(The following text is a translation from the Polish language Slownik Geographiczny Krolestwa Polskiego i innych krajow slowianskich (Geographic Dictionary of the Former Kingdom of Poland and Other Slavic Lands)—usually referred to as the Slownik Geographiczny—published about 1886. To better understand the text it should be realized that Poland began as a sovereign nation in 1025 and from 1385 to 1569 participated in an informal union with Lithuania: the Polish-Lithuanian Union. From 1569 until most of Poland ceased to exist in 1793 at the time of the so-called Second Partition, Poland and Lithuania formed a formal joint nation: the Polish-Lithuanian Commonweath. Pavoloch and most of the Ukraine were always in the historically Polish part of the Union and later the Commonwealth. However, the area just east of Pavoloch to the western edge of Kiev was lost to the Russians by the Commonwealth between 1667 and 1686. Finally, in 1793, under the terms of the Second Partition, Russia took control of the area around Pavoloch which lasted until the Ukraine became an independent nation in 1991. So Kiev became Russian more than 100 years before Pavoloch did. The native inhabitants of the area around Pavoloch included various ethnic minorities, among them the Ukrainians, Cossacks, Tartars, and Jews. For many centuries before 1793 the area around Pavoloch, as well as much of the rest of present day Ukraine, was a constant battleground between the Russian, Polish and Lithuanian armies which sought to establish or maintain control of the area. The allegiance of the various ethnic minorities shifted between Poland and Russia from time to time. At times there were others involved in the battles, including the Swedes, Saxons and Turks. Possibly because of its location on a major road near Kiev, Pavoloch, as the text below reveals, had a long and unusually bloody history of being a battleground for various contesting armies over many centuries. It is not a pretty story.—editor’s note)
(I have deleted all the references to the original sources found in the Polish text because they are obscure and hinder the flow of the narrative. There is another version of this translation available that does not delete these references.—editor’s note)
A town at the junction of the Pawoloczka River and the Rastawnica River, in the County Skwiry. Located centrally in the county, in very fertile surroundings, around 50 versty from Bardyczow (Berdichev), the same distance from Chwastow, 21 versty from Skwiry (Skvira) and 110 versty from Kijow (Kiev). (A versty is about 1.067 km.—editor’s note) The town together with the adjacent Ksiezowka has 2,617 Eastern Orthodox inhabitants, 250 Catholics, and 1,659 Jews.
The original settlement of Pawolocz was surrounded on three sides—the western, eastern and southern borders were defined by water, from the north it was defended by an embankment with a moat extending from the Pawoloczka River to the Rastavica River. This embankment was topped by an oak palisade with a tower guarding the entrance in the middle. Defense from the south was assured by an old castle separated from the town by a moat and an embankment.
Today the castle is empty, with the ruins of the construction of a church started a few years ago. The castle was surrounded by oak stakes and contained a house and farm buildings. During a siege the castle had communication with the river by a secret underground corridor—a so-called potajnik. From the castle one could see the grave of an "Ivan" on which a Cossack with a wisp of straw was stationed permanently. The wisp was there to show the inhabitants if Tartars were coming, so that they should prepare their escape or defense.
The caravanski trail coming from Kijow passed through the town. Pawolocz, as far as we know from documents, was originally the property of Ostafi Daszkowicz, a starost (official) of Kaniow and Czerkasy. He was the first one to build the castle of Pawolocz. A letter sent by Daszkowicz to the King, which was signed "the servant and serf of your royal highness—I prostrate myself" was a reason for the false conclusion that he was a peasant, even a servant of Prince Ostrogski. (References to the King and to the Crown mean the Polish king and crown.—editor’s note) However, a Lithuanian registry from this period often mentions Daszkiewicze or Daszkowicze as gentry. At the time of Alexander Jagiellonian landed gentry like Daszkowicze held substantial estates (Kliszowo, Tywrowo and others).
Ostafi Daszkowicz died in 1540 without taking a wife. He had only one sister Bohdanna, who entered matrimony twice, once with Borys Tyszkiewicz (from this union came daughters Anastasja—a nun, and Duchna who married Dublanski). Bohdanna’s second marriage was to Jendrzej Jakubowicz Niemira, governor of Kijow. From this union came a daughter also named Bohdanna who married Ivan Wolczkiewicz Olizar. Ostafi Daszkowicz left all of his estate in his will, including Pawolocz, to his sister. Bohdanna from Niemira, the wife of Ivan Olizar, had again only one daughter and her name was also Bohdanna. This daughter married Ostafi Prince Ruzynski. Therefore Pawolocz from the hand of the latter moved into the successive possession of the various Princes Ruzynski.
The Princes Ruzynski, according to Kazimierz Stadnicki, traced their origin to Narymunt, son of Gedymin, who after conversion to Christianity, took the name of Hleb and was the prince of Novgorod. He supposedly fell in the battle with Teutonic Knights in 1348, according to one version; according to another version he died as a war prisoner of Tartars. His son Aleksander Narymuntowicz signed his name as Prince of Ruzyn, a place in Wolyn (more familiar, perhaps, as a part of present day western Volhynia—editor’s note) close to Kowlo, not the place close to Kijow at Teterow, as stated by Opolski. This mistake by Opolski was later repeated in all writings about the Princes Ruzynski, Stadnicki included. In Wolyn the Narymuntowicz family signed their names for a certain period of time in two ways—as Ruzynski from Ruzyn and as Rogowicki from Rogowice.
Of the princes born in Ruzyn, many left their father’s land to look for bread and destiny in other places. One of them was Ostafi Prince Ruzynski who left the family nest for Kijow and settled there after marrying a rich woman. Initially he was a sub-starost (local authority—translator’s remark) for Prince Michal Wisniowiecki, a starost of Kaniow and Czerkasy (1569). Later Prince Konstanty Wasyl Ostrowski made him his governor in Kijow (1588). According to a manuscript with his genealogy he had three sons—Bohdan, Mikolaj and Kiryk. Of those, probably Bohdan was the hetman of the lower Kosaks mentioned by Niechcicki (a hetman was a commander-in-chief—editor’s note). He spent time on Lows and under Haslonhorodek (Aslam Kermen)—a fortress build by the Turks on banks and islands of Dnepr River close to Tawania. He died the death of a knight.
