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Extracts, Tables, and Analyses, from
The 1784 Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Poll Tax List

Introduction by Deborah G. Glassman, copyright 2008
All tables and indices on this page are ©Deborah Glassman 2008 and may not be reproduced in whole or part without her written permission.

This is a page in our Documents section. Click the "Documents" button to see other materials and articles in this category

One-to-One Correspondence Between Individuals
in 1784 Poll Tax List and Later Sources

The tally below is of people who can be strongly identified with a person with the same first name and the same patronymic in a later document of Lyakhovichi. If the person is designated a head of household in 1784, the information from the later document must indicate an age of at least 21 in 1784. If the person is designated a child in 1784, then the age in the later document must claim a birth before 1782, as repeated tries found no one with an age that would be less than 2 years old. Back calculation from the later documents can put adult men as sons in their fathers’ houses, but women are assumed to be minors in their fathers’ households unless they are married. For these first sixty people, there are no multiple choices – each of these people in a later document (i.e. 1805 Tavern List, 1816 and 1819 Revision Lists), corresponds to only one person in the 1784 census.

All of the information below is constructed around the name data in the 1784 Grand Duchy of Lithuania Census. There is no analysis of the order of the listings although it is interesting that the possible identification of the head of household #1 and the positive identification of head of household #3 indicate that they are the households of Rabbis. The in-between household, household #2, is possibly connected to two different families (through 2 sons) but is especially noteworthy because the sequencing of those families in the 1816 Revision List puts them not just in the second household in 1784 but in the first and third household in 1816.

An interesting statistic was uncovered just before press time, but has not yet been fully explored. I found many instances of two sequential households where the patronymic of the second household was the same as the first name of its predecessor. If this was random, it would seem that just as frequently one would find the order reversed, yet this was not the case. Consequently, it seems that this is most likely a case of a householder being followed in the enumeration by a married son, sometimes two.

I will be adding to this table as I look at daughters who were named in 1784 and compare them with women named in the 1816 and 1819 Revision Lists and the 1805 Tavern Registry. I was surprised to realize that the span of time between 1819 and 1784 was an advantage to this process. Most of the women with the matching name in the Revision Lists, were too young to have appeared in 1784 at all. Others were too old to have been minors in their fathers’ households in 1784, that left a very narrow window and a much shorter list. So far, it is largely statistical – noting how many were recorded by that name in 1784 and how many in the right age group in the later period. But I have added those that were clear upon examination.

Thinking that you might be interested in the process of the search for women named as daughters in 1784, I include this brief article below before you get to the actual table. For the details of a fascinating search, I also invite you to the article on our pages by Dr. Lamdan documenting his quest for Dwora daughter of Mowsza of Sekuny, Tracing an Eighteenth Century Jewish Woman of Lyakhovichi: Dvora Mandel

Searching for Daughters 1784 to 1816/1819:
The name Pesia.

There were just three unmarried daughters named Pesia in 1784 and breathtakingly, there were just three age-appropriate Pesias, all in 1819. Sorting them would seem to be treacherous, but there are clues to be had.

In 1784 we have:
Pesia dtr of Szachna b Leizer, household #6 Lyakhovichi
Pesia dtr of Dr. Leyzer b David, household # 31 Lyakhovichi
Pesia dtr of Berko of Szawicze, household #63 small towns

In 1819 we have:
#108 Pesia wife of Leiba b Itsko Tserles, 40/40 (her age and husband's)
#140 Pesia wife of Volf Khvedyuk, 40/40
#166 Pesia wife of Kalman b Yosel Kaplan, 36/45

Looking at the 1784 list first for clues, we find that we have already identified Volf Khvedyuk in our correspondence list as Wolf son of Mowsza of Sekuny. The town of the third Pesia listed, the daughter of Berko of Szawicze is recorded just before Sekuny, and in fact her household is recorded just before that of Wolf Khvediuk. It would seem to be a reasonable assumption that Pesia was married “to the boy next door.” So we have probably accounted for the Pesia of Szawicze.

The next two husbands are less helpful in helping us discern the women. We can’t find Kalman b Yosel Kaplan or a Leiba b Icko in 1784. So, instead, lets look at their neighbors in 1784 and 1819.

In 1819 Pesia the wife of Kalman by Yosel Kaplan has just one family near-by, old enough to have appeared in 1784 but we cannot find Leiba b Shmoilo Khabas or his wife Merka in that census, or anyone likely to be them.

In 1819 Pesia, the wife of Leiba b Itsko Tserles is recorded in household #108. In households 106 and 107 and 108, the wives, are all of an age, and presumably should show up in the 1784 GDL Census. Ryva the wife of Shender b. Berko Shostak is 41, Malka the wife of Leiba b Elya Chorny is 40. And Pesia is also 40.

Looking just at the women, we come up with an amazing coincidence. They seem to line up with the unmarried daughters who lived in households #3, #4, and #6 in 1784. Lets take them one at a time. There is only one Ryva who is a daughter in 1784 – she is the daughter of household #3, Rywa, the daughter of Rabin Shaya Gavza. (two households away from Pesia dtr of Szachna). There are two Malkas, one a sister in household #4 of Berko b Icko in Lyakhovichi proper, (she lives 1 household away from Pesia dtr of Szachna) and a second Malka who is a dtr of Wolko in the small town of Malyszy (this second one appears to be called Sora Malka in 1819. ) And finally, Pesia, dtr to Szachna son of Lieyzer.

