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Chronology of Nadworna


Facts about Nadworna

Fact
Source
Latitude/Longitude: 48°38´ N 24°34´ 2, 3
Altitude: 428 meters above sealevel.
107 km WNW of Chernovtsy 2

Nadworna Jewish Community Chronology

Date
Event
Source
1590s Victims of the Nalyvaiko Cossak pogroms buried in the the cemetery. 4, 5
1607
Nadworna was in the possession of the aristocracy .
16
1648-51 Vicitms of the Chmielnicki Cossack pogroms buried in the the cemetery. 4, 5
Early 1700s Organized Jewish community 11
1709 Earliest gravestone in the Jewish cemetery 10
mid 17th c.
Frankist influence greatly increased in the community.
16
2nd 1/2 1700s R' Zevi Hirsch of Nadworna av bet din. 11
25 May 1759
Yehudah Leib ben Natan Krysa, former rabbi of Nadworna,  & close advisor to the false messiah Jacob Frank, converts to Roman Catholicism.
15
1765 937 Jews paid the poll tax in Nadworna & surrounding villages. The town rabbi was R. Aharon ben Avigdor. 11, 16
1765 1002 Jews lived in Nadworna.
16
 
Start of Austro-Hungarian Period
 
1772 1st Partition of Poland. Galicia becomes part of Austria-Hungary.  
1773 Jewish marriage requires permission of government & payment of fee. Major decline in civil marriages. 13
28 Aug 1787 Hereditary surnames required as of 1 Jan 1788. Jews may not use the name of their tribe or locality. 13
1788 Jewish military conscription introduced. 13
1789 Jewish marriage requirements relaxed. 13
1809
R. Zvi-Hirsch of Nadworna dies.
16
1830s
Rabbi of Nadwórna was R. Shlomo Kovler .
16
18 May 1835 R' Mordechai son of R' Issachar Dov Bertsche Leifer of Nadworna born. 12
3 Elul 1848 R' Issachar Dov Bertsche Leifer of Nadworna dies. 12
23 Apr 1848 Emperor Ferdinand abolishes the corvee, the last vestige of serfdom. 4
2nd ½ 19th c.
Jewish ownership of oil wells, refineries, windmills and sawmills in Nadworna.
16
1861 Karl-Ludwig-Bahn from Kakrow to Lviv opens. 1st major railway in Galicia. 14
1865 R' Mordecai Leifer of Nadworna moves to Huszt. 12
1866 Lviv-Khodorow-Halych-Stanislau-Kolomea-Zablatow-Chernovitz rail line expansion opens. A more mobile population could avoid shtetl markets, a major source of Jewish income. 14
Dec 1867 Austria-Hungary emancipates ethnic groups. Jews not a distinct national group under Article 19, Statute 142. 6
1870\ Jewish ownership of a brewery and a match factory in Nadworna.
16
1880 Jewish population 4182 out of a total population of 6552. 11, 16
1890s
Zionist groups establish themselves in Nadworna
16
1890
Jewish population 3618 out of a total population of 7227.
16
2 Nov 1897 Congregation Anshei Nadworna (People of Nadworna) landsmannschaft established in New York. Later renamed Erster Nadworner Kranken-Unterstützungs-Verein, and finally First Nadworna Sick and Benevolent Association. Synagogue built at 630 E. 5th St., New York. 5
1900 Jewish population 3644 out of  a total population of 7525. 11, 16
1901
R. Nahum son of Zvi Hirsch Burshtein appointed town Rabbi.
16
1907
Fire destroys approximately 100 Jewish homes and several prayer houses.
16
1910 Nadworna Young Men's Benefit Association, a second landsmannschaft was established in New York 5
1910
Jewish population 3772 out of  a total population of 8080.
16
1912 First Hebrew school in Nadworna was founded by Zionists 5
1913
Mizrachi (religious Zionist) grioup established.
16
 