At the estuary of the Dnepr Bohdan spent his life in battles with the Tartars. The Tartars came to Tarnopol, from there they moved to Wolyn in 1576 and there took prisoner the wife of Prince Bohdan, and they killed his mother. Until today the Ukrainian folk song says—"Bohdan, Bohdan, you zaporosky hetman, why are you dressed in black garb. Tartars come in the night, they killed old mother and took the young girl." Bohdan dressed in black velvet as a sign of mourning. Orzelski states that Ruthenian envoys arriving for the Diet after this terrible Tartar attack in 1576 were all dressed in black to express their grief. Bohdan Ruzynski inflicted bloody vengeance on the Tartars, but when he tried to blow up the fortress of Aslam Kermen he "mistakenly, when he tried to place the explosives under the castle, stood in wrong place and later died miserably."
His father, Ostafi Ruzynski, survived him, because he died around 1588. The inheritors of Pawolocz were Mikolaj alias Mis (Polish for "Little Bear"—translator’s remark) and Kiryk. Those two brothers were revelers and merry-makers. Their youth was quite stormy. With their Cossack impulsiveness they drew knives at every opportunity. And so in 1587 Kiryk and Mis Ruzynski, together with Prince Prokop Kurcewicz, invaded in Lodzko an inn of Aleksander Komar and killed him. For such a crime one had to pay with his head. So Prince Kiryk was condemned to death and princes Mis and Kurcewicz were condemned to pay damages for life lost and to incarceration in a tower. (Apparently Kiryk was never executed since his life up to his death in about 1600 is described below.—editor’s note)
At that time, the way stood open for all outlaws to escape to the Lowlands. So our two Princes, having escaped the punishment, found themselves on the islands of the Dnepr River. They became atamans (Cossack hetmans—translator’s remark) there, as we can learn from a letter written by Fedor Joannowicz, Muscovite tsar to Kazi Girey—sultan of Crimea. They didn’t perform in this role in the Lowlands for long, because Mis (Mikolaj or Michael) who had already returned in 1595, bought Szczorbow on the Rastawica River from the Strzyzowski family. In memory of the old family nest, old Ruzyn at Kowlo, he called the place New Ruzyn. Kiryk already lived in his Kotelnie, which he received in 1581 from King Batory in eternal possession as a reward for his war services. After that time Mikolaj stopped looking for adventures and after marrying Halszka, daughter of Kasper, Struzycka led quite the life of the gentry. As a resident he was elected Wojski (one of the local elective offices) of Kijow. King Sigismund the Third rewarded his war deeds by giving him the lands left after enemies destroyed the villages. On those lands Romanowka was later settled.
We can even find in the registers a note that his brother, Prince Kiryk, gave Mikolaj possession of his estates of Kotelnia and Pawolocz. Kiryk during all his life pushed all financial problems onto Mikolaj, and the whole weight of administering the estates was on the shoulders of the latter. Prince Kiryk Ruzynski, as a former Lowland ataman (Sicz Zaporoska ataman) was held in good opinion and respect among Cossacks, and in spite of a conflict he had with them in Kaniow as sub-starost he maintained friendly relations with them. Soon however these relations deteriorated and became antagonistic. So, in 1596 during the Nalewajki riots Cossack Saszko was sent from Kijow with the intention to rob the Pawolocz estates. Ruzynski on the Kamionka River annihilated his forces. Afterwards he occupied Bialacerkiew where together with Hetman Stanislaw Zolkiewski he again was victorious over the Cossacks. Kiryk married Kuniewska and from this union came his only daughter Anna who married Andrzej Nadarzynski and later Drzewicki. The second marriage of Kiryk was to Jadwiga Falczewska, a daughter of Franciszek Falczewski and Anna from Sobocki. After he married Jadwiga he took Zahorce and Jozkowce in the Krzemieniec district. When subsequently the two brothers of Jadwiga, Piotr and Pawel Falczewski and their three sisters in one year died of plague, Jadwiga and her sister Helena, married to Fedor Szymkiewicz Szklinski, inherited all the Falczewski family possessions. The same Jadwiga, Princess Ruzynska, after becoming the widow of Kiryk, married Jerzy Prince Czartoryjski.
Kiryk Ruzynski survived his brother Mikolaj, and because Mikolaj did not leave any children, he inherited Nowy Ruzyn and Pawolocz. In 1586 we see him keeping Pawolocz, where he maintained a few hundred armed troops. Hetman Zolkiewski mentions him as a faithful servant of the country. Kiryk probably passed away around 1600, because at that time his daughters renounced his succession since debts were higher than the value of the estate. The only heir of Kiryk Ruzynski was his son Roman. Fighting spirit in his youth animated him, like his father. In 1600 he took significant part in the battle of Jan Zamoyski with Michal Waleczny, head of Moldavia province. In 1605 he became a member of the expedition led by Hetman Zolkiewski against the Tartars in Podole. During the Zebrzydowice Rebellion he fought on the side of the royalists and participated in the Guzowo battle. Finally, in 1608 he is known from the battles of Bolchow and Chodymka where he supported Dimitrij ("False Dimitrij"–translator’s remark). In Tuszyn he was "the commander-in-chief of his royal greatness," but when Dimitrij escaped to Kaluga, Roman Ruzynski joined the camp of King Sigmund the Third, who invaded at that time the Muscovian state. In Wolok, however, Prince Roman Ruzynski fell ill and passed away on April 8, 1610, after changing his religion from Greek Catholic to Catholic. He was 35 years old at that time. The body of the Prince was transported with great pomp by Prince Adam Ruzynski to Kijow, where he was interred by the Dominican friars. Roman was married to Zofia Korab-Czejowska. He did not leave any descendants.
During the infrequent interruptions between one and another war campaign he used to leave testaments (wills) to his wife. We know two of his testaments, one from 1601, the second from 1608, when he was preparing for the Moscow campaign. In the first testament he asks to be buried in a Greek Church in Kotelnica, next to his father. Kotelnia, Nowy Ruzyn and Pawolocz he leaves to his wife for life; jewelry, vestments, cannons, rifles and horses he gives his paternal uncles–Jan, Bohdan and Adam in equal parts. "And if–he writes–from God’s grace I will leave a son or a daughter—my wife cannot deprive them of participating in this estate, but may only act according to her will with Pawolocz, because on Pawolocz she has a lien of 28 thousands". In the second testament he says: "I, Roman Narymuntowicz Ruzynski following the law, my will and preference and led by gentle love toward my beloved spouse Zofia Korabczejowska, knowing her love and matrimonial willingness toward me give, donate and assign her the sum of 100,000 zlotys, the sum bequeathed on Pawolocz, Kotelnia, Ruzyn (Nowy), Wczorajsze and on their villages. Herds of cattle, sheep, all home furnishings, silver, gold and jewelry and cash money left after me I leave for my spouse."
He left no descendants, however 130 years after his death the panegyrist Michal Kozaczynski described a newly rich count Razumowski from Jakob, supposedly a son of Roman. Jakob was supposed to be called Rozum (Reason—translator’s remark) because of his great courage and tall stature. The idea is evidently of later origin, and improbable.
Princess Ruzynski, widow of Roman, after the death of her husband took over in possession the following estates: Pawolocz New and Old, with villages Poczujki, Sawarce or Sawarcowo, Oparypsy, Popielnia, Lisowce, Koilowka, Lozowiki, Markowa Wola, Charlijowka, Haliczyn, settlements Jereszki, Browki, Mojsiejowka, Jarki, Andruszowka, Makarowa, Spiczynce, Wierzchownia, Turbijowka, Wierzbowa, Minkowiecka Sloboda, Krzywoszynce, Selczynowka, Holubiatyn, Jerszykowa Sloboda, town Kotelnia Stara and Nowa with Halczyn, Mincowa Wola, Pawlowka, Lebedynie Jeziora, Orapowka, Sokolcza, Wojtowce, Werbkowa, Zarubince, Krasnosiolka, Dolzeg, Podkamienie, Ozorany – New and Old Ruzyn, Czarnorudzka Sloboda, Zeroslawska Sloboda, a township Horodek, Wczorajsze, Jochniatyn, Kalinowka, Czerniszowka, Starosiolo, Komarowka, and Charapowka.
Prince Roman Ruzynski, having inherited from his father an estate submerged in debt, owed it only to his wife that relatively quickly he paid off all of the estate’s debts. Princess Romanowa Ruzynska was a very industrious and active woman. With great foresight and thrift she accumulated small sums and not only was able to free the estate of debts but administered it wisely as she increased its riches. Usually she lived in the castle in Pawolocz, but between Pawolocz and Ruzyn she established a village, which she called Korabczyjow after her maiden name. There she built a second residence for herself in the form of a small castle. She was not a miser; indeed she was generous. In the village even now there is a living legend about a princess centuries ago, a lady in Korabczyjow, who "gave away money by the bagful" to the local people. In 1612 Pawolocz was in ruins. It had been burned and destroyed by the Tartars.
Possibly it was at that time when Princess Zofia distributed financial help among her ruined subjects. Shortly after the passing of her first husband Princess Ruzynski married Hieronim (Ihor) Chodkiewicz, the castellan of Vilnius, but in 1617 she became a widow again. At that time Cossack riots began again. In 1619 the so-called (by historians) Rastawice Committee deliberated in Pawolocz, with the purpose to formulate an agreement and efficient statement referring to Zaporosky Cossacks regarding their way of life and proper conduct in service of His Royal Majesty and of the Republic. The Polish Republic was represented by commissaries: Stanislaw Zolkiewski-the Great Marshal of the Crown, Stanislaw Koniecpolski-the Field Marshal of the Crown, Tomasz Zamoyski-the Governor of Kiev, Jan Danielowicz-the Governor of Ruthenia, Walenty Aleksander Kalinowski-Warden of Kamieniec, Tomasz Sklenski, Tyburcy Zlotnicki-royal commander, and Jan Bielecki.
The Polish camp was set up on the River Rastawica, below Pawolocz. The Zaporosky army, stationed six miles behind Bialacerkiew on River Uzoniu, was under command of Piotr Konaszowicz Sahajdaczny. This army sent envoys to Pawolocz to conduct negotiations with the commissaries, in particular Jan Kostrzenski, Piotr Odyniec-Jacyna, Racibor Borowski and others. Both sides achieved an agreement on October 8, 1619. Tomasz Zamoyski softened the Zaporosky envoys with "humanity and bread," inviting them many times for conversation and dinner, extolling the advantages of being obedient to the King.
But the rebellion was extinguished only for a short time. In 1625 Stanislaw Koniecpolski, the Great Marshal of the Crown, had to suppress a new rebellion. During his campaign against rioting Cossacks, he set up his camp a mile behind Pawolocz, and paid a visit to the lady of Vilnius (Zofia—wife of the castellan of Vilnius—translator’s remark). The returning army passed through the same town again.
Around this time Samuel Laszcz appears in the house of Zofia Chodkiewicz, her close relative, because his mother was Korabczyjowska de domo. The father of Zofia was Piotr Korabczyjowski married to Katarzyna Magier from Przewodow. The father of Samuel, Aleksander Waszcz, was married to a sister of the same Piotr, another Zofia Korabczyjowska. Initially Laszcz made an effort to be in the good graces of the rich relative, by accommodation and flattery, and he obtained certain favors. She rented villages to him, and even made him the administrator of the estates. Seeking an inheritance from her, but feeling that he waited too long, he pressed her to give him something while she was still alive. But his attempts to lure her into a gift to him were not successful. Zofia Chodkiewicz refused him unequivocally.
Thereafter he rejected his previous friendly guise and decided to achieve his goal by any means. Therefore he collected a band consisting of "Germans, Hungarians, Wolochians, boyars and his servants," ready for any crime, and armata manu more guerico et hostiliter, he suddenly attacked Pawolocz. The Vilnius lady was at that time at her castle. Laszcz surrounded the castle and "having suppressed any familial feelings, in place of showing gratitude (as the document says) for the (previous) favors which he a teneris had received in a great degree, threatened her with a cruel death; that is with execution by a firing squad, or with tearing into pieces by horses, and harassed so terribly the protesting woman quietly conducting dies ameras suas and living in decency." However, Zofia Chodkiewicz in spite of threats, slanders and defamations so shameless that they cannot even be mentioned did not bend and refused to grant any donation.
Then Laszcz invoked a cunning device. Earlier he had apprehended Prokop Sowinski, her servant, and kept him under arrest in Wczorajsze. Now he ordered Sowinski brought to him in Pawolocz and kept under guard in a park visible from the castle windows. He threatened that if he did not obtain the required donation, Sowinski would be executed by firing squad in her full view. This was his last ultimatum. It turned out to be effective, because the Vilnius lady, threatened in this way, finally granted him the required bequest. He obtained Kotelnia, Wczorajsze, Nowy Ruzyn and Pawolocz. This happened on March 17, 1631.
Zofia Chodkiewicz now had another choice by which to escape to relatives living in the area of Bels and Grabowiec. On the day of the Purification of Virgin Mary she provided the whole story for the record in Grabowiec. In the meantime, Laszcz taking advantage of what violence gave him, using the extorted bequest took the estates in his possession and ruled them according to his will. He oppressed the villagers to increase profits, dispersed the servants of the castle lady, chased peasants from the markets and robbed them by imposing new property and cattle passage taxes that he invented.
The castle lady, after finding a safe place to stay with her relatives, lobbied for her case in the cities and courts of law. Finally she obtained an acceptance for consideration by the Sejm (Polish parliament of nobles—editor’s note). The King and the Sejm annulled the bequest and Laszcz was requested to return the misappropriated lands, under the punishment of infamy. However, the decree of the Sejm did not settle the matter. Laszcz did not release the land he held.
The castle lady did not have enough power to fight with this extraordinary law trespasser. Her only recourse was to confront Laszcz with a man of great stature and influence, so that he would not dare to challenge him. Tomasz Zamoyski, the Vice-Chancellor of the Crown, a man known for his decency, excelling with riches and with a multitude of clients, became this man. Zofia Chodkiewicz transmitted to him all her Ukrainian estates and all the results of the (legal) process won against Laszcz. The donation was passed to Zamoyski in September 1634 in Wlodzimierz Wolynski. The parties to the conflict were now Zamoyski against Laszcz. Zamoyski sent his representative, Jan Dobrocieski, a nobleman from Braclaw, to take over the estates on his behalf. However Laszcz was not eager to submit. When Dobrocieski following his mission came to Wczorajsze, Laszcz attacked him and killed him.
So he even impudently challenged Zamoyski. This act upset and clearly angered Zamoyski, so together with Zofia Chodkiewicz the same year they obtained the decision that the Sejm imposed infamy on Laszcz. Now Laszcz noticed that things were becoming serious. We do not know if he himself asked for a truce, or if Zamoyski preferred an agreement based on free will to come into possession of his estate rather than having to deal with a man like Laszcz—an infamous outlaw. Therefore an agreement was negotiated, as the document says, by efforts of friends of both sides involved. Laszcz was obligated to release the lands and to receive by grace of the Vilnius lady a sum of 40,000 zlotys and the grace of Zamoyski 50,000 zlotys. Their money was to be paid out in 1635 and 1636. Additionally there was a stipulation that Laszcz must publicly apologize to the Vilnius lady, the Vice-Chancellor and the Governor of Kijow—Janusz Tyszkiewicz. He also had to guarantee the safety of the Vilnius lady.
We do not know what pressing circumstances made Laszcz agree to the agreement, since he never had respect for anything. Probably he did not want to challenge anyone more powerful than Zamoyski. Anyhow, he benefited well from the agreement because for renouncing what was not his anyway he obtained a substantial sum of money. However, one more obstacle was still on the way. Laszcz was under infamy, and according to the law he could not be a party to any agreement. Zofia Chodkiewicz obtained for him a safe passage writ valid for three months. The friendly agreement was validated only January 27th in Zamosc and on January 30th Laszcz renounced before a magistrate in Wlodzimierz his supposed rights and bequests to the advantage of Zamoyski. Since that time Pawolocz, Ruzyn, Kotelnia and Wczorajsze joined the other estates of the Zamoyski family.
However Tomasz Zamoyski did not administer the newly obtained lands for long, since he died in 1638, survived by two daughters Gryzelda Konstancja, 15 years old at that time (later married to Prince Jeremiasz Wisniowiecki) and Joanna Barbara, 14 years old (later married to Aleksander Koniecpolski) and by his only son Jan, 11 years old. Around 1634 a Catholic church was built in Pawolocz. In this church Okolski while visiting there found the tombstone of Klonski, a soldier with great battle experience, known for his courage.
On May 10, 1630, Pawolocz, while still owned by Zofia Chodkiewicz, experienced a calamity of fire.. In 1638 Mikolaj Potocki, the Field Marshal of the Crown rested for one day in Pawolocz together with his armies during his Ukrainian campaign against the Pawluk mutiny. On behalf of Tomasz Zamoyski, Pawolocz was administered by Jan Dubrowski, then Stefan Garnysz. Both used the title Deputy Marshal of Cossacks and Dragoons of the Kotelnica and Pawolocz possessions. During their rule the town grew—Jews settled there. A brewery producing beer famous in the whole country was built.
(To better understand the following text describing Bohdan Chmielnicki and his exploitation of the people in Pavoloch and elsewhere, it is useful to detour briefly and read the following passage describing him.—editor’s note:
"Bohdan Chmielnicki was a Cossack chieftain who, in 1648, rallied the disaffected masses of Ukrainian peasants, as well as the warrior caste of Cossack and Tartar horsemen, to rise up against their Polish overlords. This did not happen without provocation, as the Poles had exploited and abused the peasants very thoroughly. In the annals of Ukrainian history, Chmielnicki is remembered as the first leader to rebel against the oppression of the Polish state. In Polish memory, he is demon incarnate. Certainly the invasions conducted under his leadership were ruthless in the extreme. For nine years his seemingly unstoppable armies rampaged through southeastern Poland, burning and pillaging every village and town in their trajectory, and raping, torturing, and murdering their inhabitants with wild and cruel savagery. Large swaths of Poland were devastated; hundreds of thousands of people were killed. The Ukrainians and the Cossacks, who were Russian Orthodox, attacked two groups with particular relish and impunity: the nobility and the Jews. The Catholic clergy, although not the main target of the invasions, also came in for its share of persecution.
"…Both Poles and Jews were horribly and fundamentally threatened, but they were in curiously unequal positions even in the equalizing face of death. It was for the Polish nobility that the Cossacks reserved their most elaborate tortures; the Jews were usually ‘merely’ burned alive, often inside their synagogues….Both Poles and Jews suffered enormous losses of life in the course of the invasions, but Jewish people were butchered on a mass scale. It is estimated that as much as 20 to 25 percent of the Jewish population, or between 70,000 and 80,000 people, were killed in the massacres." (Shtetl by Eva Hoffman, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1997, pages 57-58))
However, after the passing of Zamoyski successors of the sisters of the deceased Prince Roman Ruzynski formally challenged in courts the sale of Pawolocz and other estates to Zamoyski by Zofia Chodkiewicz. Because of the war waged by Bohdan Chmielnicki and the following suspension of all legal court proceedings in this region, there was a delay. The memorable year 1648 begins. After Field Marshals suffered defeat at Korsun, the Crimean Orda invaded Pawolocz, followed by 100,000 rebelling peasants. The Catholic Church was burned out and the castle fell. On July 31st Bohdan Chmielnicki himself, heading his crowd, was in Pawolocz. The town was changed into a huge camp of Cossacks.