But the process is not so straight-forward in reverse. While there is only one daughter Ryva in 1784, there are two in 1819 of the right age. Their husbands don’t clear things up: one does not appear in the 1784 list, and one is there as a 7 year old. The two possibilities are that a newcomer married the rabbi’s daughter or a local boy married a new arrival named Ryva. Both are equally feasible. It is easier with Malka, with only one candidate left in both directions, we can clearly identify this young girl of household #4 in 1784, with the wife of Leiba Chorny in 1819. But if for the moment we assume that the rabbi’s daughter in this large community of many Jewish families, married a local boy, then we find rather more than we bargained for. Because if the girls of household #3 and household #4 of 1784, are enumerated sequentially in 1819, one has to wonder if this does not point to their 1784 neighbor, Pesia daughter of Szachna b Leizer as girl number 3. If so, we would not only identify Pesia dtr of Szachna as Pesia Shestak, but by elimination, Pesia dtr of Dr. Leyzor b. David, as the wife of Kalman b Yosel Kaplan. Now note, speculation is not research. We have to look at real sources to come to real conclusions. The questions raised here may be able to be answered as people join us in finding and making available the Russian Revision Lists of 1795 and 1805 and 1811. They may be able to be answered as the genealogical and historical communities identify other resources that can better document the period between the 1784 Grand Duchy of Lithuania Census and 1816.

But the questions that remain are not those about three women in their forties named Pesia in 1819. Or even, considering the focus of this page, three little girls named Pesia in 1784. Look instead to how the order of this Census may be reflected in the later Revision Lists; how in turn, the Revision list order may indicate physical residences enumerated; and how the residences of three women may tell us about the inheritance of homes by daughters in the late 1790s and early 1800s. We have a lot more to learn from the 1784 Grand Duchy of Lithuania Census!

1784 Census Comparison of Individuals
with Later Sources

1784 Enumeratee

Later Source

The first two families (Zelko son of Szmoylo and Nechemko son of Fawisz) listed are the least positive identifications below, but they are listed here to consider them in order

Zelko son of Szmoylo, household #1, head

Probably Rabbi Asher Zelig son of Shmuel who is reported to have been the rabbi between the 1770s and his death in 1790. But no member of his household can be identified in Lyakhovichi from 1816 on. 

Nechemko son of Fawisz ,household #2, head and Fawisz son of Nechemko, son

There are two families possibly tied to this person  which would trace through different children. The two families are reported sequentially to each other in the 1816 Revision List.
The first shares the coincidence of the name Nekhemya for the progenitor and the early placement in the registry. The family of Leiba b Nekhemya Busel was reported as household #1 in the Revision Lists and tax lists of Lyakhovichi from 1816 through 1884. But Leiba wasn’t born until after the 1784 census, so we have no confirmations of this suspicion until we can examine the 1795 or 1805 Revision Lists.Surname Busel

The second also has a Nekhemya as a founder but Nekhemya son of Fawisz in 1784 would have to be the father of the 33 year old [derived from age in 1811] who is listed separately in this 1784 GDL census. Abram son of Nevakh (his son is called Nevakh Nekhemya in 1816 so presumably his father is also) appears at household #23 in 1784. But his children appear in the possibly significant position in the 1816 Revision List of Household #3,  one away from the Busels named above. He and his sons used the surname Oginsky in 1816.Surname Oginsky

If household order turns out to be connected between 1784 and 1816, then Busel and Oginsky being in an equivalent position to Nechemko son of Fawisz of 1784 may be a relevant datum.

 

No Definite Attribution

Rabin, head, household #3. Rabin is the title Rabbi

Rabbi Shaya Gavza who can be conclusively identified through his sons Wygdor and Mowsza. Rabbi Shaya Gavza the son of Rabbi Azriel Gavza was rabbi in Lyakhovichi from his father’s death in the 1770s until his own death in the 1790s. Surname Gavza

Wygdor son of Rabin, son, household #3.

Avigdor son of Shaya Gavza, age 49 in 1811 and 54 in 1816 Surname Gavza

Mowsza son of Rabin, son, household #3.

Though I have third party references to Movsha as Movsha Azriel and an Azriel Gavza appears as a patronymic in 1816, there is no independent confirmation in these records that these are the same. Nevertheless, he is positively identified by his brother and father’s identies. Surname Gavza

Ryva dtr of Rabin, dtr, household #3.

Ryva Gavza is most likely the same as Ryva the wife of Shender son of Berko Shostak 1819

Josiel son of Ozer, head, household #8 and his sons Michael and Chaim.

Possibly identified by his son Michael son of Josiel Busel who was 58 in 1811 and died in 1813. The surname may be for this son only, as Chaim is not clearly identical to anyone in 1816 or 1819. But the name of Josiel’s father Ozer (a variant of Ezra) is used in its form Ovzer by another Busel son of Yosel in 1816. Ovzer Mendel son of Josiel Busel who was born around 1781 may have been an alternate name for Chaim or a third sibling.  Surname Busel

Michael son of Josiel, son, household #8 with brother Chaim

Michael son of Yosel Busel who was 58 in 1811 and died in 1813. Possibly a sibling to Ovzer Mendel son of Yosel Busel who was 30 in 1811 and would have been under three in 1784. Surname Busel

Chaim son of Josiel, son, household #8 with brother Josiel.

His brother Michael son of Josiel appears to be same as Michael son of Yosel Busel in 1816RL. Chaim may have used a different surname or he may be the same as Ovzer Mendel son of Yosel Busel who was 30 in 1811 and who would have been under three in 1784. Double names designed to protect an infant when the name donor died young, were often interchangeably used with warding names like Khaim and Alter, so Ovzer Mendel son of Yosel Busel and Chaim son of Josiel may be the same. No Definite Attribution

Nachman son of Izrael, son, household #13. He is with his father Izrael and his mother Ester.

Nachman is the same as Nachman son of Izreel Oginsky in 1816 who was 46 in 1816 and who was also a signatory to the 1819RL. Surname Oginsky

Mowsza son of Szymszel, son, household #15.

Mowsza is the same as Movsha son of Shimshel Berkovich in 1816 who was 36 in 1816. Surname Berkovich

Hyrsz son of Szewel, head,  household #19 and his son Szmoylo

In 1816 there is a Shevel son of Girsh Vtikochinsky (later Tukochinsky) who may be the same as his son Szmoylo or may be a second son. The name Shevel is distinctive to this family in this time period. Surname Tukochinsky

Szmoylo son of Hyrsz son of Szewel, son, household #19

In 1816 there is a Shevel son of Girsh Vtikochinsky (later Tukochinsky) who may be the same. or may be a second son. The name Shevel is distinctive to this family in this time period. Surname Tukochinsky

Abram son of Nevakh,  head, household #23 and son Aron

Abram son of Nevakh Oginsky, died in 1815. He is also identified secondly by his son Aron’s presence in the same Revision List in another household but with the same surname. A second son of Abram’s too young to have appeared in the 1784 GDL is listed with Aron and carrying the name of Abram’s father Nevakh. Surname Oginsky

Aron son of Abram son of Nevakh, son  household #23 with parents

Aron son of Abram Oginsky, age 30 in 1816. He and his father both appear with the same surname in different households, possibly because his father is dead when the 1816 RL was tabulated. Additionally in 1816 Aron b Abram Oginsky is noted with a brother who is carrying the name of Aron’s grandfather – Nevakh. Surname Oginsky

Meier son of Jankel, head, household #24 with wife and son Lieyba

Meir son of Yankel Malovitsky in 1816 and in 1819 RL signatory list. Surname Malovitsky

Szymel son of Icko, head, household #25

Zimel son of Itska Mykasey who had been 52 in 1811 and was dead in 1816. This branch of the Mukaseys is difficult to link to the others because Zimel is recorded in a household of dead, but Zimel may have brothers Todros son of Icko Mukasey reported in 1819 and Movsha son of Icko Mukasey also reported in 1819. Surname Mukasey

Jankiel son of Josiel, head, household #27

Yankel Yehiel son of Yosel Ashkenaz, age 54 in 1816. A signatory to the 1819 RL. Surname Ashkenaz

Chaim son of Sholom, head, household #33 and Sholom son of Chaim, head, household #34

The 1784 census order suggests that Sholom son of Chaim is the son of Chaim son of Sholom. The younger man - Sholom son of Chaim is identical with Sholom son of Khaim Burshtein in 1819, age 68.  He is probably also the Shlioma son of  Khaim Lyakhovitsky who is a liquor maker in the 1805 Revision list, age 60. Surname Burshtein

Efroim son of Leyb, head, household #35 with son Chaim

Chaim is the same as Khaim b Yefraim Odukhovsky, age 43 in 1816. Surname Odukhovsky

Leiba son of Rabin, head, household #37. He is  Leiba son of Rabin Shaya Gavza. His father is listed #3 in the 1784 GDL Census.

Leiba is the son of  Rabbi Shaya Gavza,  age 61 in 1816. Signatory to the 1819 Revision List. Considering that his daughter was married by 1785, his age was seriously understated in 1816. Leiba is the same person who in 1819 signed the 1819 Revision List as a witness giving his father’s name in Hebrew as Rabbi Isaiah and the Polish form of his last name Gavza as Hawce.
Surname Gavza.

Wichna daughter of Leiba son of Rabin, daughter, household #37. 

Her father identified as Leiba son of Shaya Gavza in 1816. Leiba is the father-in-law of Yankel b Movsha Vishnyas who was married to Vishnya dtr of Leiba. Wichna dtr of Leiba son of Rabin of 1784 is the same as the Vishnya who gave her name to her husband in 1816, though Vishnya does not herself appear in 1816. We know that her husband was married twice because though he was recorded sequentially to her father in 1784 as he was in 1816,he was married to someone else during the 1784 GDL census. But his son born 1785 had a name peculiar to Vishnya’s family, so Yankel was either first married to Vishnya’s sister or he married Vishnya later in 1784. Surname Gavza (maiden name) Surname Vishnyas (married name)

Jankel son of Mowsza, son, household #38

Yankel son of Movsha Vishnyas was recorded sequentially to Leiba son of Rabin Shaya Gavza in both 1784 and 1816. He was reported as 56 in 1816 and therefore c. 18-20s in 1784.  He took his surname from his 2nd wife Vishnya daughter of Leiba Gavza. His eldest son Azriel Meir Vishnyas born 1785 had a combination name unique to Vishnya’s family but in 1784 Jankiel was recorded with a wife Nechama while Vishnya was recorded in the previous household with her father. It is possible that Nechama was Vishnyas sister or he married Vishnya later in 1784. Surname Vishnyas

Szyfra dtr of Mowsza son of Fawisz, dtr household #38

Szyfra wife of Todris b Itska Mukasey, 58 in 1819. That age would make her around 23 in 1784 when she was living at home with her parents and her married brother of 18-20s. Her father used Vinograd, her brother used Vishnyas, her husband Mukasey

Mowsza son of Fawisz, head household #38

Movsha son of Fabish Vinograd is reported with an age of only 46 in 1811 and died before the 1816 RL. That age would make him younger than the son attributed to him above but other members of his household had serious age adjustments between 1811 and 1819 and more before 1834. His son-in-law David b Meir Epstein’s  age had nine years added to it between the 1811 and 1816 Revision Lists. Surname Vinograd

Abram son of Leiyba son of Peysach, son, household #42

Abram son of Leiba Lev, he was 41 in 1811 and died in 1816. Adding to the likelihood of the connection to the surname Lev, is that a (too young to be him but likely to be named for him) Leiba son of Peisakh Lev (only 25) also appears in the 1816 RL. Surname Lev

Morduch son of Kalman, head, household #45. With wife Hinda.

Morduch son of Kalman Grabina age 51 in 1811,absent in 1816. Reappears as Mordukh b Kalman Grinbarkh age 64 in 1819 still with a wife named Ginda (which is the Russian form of Hinda). Surname Grabina
Surname Grinberg

Hinda wife of Morduch son of Kalman, wife, household #45.

She and her husband are matches for Mordukh b Kalman Grinbarkh and his wife Ginda in 1819. Surname Grinberg

Szymon son of Hyrsz, head, household #51 with his wife Dynia

He and his wife match Shimon son of Girsh Dobes, age 60 in 1819 and his wife Dynya. Surname Dobes

Dynia wife of Szymon son of Hyrsz, household #51

She and her husband are matches for Shimon son of Girsh Dobes and his wife Dynya in 1819. Surname Dobes

Szmoylo son of Owsiey son of Chaim, son, household #54

Shmoilo  son of Owsiey Loes in 1819 age 45. The name Khaim Lis does appear but the age provided for Khaim b Yevna Lis is the same as for Szmoylo son of Owsiey, so possibly like Shmoilo, grandchild
Surname Lis 
Surname Los

Nisel son of Iono, head, household #56 and wife Sora. He is listed with the occupation krawiec which means tailor.

He is the same as Nison son of Ion Khait in 1819, age 65 with wife Sora. He is using the surname Khait which means tailor.
Surname Khait

Sora wife of Nisel son of Iono, household #56.

She and her husband are matches for Nison son of Ion Khait and his wife Sora in 1819. Surname Khait

Abram son of Lieyb, head,  household #58

Abram son of Leib Berkovich in 46 in 1811, absent 1816, and as Abram son of Leib Grinshtein in 1819 claimed age 58.
Surname Berkovich
Surname Grinshtein

Szolom son of Rubin,  head, with daughter Buna household#63

There is only one female Bunia in 1816 or 1819 – Bunia Kaplan wife of Abraham b Beniamin Kaplan. She is 40 in 1819. Surname Kaplan>

Jankiel b Zelman, head, household # 76

Yankel b Zelman Oginsky 1819 age 60. Surname Oginsky

Gdalia son of Wolf son of Josiel, son, household #83

Gedalia son of Wolf Elina in 1816 and as signatory to 1819 RL Surname Elina

Aron son of Leyba son of Mowsza , son, household #86, a tailor

Aron son of Yodel Kerbel, 44 in 1819 Surname Kerbel

Icko son of Jadyd, head, household # 87. Occupation szewc (shoemaker)

In 1819 Itsko is reported as the patronym of Yudida son of Icko Shuster. The name Jadyd= Yudida, the occupation is the same, and the patronym matches the head of family in 1784.  Surname Shuster

Lieyzor son of Aron, head, household #95. Occupation krawiec (tailor)

the father of Orko son of Leizer Aronevich, 40 in 1819. In 1834 the son appears as Aron son of Leizer Aronchik. Other Aronchiks in 1834 are descended from Fayvel son of Aron in 1784 whose occupation is also tailor. So perhaps Leizer Aronevich and Fayvel Aronevich of 1784, both tailors, both heads of households, are brothers, but this is not proven. Surname Aronevich, later Aronchik

Szender son of Berko son of Wolf, son, household #102

Shender son of Berko Shostak age 42 in 1819. Surname Shostak

Icko son of Wolf son of Jankiel, son, household #108

He may be the same known as Itsko son of Wolf who was the son-in-law of Rabbi Mordechai of Lyakhovichi, the Holy Elder of Lyakhovichi. He was married to the Rebbe’s daughter in the early 1790s. May have later used Surname Malovitsky

Beniomin son of Iser, head, household #111

Beniomin Itsko son of Iser Grushka, 61 in 1816. Signatory 1819 Revision List. Surname Grushka

Gedalia son of Mekel, head, household #113

Gedalia is the father of Morduch b Gdal Mekel who was 30 in 1819, and so born after the 1784 census. Surname Mekhel

Fala son of Abram son of Lieyzor, son, household #116

Falya son of Abram Zhmodyak age 51 in 1816. Surname Zhmodyak

Fayko son of Aron, head, household #121 with son Boruch, called a tailor

Boruch son of Fayko (also called son of Fayvel) Aronchik, age 49 in 1816 RL. Boruch had a brother Mikhel (born after this census) who use the surname Partnoy and then switched it to Aronchik. Surname Aronchik

Nosel son of Jankiel, head, household #131 with son Jankiel. Called “Kusznierz” (a furrier)

Yankel son of Nosel Kushner, age 38 in 1811 and who later used the name David son of Nosel Kushner in 1819 age 43. Surname Kushner.