World War I
 
During WWI
R. Nahum Burshtein leaves Nadworna. No rabbi replaces him.
16
1914 With the outbreak of WWI part of  the town was burnt down including  most of  the Jewish homes. 5
Sep 1914 - Jun 1915 Russian and Austro-Hungarian armies battle in area of Delatyn & Nadworna. Front lines cross through both shtetls repeatedly. Details available in the WWI chronology . 9
8 Jul 1916 Brusilov offensive. Russian troops reach Delatyn. 1
 
Between the Wars
 
Oct 1918 Austro-Hungarian Empire collapses.  
13 Nov 1918 Western Ukrainian National Republic (ZUNR) proclaimed. 4
Nov 1918-12 Jul 1919 Eastern Galicia disputed between Poland & ZUNR. 7, 4
1918
Jewish youths form self-defense forces to defend the community against Ukrainians. 16
25 Jun 1919 Entente acknowledges Poland occupy Eastern Galicia. 4
28 Jun 1919 Treaty of Versailles. 7
12 Jul 1919 ZUNR collapses. Eastern Galicia occupied by Polish Army. 7
Feb 1919 - 12 Oct 1920 Polish-Soviet War. 7
1920
Petlura's forces kill 6 Jews and wounded many others.
16
1920s Poalei Zion, the General Zionists (Chalutz), the Revisionists, HaMizrachi, the Mizrachi Workers,  Radical Zionists, the Zionist Youth, Achva and the Achva Youth, Hashomer Hatzair, Betar, HaShachar, and Gordonia-Bosliya Zionist organizations were all active.
16
1921 Jewish population 2042 out of a total population of 6062. 10, 11, 16
1923 Eastern Galicia awarded to Poland by League of Nations. 7
1931 3437 Jews lived in Nadworna .
16
1934  Heri Kraus Nadworna Women's Auxiliary established in New York to maintain the synagogue at 630 East 5 St. 5
1938 Many Jews leave, "there was a smell of war in the air". 5
 
World War II
 
Sep 1939 Occupied by the USSR.  
23 Oct 1939 Election with a single slate of candidates held in West Ukraine. 93% of population votes for annexation to the USSR. 4
Spring 1940 Soviets begin widespread deportations from West Ukraine to Siberia & Kazakhstan of Ukrainians, Polish, & Jewish leaders. 4
1941 Last known burial in the Jewish cemetery 10
1941 Jewish population approx. 5000. 11
22 Jun 1941 Germans attack USSR.  2
22-29 Jun 1941 NKVD slaughter political prisoners across West Ukraine prior to retreat. Major massacres occur in Lviv, Sambir, & Stanislawow. 4
6 Oct 1941 In Nadworna, 1/2 the Jews (2,500), murdered at Bukowinka (3 km from Nadworna). 5, 11, 16
winter 1941-2 Ghetto established. 11, 16
Summer 1942 Hundreds sent to Belzec death camp. 11
Summer - Fall 1942
Jews escape from the ghetto & hide in the forests. The majority are denounced or murdered by the local population & by Ukrainian nationalist Bandera gangs .
16
Sep-Oct 1942 Jews transported to Stanislau ghetto & killed. 11, 16
1942 Commander of Nadworna reports no more Jews remain. 5
End 1942 Ghetto destroyed. 11
26 July 1944
Soviet troops retake Nadworna. The few surviving Jews leave Nadworna.
16
27 July 1944 Soviet troops retake Stanislawow. 4
8 May 1945 World War II ends in Europe.  
 
Post-World War II
 
6 May 1968
Ernst Varchmin and others tried in the Landgericht Munster (Higher District Court) for the mass, group, & individual shooting & deportations of thousands of Jews, Poles, & Ukrainians in Stanislau, Rohatyn, Kalucz, Nadworna, Delatyn, Tatarow, Worochta,  Jablonica, Dolina, Wyskow,  & Bukowina.
17
13 July 1972
Ernst Varchmin sentenced to life imprisonment by the Bundesgerichtshof  (W. German Federal Supreme Court).
17
Aug 1991 Ukraine becomes an independent country.  

