1. 1. Luft, Edward David, "The Rich Ones Rode in Third-Class Railway Cars to Hamburg or le Havre," Gen Dobry!, Volume IX, No. 9, 30 September 2008, pp. 2-4.  The publication, European Rates of Fare ..., discussed in the article, can be accessed in full-text, free of charge, at and at  The URL shows charges levied in U. S. dollars in New York City or Chicago for third class railway tickets to send to immigrants in Europe to travel from the railway station nearest where they lived to the ports of le Havre or Hamburg.  These railway tickets were sold at the U. S. offices of the Hamburg-American Shipping Company in conjunction with the ship passage tickets.  If more than one passenger was involved, the costs could be quite substantial.  It would have been far less expensive if the intending immigrant could have purchased the railway tickets himself at the railway station in local currency.  In many cases, the immigrants just did not have the money to buy the tickets so a relative or friend in America would purchase the tickets and send those tickets to the immigrant.  So far as is known, the booklet displayed is unique.

2.  Luft, Edward David, "Kendler's Orts- und Verkehrs-Lexikon Can Now Be Searched Online Free of Charge," Gen Dobry!, Volume XII, No. 4, April 2011, pp. 2 - 3.  However, the link in that article is now dead.  Instead, please use  The Kendler book can be used in conjunction with: 

Austria. Statistische Central-Commission. Gemeindelexikon der im Reichsrate vertretenen Königreiche und Länder.  Bearb. auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Volkszählung vom 31 Dezember 1900,*&searchType=0&recCount=25&sk=en_US, viewable in full-text online at, which will give, among other pieces of information, the number of persons of each religion living in each location.

For contemporary maps to locate the town of interest in the Austro-Hungarian Empire or just over its borders, use


About Edward Luft

Edward David Luft is a regular contributor to the hard copy periodical, Avotaynu:  The International Review of Jewish Genealogy and to Gen Dobry!, available only online.  A complete list of his publications appears at