Mowsza, head, household #132,  “shmuklierz” (a hatmaker). In 1784 recorded immediately subsequent to Nosel b Jankiel “kusznierz”. In 1816  a Mowsza son of Khonon Shmukler (too reported age was too young to be the same) was recorded in same household with Nosel’s son Jankiel

If the 1816 age is wrong then Movsha son of Khonon Shmukler is, as in 1784, recorded with Yankel son of Nosel Kushner, in both years.
Surname possibility Shmukler

Icko son of Morduch,head, household #137 with son Chaim.

Aizik-Yosel son of Mordukh in 1819, age 50. He has an unidentified relative with him Girsh son of Khaim Baes who is 24. If Aizik's age is understated (and the head of household recorded immediately next had his age adjusted thirty years in the subsequent Revision List) then he would have been old enough to be the head of family in 1784 and have a grandson Girsh son of Khaim in 1819. Surname possibly Baes
There is a problem with this one-to-one comparison. In all other cases there is only one possibility in 1816 or 1819 for the correlation with 1784 to be drawn. But in 1816 there is also an Itsko son of Mordukh Davidkovich in 1816, age 67. The wives names don't match for either man but Davidkovich's wife is younger and unlikely to be the same as 1784 in any case. With this surname we probably should search for a father to Itsko named Morduch son of David. Surname Davidkovich

Household # 3 small places around Lyakhovichi , Leizer son or nephew of Perec, son,  of town Pieluchowscyzna

In 1819 Leizer son of Peretz Shmuil Kacher, age 40
Surname Kacher

Household # 6 small places around Lyakhovichi,Dovid son of Berko, of town Luki

Dovid Itsko son of Berko Pinchuk, 35 in 1816 (called just Dovid  in 1834) Surname Pinchuk

Household #12 small places around Lyakhovichi : Wolki -Abram son of Wolf, son

In 1805 Tavern List as Abram son of  Volf Bogushets with his son Movsha.  His son Movsha son of Abram corresponds to Movsha son of Abram Ebshtein in 1819RL Surname Bogushets Surname Ebshtein

Household #15 small places around Lyakhovichi : Howolowincy - Wolf son of Meier, son

Volf son of Meyer Zadvorsky who was 40 in 1811 and reported dead in 1814 but reappears under name Volf son of Meyer Guk in 1819.
Surname Zadvorsky
Surname Guk

Household #  30 small places around Lyakhovichi : Zaritowa - Oser son of Lieyba, son

Ovzer son of Leiba Budovlya who was 43 in 1816.
Surname Budovlya

Household #  37small places around Lyakhovichi Zubelwicze-Hyler son of Izrael of Zubelwicze

Gilel son of Srol Shlioma Yudovich, 38 in 1819 Surname Yudovich

Household #  39small places around Lyakhovichi Abram of Podlesie, head with son Icko b Abram and Icko’s wife Nechama and children including Icko’s son Berka

Itsko b Abram and his wife Nehama appear in 1805 Tavern Register with the “surname” Lyakhovitsky. In 1816 he is Itsko b Abram Galembo with a different-named wife only eleven years older than his son Berka. Surname Galemba

Household #  39small places around Lyakhovichi: Podlesie-Nechama daughter-in-law of Abram of Podlesie, wife of Icko b Abram

She and her husband are matches for Itsko b Abram and Nechama Lyakhovitsky in 1805 Tax Register. He matches Itsko b Abram Galemba in 1816 but since he is remarried to someone only 11 years older than his son Berka, she has probably died and he remarried. Family Surname Galemba

Household # 39 small places around Lyakhovich: Podlesie i Berka son of Icko b Abram, he is called Icko’s son and Icko is the son of the head of household Abram of Podlesie

He appears in the 1805 Tavern Register age 26 with wife Khaya and in 1816 is in the household of his father Itsko son of Abram Galembo and is using the surname Galembo also. 26 in 1805 Tavern Register and 39 in 1816. Independent confirmation of the Surname Galemba

Household # 49 small places around Lyakhovichi: Bialilowa-  Chackiel, head

The only Khatzkel in the right period in Lyakhovichi was Khatzkel the father of Movsha Olanda (Alyanda/ Golanda). Movsha b Khatzkel Olanda was born around 1796 according to RLs 1819, 1834, 1850. Surname Alyanda

Household # 51 small places around Lyakhovichi :Tazenicze –Szolom, head with his wife Sora and son Jankiel and brother Josiel. Also Josiel's wife. The name of the town is interpreted by the translators as "Tazenicze" based on comparisons with similar initial letters but it is also the webmaster's opinion that this might be Lazewicze. In that case, it would match the town where Sholom son of David, a native of Lozovitzi, sought to operate a tavern in 1805.

He appears in the 1805 Tavern Register as Sholom Dubinets age 43 with wife Sosha and son Yankel.Surname Dubinets

Household # 52 small places around Lyakhovichi : Lotwa – Sendor, head, with his wife and sons Matys and Gimpel. No patronym for Sendor but his son’s “surname” of Shimonovich in 1805 suggests that Sendor’s father may be Shimon. In the 1805 Tavern Register, Matys seeks permission to operate an inn in Kovali, which is the town with one family reported immediatly before Matys's town with single family of 1784.

