III  Map of Vitebsk Area , P.

327. TCA

328. Yad Yisroel is committed to re-establishing Jewish Community life in Ukraine and in Belarus. This is done so that the Jews that were repressed and their Jewishness forgotten and undermined during 70 years of the Soviet Union would have a chance to know about and return to their heritage. The road to override the effects of 70 years of atheism is difficult and is not something that can be overcome in one meeting, with one speech or in one trip to the synagogue. It takes time and patience, love and work. The movement believes that once people here realize the beauty of what Jewish life is all about and that it is in fact about their lives and about their heritage, they will willing return to the connection.

  • Yad Yisroel is committed to re-building Jewish structures e.g.: day schools, dormitories, community centers, Mikvaot, Shechitah, Chevra Kadisha, etc.
  • Yad Yisroel has dispatched hundreds of volunteers and professionals and continues to dispatch to achieve these goals.
  • Yad Yisroel has been instrumental and continues to be instrumental in relocating hundreds and thousands of students in various selected Jewish educational institutions in the CIS, Israel, UK, Canada and the USA. Many of these students are still in these schools or have graduated into higher institutions of learning. Hundreds of them have married and started to build Jewish homes for themselves.
  • Yad Yisroel has re-established authentic Jewish lifestyle in the following cities of the Ukraine and Belarus: Kiev, Lvov, Mogillov, Minsk, Chelmnitzky, Pinsk

329. Rabbi Moshe Fhima, is now working in the entire area, as well as Rabbi in Minsk. YY1 He founded and runs a Jewish boarding school and orphanage there, which currently has about 100 pupils from the area. He is also active in humanitarian missions and tourism with Jewish heritage groups. RF

330. RF

331. TCA

332. The Joint operates in Vitebsk as it does in other areas of the former Soviet Union.

Since 1914, the American Joint Distribution Committee, Inc. (JDC) has served as the overseas representative of the American Jewish community. Its’ aim is to serve the needs of Jews throughout the world, particularly where their lives are threatened or made more difficult. Programs of, rescue, relief, renewal and social challenges are sponsored, with the idea that all Jews are responsible for one another.

Rescue – Whenever and wherever a Jewish community is threatened, JDC offers rescue. In the early 1990s, JDC helped sustain the lives and secure the rescue of 15,000 Ethiopian Jews.

Relief – For Jewish communities in distress, JDC offers aid. For more than a decade, JDC has been providing food, clothing and medicine to some 250,000 elderly and impoverished Holocaust survivors in the former Soviet Union.

Renewal – Since the fall of communist regimes in Europe, JDC has been helping Jewish communities rediscover their heritage and rebuild a vibrant Jewish communal life.

Israel – JDC continues to provide assistance to the State of Israel as it adapts to the social service needs of its most vulnerable communities: children-at-risk, struggling immigrant populations, the elderly and the disabled.

Non-Sectarian Aid – In times of crisis – natural disasters, war, famine – JDC offers aid to non-Jews to fulfill the Jewish tenet of tikkun olam, the moral responsibility to repair the world and alleviate suffering wherever it exists.

Operating Principles – JDC adheres to three operating principles.

  • A non-partisan and apolitical organization.
  • To seek to empower local communities by creating model programs and training local leadership to run the programs. During a project’s formative stage, the administrative responsibilities are handled and evaluated for effectiveness.
  • To build coalitions with strategic partners who, ultimately, will assume responsibility for the programs. JDC


333. The HESED organization operates in Vitebsk, as it does in other areas of the former Soviet Union. It has built up a network of “Hesed” or welfare centers in different towns and cities to supply Jewish communities with daily hot meals, monthly care packages, medical supplies, and sometimes firewood. Special care is given to the elderly, and aid is given to young parents. Hesed is associated with the JDS. Its’ goals are:

  • Hesed Centers as a lever for Jewish renewal and renewal of the Jewish community.
  • The linkage of Hesed Centers to municipal services, other Jewish community organizations, and key figures in the community.
  • The volunteers and their work at a Hesed framework. NCSJ


334. Hesed provides welfare services. RF

335.   Non-Jews are also admitted. They sometimes are about 50% of the participants. IBID

336. TCA

337. FJC, RF. These give a Jewish education, and a feeling of identity to the children. TCA

338. TCV

339. This is usually sent by video and computer setups from Israel. RF

340. TCA

341. RF

342. IBID

343. TCA

344. RF

345. See ft. 94.

346. RF

347. TCA

348. RF

349. TCA

350. RF

351. WUPJ; See Appendix VII Consecration Speech.

352. FJC

353. FACT

354. TCV

355. FACT

356. IF, WUPJ

357. RF

358. TCV

359. Aid was also sent to Sofia and Plovdiv (Bulgaria), Yekaterinburg (Russia) and Orsha and Pinsk (Belarus) to help upgrade medical services in Jewish communities that lack adequate medical care IF

360. AND; The “Skinhead’ movement in Belarus is currently not very active. After a group of Vitebsk skinheads had been convicted for violence against black-skinned students of the local medical university in December 2002, the number of participants of this movement decreased significantly. Some leaders withdrew, but the group still exists. Video films, literature, Nazi symbols, flags, tape recordings of fascist Germany marches etc are brought from Russia. The administrative-legal system of Belarus doesn’t prohibit trade in such goods. The prefix"skin" is an abbreviation of the largest Russian neo-Nazi organization the Russian National Unity, which has branches in former Soviet republics. EAJC

361. This is also true of Minsk and many other places in the previous Soviet Union. IBID.

362. IBID.

363. Belarus Report, Dr. Yakov Basin, August 10, 1997, UCSJ

364. See Jewish History, pps.17-8; Vitebsk -After the War, p. 27.

365. FACT

366. This painting was stolen last year from the Jewish Museum in New York, has been found in a Kansas post office FACT

367. FACT