It is from there that Bohdan Chmielnicki wrote to Samuel Laszcz (who a few years before lost the benefits and position of the Guardian of the Crown) persuading him to join his cause and promising mountains of gold. But Laszcz turned a deaf ear to these proposals and not only rejected them, but in the same year fought against Chmielnicki in the Crown army.
Initially Chmielnicki left in Pawolocz only a hundred Cossacks belonging to the Bialocerkiew regiment, and nominated Dowgal as their commander. Pawolocz was traversed by the Cossack leader in all his campaigns. And so in 1649, returning from Zborow, he stayed in Pawolocz and disbanded the regiments and sent them home from there. However the Crimean Khan, returning from Zborow as well, invaded the town and massacred the inhabitants.
The Pawolocz headman, Iwan Kucewicz Minkowski, became the colonel of Pawolocz around this time, since the Pawolocz hundred was turned into a regiment. This man cultivated a particular hatred against Poles, it was he who in 1648 put chains on the leaseholder Tomislawski, and during the convocation of the Polish Deputies in Percaslaw demonstrated special hatred and rudeness toward them
Escaping from the defeat at Beresteczko, Jan Wyhowski entered Pawolocz, since Bohdan Chmielnicki, as is known, was taken hostage and kept by the Crimean Khan. Finally obtaining his freedom, Chmielnicki together with the Tartar guard given to him for security, came to Pawolocz. He stayed there three days and pressed a levy of 3,000 zlotys from the inhabitants. This sum he paid out immediately to the five Tartar Murzas accompanying him. Asked by the inhabitants—as the story of those days says—why he was now alone and why he had withdrawn originally, he said that he left behind 20 regiments of the best soldiers who would defend themselves for a quarter of a year against the Crown army. They have food and munitions—he said—and as you know defending in an armed camp is our way of fighting. Asked later about the Lithuanian army—will they invade Ukraine—he said that he had a promise from Radziwill that the army would stay at the border without crossing it. In the meantime Wyhowski who was left with the Cossack army drank for two days and nights until arrival of the traitor Chmielecki. You are alone—asked Chmielnicki—where are the armies? Chmielnicki, shrugging his shoulders answered himself—the hell with them, we escaped. Why? Because the soldiers refused to fight. What about the banners? They are lost. And cannons and the safe with golden zlotys? Have no idea about the safe. Then Chmielnicki started to curse and tear hairs from his had. In this depressive state he met Dziedziali and they embraced each other with tears. Later Hladki came, but all the colonels arrived without soldiers, just with a hundred to 150 horseman. Only Puszkarenko came with ten banners, leading around 600 horsemen (A banner was apparently a force of a certain number of soldiers.—editor’s note). There were no other regiments, since all had become dispersed.
The next day the Cossack leader left Pawolocz for Korsun. Together with him Iwan Kucewicz Minkowski, the colonel of Pawolocz, left the town, afraid of vengeance by the Polish regiments coming near. Taking his place as the colonel of the Pawolocz regiment was Michal Hanenko, with only remnants of those who came back from Beresteczko. In the meantime the Crown regiments were closing in. Pawolocz inhabitants sent a deputation headed by the city scribe to express their submission to the young landlord, starost of the Kaluga district, Jan Zamoyski, who was coming with the Crown regiments. There is the interesting letter of a certain Stanislaw Janicki to the Pawolocz colonel. In this letter he calls the colonel a godfather of his children, but begins by expressing surprise because of his weak loyalty. Not long ago he supposedly said that "where the sun is so I am" and now even if the sun is shining on the side of the King, he still resists and stays with Chmielnicki, whose power and offices sunk into the mud at Beresteczko, and sends letters and public calls encouraging new rebellions.
The Crown Marshal Mikolaj Potocki approaching Pawolocz sent orders first to the town, Caryna, to the local headmen to open the city gates and assign quarters for stationing regiments in the suburbs. And so seven banners sent forward entered the town without resistance. With them came Jan Zamoyski, the starost of Kaluga and the lord of the town. He found that his residential house in the castle was empty. However the armies that entered, instead of staying vigilant, not only started to feed themselves after the hunger they suffered during the campaign, but they also drank excessively. The farmers were treating them in a friendly way, and offered drinks while complaining about Chmielnicki. Then some of the banners sneaked out to the nearby Taborowka, sniffing an abundance of food and drink there. However, the Pawolocz headmen turned traitor. Knowing that Cossacks were nearby, he contacted them and advised a sudden attack on Polish regiments. So they did.
A band of 2,000 Cossacks and 500 Tartars hurried to Taborowka and launched a surprise attack on the sleeping soldiers. They took over the supply wagons and fought the escaping soldiers following them until they reached the suburbs of Pawolocz. However, Michal Wojnilowicz, who at that time was quartered in a nearby village with five banners of Prince Jeremiasz Wiszniowiecki, accidentally heard something like a trembling of the ground. Moved by a foreboding he started with his people to gallop toward Pawolocz where he came to the rescue of the army defending in the suburbs. He pushed the Cossacks and Tartars out from there and closely followed the escaping soldiers for two miles, killing many of them.
Finally on August 14th all the armies of the Crown went to the Ukraine under the leadership of Mikolaj Potocki, the Great Marshal of the Crown, entered Pawolocz, and subsequently made a camp beyond the town. The Kaluga starost invited both the Great Marshal and his brother-in-law Prince Jeremiasz Wiszniowiecki and other dignitaries and high guests together with their following to his house "unfurnished but with chambers filled out to serve the needs of the guests and raise their spirits." On August 15th, the holiday of the Ascension of the Holy Virgin Mary the armies stayed in place. But already on the 16th of that month Prince Jeremiasz Wiszniowiecki moved from the hospitable house of his brother-in-law to the camp beyond the town, since next day the army was supposed to continue the march.