In the 1805 Tavern Register Matys son of Shander Shimonovich, age 36.  He is a head of family listed right after Shimon son of Shander Shimonovich, age 60 – possibly Matys’s grandfather. Surname Shimonovich

Household #64 small places around Lyakhovichi: Sekuny –Wolf son of Mowsza, son

In 1805 Tavern List Volf son of Movsha called Golovach for town of Golovichi. Is with wife Pesya and in 1819 RL Volf son of Movsha and wife Pesya are surnamed Khvedyuk. His reported age is 40. Surname Khvedyuk

Household #64 small places around Lyakhovichi: Sekuny –Hyrsz son of Mowsza, son

In 1819 Girsh son of Mowsza is surnamed Khveluk (but written Khveduk and Fedyuk in 1834), the same surname as his brother Volf. His reported age is 40.He is also living next door to what appears to be a third brother Leiba, age 36. He has also been identified as the father of Isrol Girshev Movshev Mandel, age 25 in 1816 and of Berka Girshev Mandel who lived in Isrol's household in 1834.
Surname Khvedyuk
Surname Mandel

Household #67 small places around Lyakhovichi: Chwiedziuki– Lieyzor, head with wife.

In 1805 Tavern List - Sholom son of Leizar seeks an inn in Khvedziak. Sholom is reportedly from Sakuny which is reported three families previous to Lieyzor of Khvedziak in 1784. Sholom would have been a child aged c. 8 in 1784 but he is not present. No conclusive identification

Household #73 small places around Lyakhovichi: Odochowzezyzna Rubin, head, son Lejzor, son Iser

Rubin is the patronymic and his residence the source of the toponym for Itska son of Rubin Adukhofsky in 1816 (later Odukhovsky). If his age was right, Itska  was under one year at the time of 1784 census. But Rubin Odukhovsky is clearly the same as Rubin of Odochowzeyzna. Surname Odukhovsky

Household #76 small places around Lyakhovichi: Darew -   Boruch head, with wife Mindla and sons Lejba and Jankiel. In Darew.

He is the same as Boruch Darevsky in 1805 Tavern Register, age 60, is there with wife Mindel and son Yankel and other children. He is the patronym for his son Yankel Darevsky in 1816. Surname Darevsky

Household #76 small places around Lyakhovichi : Darew -  Mindla, wife

She and her husband are matches for Boruch and Mindel Darevsky in 1805. her age given as 56. Surname Darevsky

Household #76 small places around Lyakhovichi : Darew - Jankiel, son of Boruch of Darew.

In 1816 RL as Yankel b Boruch Darevsky as 36 in 1811, absent 1816. Reappears as Yankel son of Boruch Kaplan in 1819 claiming to be only 32.
Surname Darevsky.
Surname Kaplan

Household #105small places around Lyakhovichi : Lubaszew - Itska, head. Nisen, relationship not listed.

In 1816 RL Is same as Itska son of Notka Liboshevsky, age 63. The name Notka is a nickname for Noson/Nisen. Surname Liboshevsky

Household # 6 Pesia  dtr of Szachna b. Lieyzor

1819 #108 Pesia wife of Leiba b Icko Tserles as 40 (so age 5 in 1784)

Pesia dtr of Dr. Leyzer b David.

#1819 - #166 Pesia wife of Kalman b Yosel Kaplan

Pesia dtr of Berko of Szawicze (the town recorded before Sekuny)

1819 Pesia wife of Volf Khvedyuk (who has been identified with Volf son of Mowsza of Sakuny of 1784)

Risya  dtr of Szolom of Taszenice [Lazewice]
Risya was identified in an independent search for the name Risya. But months after I found her, I came across separate information indicating that her father Szolom was the same as Sholom b David Dubinets of Lazowicze (Lozovichi) in the 1805 Tavern Register. Which indicated to me that the place name "Tazenice" was probably a misread for Lazowicze. Since that Sholom b David was proved through other searches to be the same as Sholom b David Dubinchik, I find it significant that Risya and her husband in 1819, are enumerated sequentially to Sholom b David Dubinchik, independent confirmation of the results from separate searches.

Risya  wife of Yevel b Movsha Itsko Volokhoyansky, enumerated seque


The seventy-one people who are named above have been individually compared between 1784 and a later source document. The people who are named below have had the field of likely candidates narrowed, but the solid identifications are not yet made. We can use your help!

There were two daughters named Basya in 1784 but there are three women who might match by age in 1816 and 1819

Basya daughter of Berko of Dubowa
Basya daughter of Szolom of Ostrowia

Basya Kharlip,  wife of Itsko b Idel, 45 in 1816
Basya Khienkes, wife of Berko b Leizer, 46 in 1819
Basya Gelfes,  wife of Girsh b Zelman Gelfes 40 in 1819
These women have not yet been sorted

 

There were two daughters name Beilya in 1784 and two wives in the right age range
Beilya dtr of David of Podhory
Beilya dtr of Hyrsz of Zawoliece

Beilya Sysun, wife of Tsalka b Leizer, 40, 1816
Beilya Kaplan, wife of Shmerko b Leiba, 36 in 1819 [She had a son named Girsh]

These two women are likely to be identical to the two Beilyas of 1784 but we have not yet sorted them out.

