Source Abbreviation
Encyclopedia Ariel, on Israeli Geography, Am Oved, Tel Aviv, Israel, 1978, volume 6 E.A.
Encyclopedia Judiaca , Keter, Jerusalem, Israel, 1972, volumes: 5, 6,10,14 Judaica
Encyclopedia Hebraica , Encyclopedia Publishing Company, Tel Aviv, Israel, 1969, volume 21 E.H.
Card Catalog, Eastern European Archives, Hebrew University, Israel Archive E.E.
File-REZEKNE, Organization of past Latvians and Estonians, Shefayim Regional Council, Israel O.L.E.
File: A, J, Sirkin, Central Zionist Archives,Jerusalem, Israel C.Z.A.
Database-REZHITZA, Diaspora Museum, Ramat Aviv, Israel D.M.
Letters, Oscar Bechman, Vivian Omerberg, saved in my house  
The Book (Pincas) of the Latvia and Estonia , Yad VeShem, Jerusalem, Israel, 1988 Pin
Encyclopedia of Israeli And General Literature , Mitzpe, Tel Aviv, Israel, 1943 E.L.
Conversation, Nachumi HarZion, researcher of Hebrew songs N.HZ.
Ben Hillel, Mordechai, Olami (My World), Mitzpe, Jerusalem, Israel, 1936, book 4 O.M.W.
Dimenstein, Zalman, Illustrated Almanac-1939-40 , Rezekne, 1939 I.Al.
Drewaner, Alter, Articles about “Chibat-Zion” and the Settlement of the Land of Israel A.Ch.
Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel, 1988, volumes : 4, 5  
Eliav, Mordecai, editor, Book of the Fist Aliyah , Yad ben-Zvi, Jerusalem, Israel, 1982, volume1 B.o.A.


[1] Letter, Oscar Blechman, 03/01/01.

[2] D.M.

[3] Judiaca v. 10, pps. 1462-63.

[4] Pin, p. 233.

[5] Archives E.E., card catalog.

[6] E.H. v. 21, p. 621.

[7] Judiaca v. 10, pps. 1462-3.

[8] E.H. v. 21, p. 621.

[9] D.M.

[10] Pin, p. 233.

[11] Ibid., p.234.

[12] Ibid.

[13] D.M.

[14] Judiaca v. 14, p.140.

[15] D.M.

[16] Pin, p. 234.

[17] Judiaca v. 10, pps.1462-3.

[18] D.M.

[19] Hameletz newspaper, 1884. File O.L.E..

[20] Here he was known as Reb Yona Rezikner. File O.L.E..

[21] Pin, p. 234.

[22] In the land of Israel, he began a factory for the making of bricks and shingles, in Jaffa. This is how Jews got into the building trade here. He accepted Yeminite workers in Jerusalem. They liked him so much, that they called him “aba”. He helped in the building of “Mishkanot Israel” (one of the first Jewish neighborhoods, outside of the old-city) together with Joseph Rivlin, the Lemel school, and the Sha'arei Zedek hospital. File O.L.E..

[23] Pin, p. 234.

[24] D.M.

[25] Articles about the importance of the holiday of Succot, and the obtaining of an etrog and the necessity for a proper fence around the Jewish cemetery . Hamelitz newspaper, 1892. File O.L.E..

[26] Pin, p. 234.

[27] Judiaca V. 14, p.140.

[28] Pin, p. 234.

[29] Judiaca v. 14, p.140.

[30] D.M.. Here, I feel the roots of my family; letters: Oscar Blechman-03/01/01, Vivian Omerberg-11/01/01.

[31] D.M.

[32] Pin, p.234.

[33] Hamelitz newspaper, 1880. O.L.E.

[34] Pin, p. 234. Forty “teachers” were now without work, and were frightened of what might happen to them. Hamelitz newspaper, 1886. O.L.E..

[35] Pin, p.234. There was much jealousy and unfounded hatred in this episode, Hameletz newspaper, 1885.

[36] Pin, p. 234.

[37] Hamelitz newspaper, 1897. O.L.E..

[38] Pin, p.234.

[39] Hamelitz newspaper, 1892. O.L.E..

[40] Ibid., 1893. O.L.E..

[41] Pin, p.234.

[42] Ibid.

[43] File-O.L.E..

[44] Hamelitz newspaper. 1892. O.L.E..

[45] Various kinds of charity was organized: for helping the sick, the hospitalized and needy school children, and a women's organization; Ibid, 1894, file; O.L.E..

[46] One of the Jewish doctors was so well liked by everyone; so that when he died many Christians came to his funeral. Ibid,1890. O.L.E..

[47] Pin, p.234.

[48] Hameletz newspaper, 1884. File O.L.E..

[49] Two years after it officially began, it was reported that barely anything was being done. Ibid,, 27/11/89. O.L.E..

[50] Ibid., 1888. O.L.E..

[51] Ibid.

[52] Ibid., 1897. O.L.E..

[53] Ibid., 1886. O. L. E..

[54] Ibid., 28/8/92. O.L.E.

[55] D.M.