However on the same day Prince Jeremi suddenly fell victim to a grave illness. The court physician of Zamoyski, Canisius, could not help. Transported to the Pawolocz castle, after being ill there less than 22 hours, he died on August 20th. He died a Christian death, receiving the sacrament from the hands of an assisting chaplain. In his last moment he complained that he was not dying on horseback. Three days later there was a funeral full of pomp. The body was conveyed in a carriage covered with crimson velvet, with the arms of the deceased. The army monks (chaplains) marched first. Soldiers formed in two rows stood guard. The carriage was preceded first by footmen, and immediately before the carriage by a guard regiment. All soldiers had their arms lowered to the ground. Before the body two banners of hussaria (Polish heavy cavalry—translator’s remark) were carried and after the body five banners of Cossack regiments. The standard bearer Podolski carried the sign, lowered as well. Four fully dressed horses went behind the carriage, behind them the marshals, governors and colonels. Trumpeters played taps. All cannons fired a three-salvo salute; the regiments used their rifles to do the same. The body was in a coffin made from tar-impregnated boards. The body was dressed in satin supine (clothing of a nobleman–translator’s remark), purple velvet shirt, and an orange velvet hat. The sermon was given by the priest Czarnocki, from the camp governor Brzeski expressed thanks, and Braclaw answered the governor. The next day after the funeral the army continued its march to Trylisy.
Further chronicles of Pawolocz are as follows:
In 1654 after Bohdan Chmielnicki surrendered to Russia, Telepniew arrived in Pawolocz to receive the oath of faith of the Pawolocz regiment (formerly loyal to Chmielnicki—editor’s note). In 1657 Iwan Bohun became the local colonel, followed a year later by Michailo Suliczyn. The Pawolocz Cossack regiment—in spite of efforts of Crown Hetman Jan Wyhowski after the Hadzice agreement to make them to stay faithful to the Polish Commonwealth—changed sides after Jurko Chmielnicki became a Cossack hetman (Jurko was Bohdan’s son—editor’s note). Under Chmielnicki’s command they fought in the battle of Slobodyszcze against armies of the Crown in 1660. However, Jurko Chmielnicki suffered a total defeat in this battle. Escaping, he entered Pawolocz and from here he sent messengers to the King "begging for mercy."
When Tetera was hetman, Iwan Popowicz Chodorkowski became the colonel of the Pawolocz regiment. Chodorkowski was previously an Orthodox priest. He raised a rebellion. Loose people, eager to rob, started to gather around him. They killed a number of rich citizens of Pawolocz and murdered the nobleman Lysakowski, who came there as a governer. But the elders faithful to the King surprised them. At their sign, the citizenry rose up; they arrested Chodorkowski and gave him to Tetera, and the band ran away in panic. Tetera himself interrogated the rebel, and sentenced him to death. This happened in 1663. From that time the Pawolocz regiment stayed with Tetera, faithful to the Polish Commonwealth.
In 1664 Stefan Czarniecki, returning from the completed Dnepr campaign, left cannons and dragoons in Pawolocz while he with German infantry and with hussaria went to the rescue of Tetera, besieged by Brzuchowicki in Czehryn. Later Czarniecki ordered the fortification of Bialacerkiew, Korsun, and Pawolocz, the repair of their strongly damaged defensive structures, and finally placed permanent troops there under the command of General Major Jan Stachorski. Bialacerkiew, just as Pawolocz, had not more than 1,000 (Polish) troops. However, Cossack regiments were stationed close by. The troops had their quarters at the castle, and the (Cossack) regiments had their quarters in the city and among the farmers.
The hetman of the Polish Ukraine at this time, Doroszenko, was a man of uncertain loyalty (to Poland), but he tried, at least in the beginning, to keep good relations with the Polish Commonwealth. Therefore, the relations between Polish troops placed in the above-mentioned fortifications and the Cossack regiments were good, and the regiments provided the troops with all the needed food supplies. However, later when Doroszenko began to vacillate in his loyalty (to Poland) or even to behave like an enemy, the Cossack regiments followed his lead and behaved in an unfriendly way and refused to supply the (Polish) troops. So the troops’ position became troublesome.
However Stachorski was a commander full of energy, he knew how to handle the situation. He organized armed expeditions and with arms in hand confiscated food in the vicinity. However Cossack regiments finally started open hostilities against the troops. Their strategy was to keep the troops in permanent insecurity.
And so in 1668 the colonel from Bialacerkiew named Butenko, and the colonel from Pawolocz named Jarosz, instigated by Butenko, both eager supporters of Doroszenko, started an open attack on the Bialacerkiew castle. However Stachorski put an end to this attempt. They suffered a defeat in the view of the city; 50 were taken prisoner and led to the castle. Among them were Jarosz, the colonel from Pawolocz and a number of lesser commanders. "For a three mile stretch the field was covered with bodies." However, the same year Jan Stachorski was recalled from this command and under the command of his follower Loebl, the Polish garrison in Pawolocz was recalled as well. Thereafter the castle was under control of the Pawolocz (Cossack) regiment quartering there.
The regiment, after getting rid of the nuisance provided by the Polish troops, did not always however stay loyal to Doroszenko. In fact, it twice declared independence from him, once when Hetman Doroszenko openly considered submitting the right-bank of the Ukraine to the rule of the Turks, and later when Doroszenko’s Colonel Michalczowski surrendered to Samojlowicz and Romanowski.
At that time, in 1670, Hrehory Hamalija was the Pawolocz colonel; in 1673 it was Andrzej Doroszenko and Konstantin Michalczewski and in 1664 Pawel Nizkohlad. Doroszenko evidently did not trust the Pawolocz regiment either. To keep them in obedience he even introduced to Pawolocz his own army, consisting of infantry, which became in a short time a plague for the vicinity because they came out from their fortifications and robbed on the highways. However, when in 1674 King Jan Sobieski with an army of 35,000 entered the Ukraine, Niemirow, Braclaw and other cities surrendered immediately. Only Pawolocz put up a resistance.
But when in 1675 the Polish army laid in winter quarters in Ukraine, Michal Kazimierz Radziwill, the Lithuanian Field Marshal besieged Pawolocz. Soon King Sobieski arrived with his victorious army. A group of scouts was sent from Pawolocz castle, and some of them were taken prisoners. They were led to the King who gave them substantial gifts and let them go free asking them to pass the message to the besieged that whoever wanted to go to Doroszenko would be free to do it. So they surrendered and the goodness of the King attracted them to him. The King created a Cossack army and gave them uniforms and an assigned pay. After that he returned to the Red Ruthenia.