There was one daughter named Bliuma in 1784
Bliuma dtr of Lieyba of Krzywowicz

There were four Blyumas in 1816, the first 2 would have been born in  1783 and 1784 and unlikely to have been counted; the second two would have been 12 and 14 in 1784 and might have been among the brides.

Bluma Murkes, 33  in 1816(wife of Azriel b Nisen)
Bluma Malovich, 32 in 1816 (wife of Noah the Lechovicher Rebbe)
Bluma Dubinchik, 46, in 1816 (not first wife of Shlomo b Dovid)
Bluma Brevda 44, in 1816 (wife of Aron b Shimshel)
These women have not yet been sorted

3 dtrs named Chaia, all of Lyakhovichi
Chaia dtr of Efroim
Chaia dtr of Lieyzor
Chaia dtr of Morduch married to Azriel

Not yet investigated;

3 married women named Cyrla, all of Lyakhovichi
Cyrla wife of Idel b Jankiel
Cyrla wife of Josiel b Aron
Cyrla wife of Szmoylo b Jacob, a tailor of Lachowicze

There are no women named Cyrla in 1816 or 1819. But one family is now using the name Tserles as a surname, that of Leiba b Itsko Tserles in 1819. Leib does not appear in the 1784 census. His likely father-in-law and possible alternative were not in 1784 married to women named Cyrla. The women named in 1784 as the wives of his potential fathers-in-law were not named Cyrla.

Dobres 2

Dobres 2 - There are also 2 women named Dobres here but not yet sorted

See Dvora dtr of Mowsza of Sekuny in article by Neville Lamdan

Tracing an Eighteenth Century Jewish Woman of Lyakhovichi: Dvora Mandel

Fruma dtr of  Leyba son of Peysach, household #42 Her  brother used the surname Lev in 1819

Fruma Kacher, wife of Leizer b Shmuil Peretz

Fruma Berkovich, wife of Movsha Sholom son of Shimshel
These women have not yet been sorted

Malka, sister of Berko son of Icko, household#4
Malka dtr of Wolko in the small town of Malyszy

There are two women named Malka here, but the process of identifying the girls named Pesia above sorted them out.
Malka sister of Berko is the Malka married to Leib b Elya Chorny in 1819
Malka dtr of Wolko may be the same as Sora Malka who is married to Yankel b Khaim Lipkes in 1819

Sora dtr of Berko of Szawicze (the town recorded before Sakuny)

possibly 1819 Sora wife of Girsh Khvelyuk (Khvedyuk). He and his brother Volf are identified as the sons of Mowsza of Sakuny. If Pesia and Sora are both the daughters of Berko of Szawicze, 2 brothers married to 2 sisters. But all of the candidates for Sora dtr of Berko in 1816 and 1819 have not been investigated

This table is a work in progress. Share your Findings!

We will not only report what you find, but we can post an article you write about the process!

All tables and indices on this page are ©Deborah Glassman 2008 and may not be reproduced in whole or part without her written permission.


Important Notes about This Page

All names on this page were included in Surname Index Nov 2009

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The 1784 Grand Duchy of Lithuania Census of Lyakhovichi This is where you will find the list of extracted names organized by the family household order in which they appeared and a Given Name Index to every person counted in the 1784 Census for Lyakhovichi and its surrounding dependent towns.

Extracts, Tables, and Analyses from the 1784 GDL CensusYou are Here! This page holds a Comparison Table, comparing those who appeared in the 1784 GDL Census with those who appeared in Russian documents subsequently. It is the result of research and comparison by Deborah Glassman, and it designed to be suggestive rather than authoritative. It points out likely correspondences but these are not confirmed in the 1784 documents themselves. On this same page, you will find a brief introduction to some aspects of the 1784 GDL Census, which we hope to expand in a future update.

Images from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Census of 1784 These are the page images from the original ledger books which recorded the lists in 1784.



The Grand Duchy of Lithuania Poll Tax Lists (Censuses) of 1765 and 1784
by Deborah Glassman, copyright, 2008

 

Jews entered the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by the fourteenth century. All settlement on Grand Duchy lands was controlled by the nobility or by the highest noble, the Grand Duke. There were no separately incorporated cities as was common in the rest of Europe, and in Lithuania that worked to the Jews advantage. The first hard-won privilege for every European city had been the Magdeburg law, which included the right to exclude Jews. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania set its’ precedents in the century in which the Jews arrived. While neighboring Poland’s king, first cousin and contestant to the Grand Duke of Lithuania’s crown, was enticing his capital’s townsmen to his cause by offering them the right to exclude Jews, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Vytaut the Great, was offering Jews the rights to settle in capital city, unconditionally.

Lithuania had long established laws regulating the transfer of property for consideration including money, service, and assignable military obligation. It acknowledged the right of the nobility to transfer real property, movable property, rights of development, rights of usage, and leases of entailed property, to parties of their choice including Jews. All of this was codified in a series of statutes that dated back to the early fifteenth century, but in the sixteenth century, a long-standing personal union with the Crown of Poland, was made official, and the Grand Duchy and Poland became a joint-commonwealth. The extensive holdings of the Grand Duchy including all of the Ukraine, Belarus, and Lithuania, were now joined with the holdings of Poland. But though for many purposes the country was administered as a single Polish-dominated union, the Grand Duchy continued a great-deal of de jure autonomy. Though it participated in the Polish Parliament (called the sejm) it maintained a matching one of its own. Though the Chancellary of Krakow regulated taxes and monetary payments to the Crown, the Chancellary in Vilna managed similar operations for the Grand Duchy.