[56] Joshua Sirkin was head of the organization. He had made a written agreement with Baron Rothchild about the legal, financial and practical sides of the organization and the plan for settlement A.Ch, v. 4. p.335, f.1. The Hebrew protocol of the agreement made by “Dorshei-Zion” Minsk to buy and settle land in Ein Zaitim, near Safed, by Sirkin -1891 is in the C.Z. A. It is eight pages long. C.Z.A., file: Sirkin, Letters in connection with “Dorshei-Zion”.

[57] The organization was so called because its' goal was to settle a thousand people here. E.A., v. 6, p 535. When the people would come on Aliyah after ten years, they would find ready housing and farms for them. B.o.A. pps. 62-64; E.A., v. 6, pps. 535-7; A.Ch. v.5, p. 362, f.2,3,4.

[58] The activities in Minsk 1890-1, appear in file A54/8 in the C.Z.A. The activities in the area appear in file J 33/105 in the C.Z.A.

[59] The idea was to sell the land to people of means. B.o.A., v.1, p. 57.

[60] O.M.W., p. 137.

[61] Rehovot was also organized this way and was successful. A.Ch., v. 5, p. 362, f.3.

[62] O.M.W., pps. 137-143.

[63] It is important to add here that Aliyah was temporarily forbidden in July 1891. A. Ch. V. 4, p. 335, f. 1. This was due to the large number of people emigrating from the country, and a temporary rise in the living conditions of the Jews. B.o.A., v. 1. p. 156.

[64] O.M.W., p241. B.oA. V. 1, pps.64, 201. The place does have a rich history of Jewish settlement up to the modern period. Judiaca, pps. 540-1.Now there is an army base located here. E. A. p.236

[65] The Hebrew words to this song are in Appendix 2.

[66] Zunzer was an entertainer and Yiddish and Hebrew songwriter. He influenced many with the Zionist spirit, and the enlightenment. The song was written in Yiddish and translated into Hebrew by Noah Shapira, at the time of the first Aliyah. E.L., N.H.Z..

[67] D.M.

[68] The second part was published in Riga in 1939. Pin, p. 237.

[69] Pin, p. 234.

[70] Ibid., p. 238.

[71] A decree issued by the Russian government in 1844 to establish schools whose teachers would be both Jews and Christians. The secret instructions which accompanied the decree declared that the ‘ purpose of the education of the Jews is to bring them nearer to the Christians and to uproot their harmful beliefs which are influenced by the Talmud'. The government also recognized a limited communal organization whose function was to watch over the conscription of the Jewish youth to the Russian army, the collection of the ‘candle-tax' (which financed this new school system), and the election of the rabbi ( whose function was to register births, marriages, deaths, and to deliver sermons on holidays extolling the government). Judiaca v. 5, p. 1006.

[72] D.M.

[73] Ibid.

[74] Pin, p. 234.

[75] Ibid.

[76] Ibid.

[77] Ibid., p. 235.

[78] D.M.

[79] Pin, p. 235

[80] D.M.

[81] Pin, p.235.

[82] His father was the meat slaughterer Chaim Dimenstein, and his brother was the Yiddish newspaper writer Zalman Dimenstein. Pin, p. 238. The latter was the editor of The Illustrated Almanac of 1939-40. This contains a short but thorough history of the Jews in the city. It is written in Yiddish, and illustrated by A. Naislosa. Ibid p. 242; I.Al. I have a copy of this almanac which I copied from the original which can be found in the O.L.E..

[83] D.M.

[84] Pin, p. 238

[85] Ibid., p. 235.

[86] O.L.E..

[87] D.M.

[88] Pin, p. 238.

[89] Ibid., p. 234.

[90] The region of southwestern Latvia, bordering on the Baltic Sea. Judiaca v. 5, p. 1006.

[91] The head of this organization was Dr. Chiam Grudneski. Pin, p.239.

[92] D.M.

[93] Pin, p. 235.

[94] D.M.

[95] Pin, p. 236.

[96] The “Jewish autonomy”; the city had the largest branch in all of Latvia. Ibid., p. 238.

[97] D.M.

[98] Pin, p.236

[99] D.M.

[100] Pin, p. 237.

[101] Ibid.

[102] D.M.

[103] Pin, p. 240.

[104] D.M.

[105] Pin, p. 240.

[106] Ibid.

[107] Ibid.

[108] Ibid., pps. 240-1.

[109] E.H. v. 21, pps. 621-622.

[110] Pin, p. 237.

[111] Ibid., p. 238.

[112] Ibid., p. 241.

[113] Ibid., p. 241.

[114] Pin, p. 241.

[115] Only one Jew by the name of Israelite, remained alive. His nephew was with him. They found a hiding place with a Polish friend. Ibid.

[116] Ibid.

[117] Ibid.

[118] According to D. M., sponsored.

[119] Pin, P. 241

[120] Ibid.

[121] Judiaca v. 14, p. 140.

[122] Pin, pps. 241-242.

[123] E.H. v. 21, pps. 621-622.

[124] E.L., p. 117.