Nadworna Burial Societies with burial plots at the :

Baron Hirsch Cemetery. 1126 Richmond Avenue, Staten Island, New York 10314.
Phone: 718-698-0162.

  1. First Nadworna Sick and Benevolent Association
  2. Nadworna Young Men's Benefit Association

Sources :

  1. Gilbert, Martin. The First World War. Henry Holt & Co.;New York : 1994.
  2. Mokotoff, Gary and Sallyann Sack. Where Once We Walked. Avotaynu;Bergenfeld, N.J.
  3. JewishGen ShtetlSeeker .
  4. Subtelny, Orest. Ukraine : A History. 2nd edition. Univ. of Toronto Press. Toronto : 1994.
  5. Carmi, Israel. Nadvurnah : sefer 'edut ve-zikaron . Hotsa'atha-irgunim shel yotse Nadvurnah be-Yisra'el uve-Artsot ha-berit. Tel Aviv : 1975.
  6. Kann, Robert A. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526 - 1918 .Univ. of California Press; Berkeley: 1974.
  7. Davies, Norman. G-d's Playground. A History of Poland. Vol. 2 Columbia Univ. Press; New York : 1982.
  8. Czernin-Chudenitz, Franz, ed. "Erster Einbau eines Funkgerates in ein Flugzeug der K.u.k Armee", Der Dolomitenfreund : Mitteilungen fuer unsere Mitglieder und Freunde. (Friends of the Dolomites : Notes for Members and Friends). Dolomitenfreunde; Vienna : Number III, 1997.
  9. Austria, Bundesministerium für Landesverteidigung, Österreich-Ungarns Letzter Krieg, 1914-18. Verlag der Militärwissenschaftlichen Mitteilungen. Vienna : 1930-8.
  10. Jewish Cemetary Census. Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies.US Comm. No. UA08230101 and UA08230501.
  11. Encyclopedia Judaica. Keter Publishing; Jerusalem.
  12. Rabinowicz, Tzvi M. The Encyclopedia of Hasidism. Jason Aronson. Northvale, New Jersey : 1996.
  13. Grodzoski, Stanislaw. "The Jewish Question in Galicia : The Reforms of Maria Theresa and Joseph II, 1772- 1790 ". Studies in Polish Jewry, Volume 12. Focusing on Galicia : Jews, Poles, and Ukrainians 1772-1918 . The Littman Library of Jewish Civilization. London : 1999. pages 61-72.
  14. Hödl, Klaus. "Galician Jewish Migration to Vienna ". Studies in Polish Jewry, Volume 12. Focusing on Galicia : Jews, Poles, and Ukrainians 1772-1918. The Littman Library of Jewish Civilization. London : 1999. pages 147-163.
  15. Jewish Encyclopedia. Funk and Wagnalls. New York : 1907.
  16. Danuta Dabrowska, Abraham Wein, & Aharon Weiss, eds. Pinkas Hakehillot (Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities) : Poland - Vol. 2 EasternGalicia. Yad VaShem; Jerusalem : 1980. Nadworna: Pages 328-331.
  17. de Mildt, D.W.  and C.F. Rüter. Die westdeutschen Strafverfahren wegen nationalsozialistischer Tötungsverbrechen 1945-1997. Eine systematische Verfahrensbeschreibung mit Karten und Registern. (The West German Criminal Procedures in Response to National Socialist Genocide Crimes 1945-1997. A systematic procedural account with maps and tables). Justiz und NS-Verbrechen Series.Stiftung zur wissenschaftlichen Erforschung nationalsozialistischer Verbrechen. (Foundation for Scientific Research of National-Socialist Crimes). University of Amsterdam. Amsterdam. 1998.

Copyright © 2000-2 David Sotkowitz, all rights reserved. Last updated 27 Nov 2002.