The second half of the eighteenth century was a time of increasing pressure on both the united and separate governments of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Ukrainian holdings had never rebuilt their ability to pay their noble landlords after the great seventeenth century upheavals. Polish and Lithuanian nobles disputed in court over control of those once rich colonies and what had once been Lithuanian territories in Ukraina, became Polish. The Eastern Ukraine had become entirely separate after the seventeenth century and Moscow looked for every opportunity to move in on the border provinces with the Grand Duchy - Vitebsk to the east of Minsk, and Volhynnia which touched the Grand Duchy’s southern border in the Pripet marshes. The first decades of the eighteenth century had seen a war between Sweden and the Grand Duchy fought almost entirely on the soils of Belarus and Lithuania, while Polish cities watched, largely unscathed. Wars were not cheap to run and nobles across Poland and Lithuania were often more interested in their personal interests and the security of their own holdings than in the nation as a whole. Corruption charges were filed against every level of noble and community. The Jewish communities were not immune, and they were more vulnerable to actions decided by others. When the Polish sejm decided that the reason the Jews were not turning in a sufficient sum of money to prosecute all of the military endeavors the crown desired, they found that the reason was corruption in the Jewish government and in 1764 they committed to abolishing Jewish national government in Poland and Lithuania.

The Jewish government had largely mirrored the larger government units around it. There had been a Polish sejm and a Lithuanian sejm, the Jews divided their councils similarly. The Council of Four Lands had been the Jewish governing body for four regions in what we might recognize as Poland, Galicia, and the Ukrainian provinces of Podolia and Volhynnia, all of which in the 1760s were secularly Polish territories. There was also a separate Lithuanian Council that regulated Jewish communities from Vilna to Minsk to Vitebsk, which similarly coincided with lands still administered from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

The sejm in 1764, took a “have your cake and eat it too approach.” The Jewish national councils’ functions for the Jewish people were irrelevant to the parliaments. They only valued the tax collecting operations of those bodies. Tax assessments were handed out by the Chancellaries, they were apportioned between communities at annual meetings of the Councils, and they were collected by local government entities of each Jewish community. A Jewish community might be made up of a number of small communities with only one central tax collecting authority. The Hebrew word for a Jewish community was a kehillah, and the word for the organization that administered taxes, debt collection, debt payment, distribution to the poor, the operation of mandated Jewish schools, et al –entered the Polish and later Russian languages as kahal and kagal. Determined to rid themselves of the Councils, the sejm nevertheless wanted to preserve the kahals, they just wanted them to turn the taxes over directly to the Crown without going through the Jewish councils.

So in 1764, a Poll Tax on each person over a stated age was declared. We don’t have clear information on the age of obligation for the 1764 Census but in 1784 it is specifically stated that the age was reduced to 1 year to increase crown revenues. To make sure that the tax was fully realized, the sejm ordered a census held in 1765 which would list every Jew. Since the obligation was on the community and not on the individual Jew, there was no incentive to the Polish officials to keep poor Jews off the rolls, though there is some anecdotal evidence that widows, orphans, and others were left off by Jewish communities wherever possible.

The tax lists were organized by powiat and then by kahal. A kahal, as mentioned previously, was responsible for collecting taxes from every Jew in the small surrounding communities as well as those in the main community. Many small villages and towns, held just one or two Jewish families, but dozens of such communities were reported for Lyakovichi in the 1784 census.

The pages are with and without page numbers, and sometimes there are numbers that reflect household order, sometimes not. The translators for the 1784 Census have provided a uniform system of household numbering that allows you to have a quick image of where families were recorded in relation to other families. We do not know how the census was conducted. We do not know if the Jews were called to a central place. We do not know if a local official knowledgeable in the Jews of his area, took part in the counting.

Most of the original ledgers show the name of a head of household with his name and patronymic, then the name of his wife, and those of his children. The relationships of others in the household are usually stated in relation to the head of household, we find someone is the head’s son-in-law, brother, or sister. For a small percentage, occupation is given, and it is interesting that in at least three or four of those cases, people who shared those particular names, example, Nisen son of Ion the krawiec (tailor) appear in later Russian documents with those occupations as surnames – Nisen son of Yevna Khait.

There are no ages in these documents. There are no patronymics for females who are not living in their father’s houses. There are no patronyms provided for heads of family who do not reside in “Lachowicze” (the Polish name for Lyakhovichi).

But the wealth of names, over 740 people not counting their patronyms, is a tremendous asset to research. We can investigate hundreds of people who appear with patronyms in Lyakhovichi proper. You can find those who appear only as patronyms on our 9 pages of Patronyms beginning at Patronymics A-BWe can investigate hundreds more who are children in their father’s house and so have a patronym even when their father does not. We find that women who were married in 1784 may still turn up in documents of 1805 and 1816 still married to that same man but we find many more who are in a narrow range of females who were minors in 1784 and can be traced into documents of 1816 and 1819 with since-acquired spouses.

As we go to press in May 2008, over seventy people have been identified as likely to be the same parties in 1784 and 1816 or 1819 Russian documents. We can now trace hundreds of people directly from the 1884 Lyakhovichi tax list to the 1784 Lyakhovichi GDL Census. Come help us look and share your findings, so we can all learn more!