In 1676 the Treaty of Zurawiec of 16th October with the Porta of Turkey assigned Bialacerkiew, Kalnik, Niemirow and Pawolocz to Poland. The Porta was supposed to be satisfied with the small part of Ukraine, controlled by Doroszenko.
After the death of Jan Zamoyski, the starost of Kalusa, his estates were inherited by his successor Stanislaw Koniecpolski. When he died in 1682, he left all his estates including "tractum Pavoloscensium" to Jan Aleksander Koniecpolski "the closest blood relative of his home." But Pawolocz and the vicinity were almost empty at that time. People had been dispersed by wars. This is an inventory of Pawolocz and of villages belonging to it, prepared when Jan Aleksander Koniecpolski took over these estates on January 20th 1683.
"The town has 42 subjects, only three Jews. The following villages belong to the town: Wierzchownia, Trubiezowka, Korapczyjow, Jahniatyn, Krylowka, Nizgurce, Szpiczynce, Zarki, Mosiejowka, Bystrowka, Sokolcze, Markowa Wola, Charlijowka, Lisowiec, Losowiki, Oparypsy, Poczujki, Strokow, Buki, Czubince, Jerczyki Male, Serczynowka, Krzywoszynce, Werbowka, Minkowa Wolica, Andruszki, Kozlowka, Zydowce, Czerniawka, and Jerczyki. All these villages, once settled by people, are empty now. Names of some abandoned places can be traced to the rivers they were at—they are the Narastawica River, Wierzchownia River, Olszanka River, Pawoloczka River, Kamienica River, and Unawa River".
Although the estates were empty they seemed to be of little interest to the new landlord, he later rented them out for 18,000 to Jakub Leduchowski, as says the contract written in 1701 in Rakolupy. However, in the meantime the Cossack colonel, Semen Palej, once a Pawolocz subject of Koniecposki (comp. Nielubowicze), first appropriated Chwastow and now reached out for the adjacent Pawolocz. Therefore Leduchowski started court proceedings against Koniecpolski, complaining that Palej already occupied the estates he was supposed to receive. However they reached a settlement.
Palej, after establishing himself on those empty lands, gathered around himself a band of the most indecent rogues, comported himself as a formal ruler and claimed total independence in both the whole Chwastow and Pawolocz estates. Iwan Lukianow, a Russian traveler briefly visited Pawolocz during his expedition to the Holy Land in 1702. He found it a repellent spectacle to see the locals, half savages, raw, almost primative. "And when we stopped at the town square–he says in strong words–we were surrounded as a bear by Palej’s Cossacks, all of them a strange mob, without pants, some of them even without a piece of shirt to cover naked backs, with threatening outlook, black like Arabs and behaving like angry dogs; they tear things out of your hands. They look at us with astonishment and we look at them the same way, because we never before saw such monsters. Back home in Moscow or at Petrowski, you would never encounter someone like this."
Entering the town one met many wedding processions. The same pilgrim returning from the Holy Land again passed through Pawolocz, this time accompanied by a caravan of merchants traveling from Turkey to Moscow. A colonel in town, a nominee of Palej, having learned about the approaching caravan ordered the beating of drums and cymbals. On this signal his subordinates saddled horses and with banners moved to meet the caravan. There were 300 of them–says Lukianow–they jumped out of bushes just like hares, in groups of 20 and 30. They started to show up with horses, throwing lances in the air, shooting arrows from their bows and cannonading from their pistols. Turkish soldiers accompanying the caravan, seeing this, lost all courage. The colonel himself approached the merchants and offered them his greetings, and the merchants treated the Cossacks with vodka. The caravan made a camp in the field, and the colonel sent them a generous supply of food and drinking honey. The Turkey soldiers did not move their caravan any further, their security and protection now having been taken over by Palej’s Cossacks.
However, very soon Chwastow and Pawolocz were to get rid of Palej’s Cossacks. Tsar Peter the Great ordered his Marshal Mazepa to enter into the borders of Poland in 1704. On July 12th of that year Mazepa was already in Pawolocz. From there he sent manifestos to the gentry of the province, promising that their estates would be spared if they stayed loyal to the Saxons and that he would protect them. On the other hand estates of those faithful to the Swedes will be devastated. Beyond that, he recommended that they maintain discipline among their subjects and that those of the gentry who departed from their estates afraid of a rebellion may safely return to their houses.
Mazepa stayed the whole summer in Pawolocz as did Palej in a separate camp. However, while in Berdyczew Mazepa ordered the arrest of Palej, having found proof that he turned traitor to the Tsar and supposedly conspired with the Lubomirskis and with the Swedes. The further fate of Palej is commonly known. In 1705, Mazepa during his Wolyn campaign once more camped in Pawolocz surroundings. After the fall of Palej, when his "freedom" was dispersed, Pawolocz was empty once again and as late as 1714 there were only 70 huts there. However, supported by efforts of the landlord, the town soon started to grow. The burgher settlement was joined by Jewish settlement. Indigenous and foreign merchants started to settle there. Governor of this estate was Piotr Zozulinski. In 1716 Waclaw Rzewuski took over the tenancy of the estate.
However in 1719 Jan Aleksander Koniecpolski died without any heirs. He was married to Febronia Rzewuska, and all his huge inheritance passed into the hands of Walewski, and from them by a sale to Prince Jerzy Lubomirski, the Crown Sentinel. (The many branches of the Lubomirski family were a famous Polish dynasty of nobles founded about 1500 and their descendants survive to this day.—editor’s note) Under the governance of the Prince Pawolocz grew and added new buildings. A brick town hall was constructed and a main street built through the city animating life there. Famous markets with merchandise from Moscow and Turkey took place there. Opulent manors appeared in the estates. Prince Lubomirski kept herds of horses in Pawolocz and Szarogrod, which were highly valued in Poland. In the Pawolocz herd there were stallions from Neapol.
However, life there was still full of fear of attacks by robber bands. The bandits gathered in adjacent forests and made expeditions from there over the whole country. Even today there is a memory in Pawolocz of the local Lobodyn forest where their attacks originated. On October 6, 1763, a powerful band of robbers attacked Pawolocz. After breaking into the castle, they robbed everything there was to rob. They murdered Jozef Zazulinski, the wife of Smilan governor Bujalska, and 35 Jews.
However, Jan Wojnarowski, commander of cavalry of starost of Wlodzimierz (name Leduchowski), quickly inflicted a crushing defeat on this band and confiscated their lot consisting of horses, their armory and cash. (from the letter of the same Wojnarowski in collection of K. Swidzinski) Pawolocz already belonged at that time to the sons of Prince Jerzy Lubomirski, Jozef, substarost, and Stanislaw. After the murder of Jozef Zazulinski they nominated Zdanowski for governor of Pawolocz. In 1747 successors of Prince Roman Ruzynski (Siemienskis, Ossolinskis, Zmigrodzkis and others) raised the case of their inheritance from this Prince, started as we have seen before Chmielnicki’s war but later put to rest. However, three decrees of tribunal ruling against them in 1747, 1760 and 1762 ordered them to stay silent.
In 1765 by order of Prince Czartoryski, Sotnik Czarek, who raised rebellion, was arrested in Pawolocz. His execution in Szamrajowka had a deterring effect on further disorders. After the Human massacre Pawolocz was afflicted by plague (Socharzewski – manuscript). But at that time the land owner, Jozef Prince Lubomirski, sold Ostropol, Zwiahol, Ruzyn and Pawolocz to Prince Kacper Lubomirski, governor of Cracow province. In 1775 Pawolocz had paid taxes from 396 houses. King Stanislaw August on March 11th confirmed the privilege of markets organized here. The first one, on Ash Wednesday, lasted two weeks, and the second on the day of Russian Saint Dimitr lasted four weeks.
In 1787 King Stanislaw Poniatowski during his journey to Kaniow traveled from Bialopol to Pawolocz in the same carriage with General Lubowidzki and spent a night in the brick house. That means in the local town hall where he was received by Zielinski, castellan of Biedz, a Cracow man accidentally present there because of the Kaniow convocation, who had arrived from his village close to Pohrebyszcze. He was also received by Dogiel Cyryna, starost of Taborow.
In 1791 there was a redistricting of regions, provinces and counties. The Kijow province was divided into the counties of Zytomierskie, Owruckie, Naddnerpskie and Kijowskie. Zytomierskie county was located around the towns of Zytomierz, Owruckie around Owrucz, Naddneprskie around Bohuslaw, and Kijowskie around Pawolocz. Local Legislatures convened in the local main church. However Kijow province citizenry argued that Pawolocz did not have a building to house the gentry law courts comfortably and asked the Diet in 1782 for the relocation of the county seat from Pawolocz to Iwnica. This because it was easier to build in Iwnica than in Pawolocz where there were no forests nearby, and most of all because Protazy Potocki designated his residential palace in Iwnica for the use of the courts.
In 1793 there was a post in Pawolocz. The postmaster was Hulasicki. Prince Kasper Lubomirski, a Russian general and lord of Pawolocz, left two daughters: Zofia, her first marriage being to Prot Potocki, her second marriage being to Waleryan Zubow, and her third marriage being to Uwarow and Natalie who married Adam Walewski. In 1805 Zofia Uwarowa sold Pawolocz together with Lisowce Male to her husband Teodor Uwarow and after his death the town became the property of his relatives, Teodor and Andrzej Uwarows. After the death of Teodor Uwarow in 1840, half of Pawolocz with 4,720 dziesiecina (a dziesiecina is about 2.7 acres—editor’s note) of land passed to his grandson, Diakow, who subsequently sold this half of Pawolocz to Stanislaw Abramowicz. The second half with 2,902 dziesiecina of land and with the village of Hat was purchased in an auction by princess Cecylia de domo Morzkowska Radziwill. She left it in her will to Prince Wilhelm Radziwill, and he sold this half as well to Stanislaw Abramowicz. Nowadays both these halves belong to Hudymowa. The suburb Ksiezowka belongs to the Treasury.
The Unitarian book of visits shows that in 1749 there were four wooden Orthodox churches in Pawolocz: Pokrowska, Michajlowska, Bohojawlenska, and Blahowieszczanska. Of these, Pokrowska and Blahowieszcznska exist to this day. The original Catholic Church was burned already at the time of Chmielnicki’s war, as mentioned above. Not until November 5, 1751 did Prince Jozef Lubomirski fund a new church. The foundation act states the following: "Jozef, the count of Wisnicz, Jaroslaw, Dabrowa, Labun, Mikolewy, Pawolocz, Krasne, Miastkowo Tomaszpole, Raszkow Sawran, and so on, Lubomirski, the prince of the Sacred Roman State, Esquire Carver of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Cavalry Commander, General Major of Crown armies, hereditary lord of Ruzno principality, to each and everybody let it be known, also to my hereditary successors on Pawolocz, Ruzyn and Kotelnia presentibus in perpetuam memoriam, that I in my hereditary possessions called Pawolocz, moved by eager piety and to greater glory of the Lord and to assure that many souls redeemed by the blood of our savior Jesus existing now without a pastor salutary consulendo utilitate and so on, assign an annuity of 500 Polish zloty and the village of Ksiezowka , 12 homesteads."
Also, the Pawolocz church had a capital of 7,300 Polish zlotys from donations of Jozef Bodakowski, Wojciech Bussolski, Jan Bialkowski, Jan Falenski. In 1765 the pastor was Father Stanislaw Piotrowicz, canon of Kijow. According to Tolstoy, in 1777 the parish counted 1,749 faithful. The protocol of archidiaconate of Kijow from 1819 says: "brick church, temporary, not finished. Collator Uwarow, general, pastor Father Franciszek Trebnicki, church of the Immaculate Conception is not yet consecrated." Today there is a new brick church build in 1852 of the Heavenly Ascension of Holy Virgin Mary. The Catholic parish of the Skwiry decanal has 1,470 faithful and branches: Wierzchowska, Jerczyki, Wieksze, chapels in Turbijowo and Makarowo.
A river in Skwiry County. A tributary of the Rastawica River joins it at the town of Pawolocz.
From a Supplement published in 1910:
A township, Skwiry County, Municipality of Pawolocz, with post office and railway at Popielnia. 22 vestry from Skwiry, 976 houses, 7,844 inhabitants, 2 Orthodox churches, a Catholic church, two church schools, hospital, 3 water mills, 2 windmills, 10 markets yearly. The Municipality includes 10 settlements (1 township, 6 large villages, and 3 small villages), 15,454 inhabitants (210 Catholics, 28 Roskolnics, 3 Evangelicals, 3,686 Jews), and 19,216 dziesiecina of land made up of a 9,551 large manor farm, 8,967 of farmland, and 698 of land held by the Orthodox Church.
Translated by Sophia Kaminski
Translation edited by Richard Spector (revised 3/18/06)