also known as: Szolyva (HU), Svalava (CZ), Svalyava (RU)
48°33' N / 22°59' E
~ Introduction ~
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was part of the Kingdom of Hungary (11th century - 1920 and 1938-1944) with the name of Szolyva
in Bereg megye (county), next part of Czechoslovakia (1920-1938) with the name of Svalava
in Podkarpatská Rus (Sub-Carpathia), then part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1945-1991) with the name of Svalyava and, since 1991,
known as Svalyava, in the Svalyava rayon (district) of Zakarpats'ka oblast (county) of Ukraine.
Other spellings/names for Svalyava are Svaliava,
Svaľava, Schwallbach, Svalova, Swalawa, Svalová, Swaljawa, Svaljava, Szvaljava and Svalva.
Svalyava is located about fourteen miles east-northeast of Mukacheve (Munkács).
Svalyava was first mentioned in a historical document of 1263.
Jews probably settled in Svalyava in the first half of the 18th century.
In 1830, the Jewish population was 45.
By 1880, the Jewish population was 319 (of a total population of 1,664).
In 1921, during the Czechoslovakian period, the Jewish population rose to 1,099.
By 1941, the Jewish population rose to 1,423 (of a total population of 8,400).
Among the Jewish breadwinners were families that earned their livelihoods from trade (with about 60 business establishments) and crafts (with about 26 workshops). There were also seven factories and a bank that were in Jewish hands. In addition, there were professionals (a Doctor and a pharmacist) as well as public officials, clerical workers and commercial agents.
With the Hungarian occupation of Svalyava in March, 1939, Jews were persecuted and pushed out of their occupations. In 1940, 150 Jews from Svalyava were drafted into forced labor battalions and others were drafted for service on the Eastern front, where most died. Some Jews joined the Czechoslovakia Army organized in the Soviet Union to fight the Germans.
In August, 1941, a number of Jewish families without Hungarian citizenship were expelled to Nazi occupied Ukrainian territory, to Kamenets-Podolski, and murdered there.
The remaining Jews of Svalyava, over 1,000, were deported to Auschwitz on 22 May 1944.
A great many of the Jews from Svalyava were murdered in Auschwitz and a few survivors returned, but eventually settled elsewhere.
In 2001, Svalyava had about 17.909 inhabitants and no Jews live there today.
Sources (portions): The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust, (2001) p. 1267
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Michael ALPERT, USA
M. Y. EHRENREICH, USA
Alik FRIEDMAN, Israel
Nikoli KATZ, USA
Martin KOENIG, USA (Center for Traditional Music and Dance Archive)
Ari TESSLER, Belgium
Amos Israel ZEZMER, France
and the following:
JewishGen members/descendants and
contributors of Svalyava Jewish families: