Entsiklopedicheskiislovar’ / nachatyi I. E.Andreevskim ; prodolzhaetsya pod
redaktsieyu K. K. Arsen’eva iF. F. Petrushevskago. Tom
XVIIA. Leipstig : F. A. Brokgauz ;S.-Peterburg : I. A.
Efron, 1896. s. 570-71.
[EncyclopedicDictionary /begun by I. E.
Andreevskii ; continued under the editorship of K.
K.Arsen’ev and F. F. Petrushevskii. Vol. XVIIA. Leipzig : F.
A.Brockhaus ; St. Petersburg : I. A.Efron, 1896. p.
-- District capital of Vitebsk province, nearLepel’ Lake and
the Essa and Ul’yanka Rivers. Not far frompresent-day Lepel’
is an ancient settlement , which bears thename Stary
i-Lepel’ (Old Lepel’); Lepel’ was formerlyhere. In 1563
Russian troops burned Lepel’. In 1568 KingSigismund-August
ordered a fortified castle built here. In 1805Lepel’ was
made a district capital. Number of inhabitants is6,797
(3,441 males and 3,356 females); Orthodox-2,391;
Schismatics(a)-96; Catholics-1,133; Protestants-180;
Jews-2,966; otherfaiths-31; nobility-148; clergy-32;
prominent citizens andmerchants-187; townspeople-4,599;
peasants-1,683; other socialestates-148. Two Orthodox
churches; Catholic cathedral; synagogue and4 Jewish prayer
houses. Municipal 2-class school, parochial schoolwith a
girl’s section, primary school, Jewish primary schoolwith a
preparatory class. Municipal revenues in 1894 were
6,680rubles, and 6,600 rubles were expended, including 1,990
rubles fornonmunicipal administration, 890 rubles for public
education, 480rubles for doctors. One flour-mill, (at 50,000
rubles), 2 hullingmills, 1 brewery, 1 tobacco facotry.
Hospital, 3 doctors, and 2paramedics.
Lepel’ district occupies 3,574
square versts(b). Hills enter the southern part from Mogilev
province, and theygradually lower until the Western Dvina
and form its steep banks.Among the hills of the district it
is possible to point out theKatarsa Hills, which frame the
Svecha River; then it is possible topoint out the hills
which are located between the town of Lepel’and the village
of Pyshno and are called "Pyshnogory" ("PyshnoHills").
Lepel’ district represents beautiful aeries ofsignificant
hills separated by rather large, clean lakes with
mirrorsurfaces and connected by narrow streams extending for
many versts.The district is washed by rivers emptying into
the Western Dvina. Inthe south, near the town of Lepel’, the
waters of the Dneprbasin approach very close to the waters
of the Western Dvina basin.Even Peter I considered connecti
ng the Baltic and the Black Seas bymeans of the Dvina and
Dnepr Rivers. Paul I connected the BerezinaRiver by a canal
to the Ulla River, which flows into Lepel’district and
empties into the Dvina River (see Berezina System).
TheSvyech and Osvyeya empty into the Ulla River; the Ushach
Riverempties into the Western Dvina; the remaining rivers of
the districtare insignificant. The Ulla is navigable. Of the
lakes the moresignificant ones are: Lepel’ (see article),
Cherstvyaty (11square versts), Yanovo (7 _ square versts),
Ottolovo (8 squareversts), and others. Of the marshes, which
are spread out everywhere,the notable ones are: Rybno, which
surrounds Ahshukovo Lake, islocated 2 versts from Navlitsa
Lake, occupies up to 12 square versts;and Gryada Marsh, near
Voron Lake and up to 10 _ square versts. Thereare 2 springs
with iron water and 2 with sulphurous water.
116,790desyatinas (c) are under forest. Of these forests
8,144 desyatinasbelong to the State Treasury; 185 desyatinas
belong to the churches;107,150 desytinas belong to private
owners, including the 101,772desyatinas owned by the
nobility; 1,011 desyatinas belong to thepeasants. There is
no proper forestry. The soil of the district isprimarily
loam-sandy. There are 145,168 inhabitants (73,475 males
and71,693 females); 106,282 Orthodox; 2,110 Schismatics,
15,870Catholics, 317 Protestants, 20,465 Jews, and 134 of
other faiths.There are 5,319 nobility, 360 clergy, 815
prominent citizens andmerchants, 22,941 townspeople, 112,312
peasants, 3,136 of themilitary estates, 295 of other social
estates. There are 88,400Belorussians, 4,500 Great Russians,
3,840 Latvians, 2,100Lithuanians, 20,465 Jews, 480 Germans,
25,200 Poles, 248 othernationalities. There are 14 small
towns, 1,798 villages. The mainoccupation of the inhabitants
is farming. In 1894 there were sown48,593 desyatinas in rye,
2,515 in wheat, 17,557 in oats, 15,296 inbarley, 136 in
buckwheat, 4,182 in peas, 20 in lentils, 729 in beans,10,708
desyatinas in potatoes. The inhabitants are occupied als o
incutting and hauling out timber, work on boats, making
pitch and tar,etc. The inhabitants of the towns of
Bocheikov, Byeshenkovichi, Ulla,Chashinkov are known as the
best river pilots. Many go away to workas navvies.
Horticulture, truck farming, and apiculture are
notdeveloped. Cattle-raising is in a bad condition. There
are 31,875horses, 23,470 head of cattle, 26,100 goats,
22,990 pigs. Factoriesand plants are the following: 1 paper
plant (at 40,000 rubles), 4hulling mills (at 15,800 rubles),
28 flour mills (at 302,500 rubles),10 distilleries (at
210,000 rubles). Only the town of Byeshenkovichi(see
article) has commercial significance. There are 4
peasantcommunal units, 18 peasant territorial communes.
There are 23Orthodox churches. The Ministry of Public
Education has 27 primaryschools with more than 700 students.
The village societies spend 6 _thousand rubles on them and
pay the teachers 6,360 rubles. There are23 parochial schools
with 393 students. There are several cheders andJewish
schools. A. M. Sementovskii in the book
"BelorussianAntiquities" counts up to 400 burial mounds in
Lepel’ district.The remains of ancient castles were
preserved in the town ofGomel’ and 54 versts from Lepel’ on
the left bank of theTurovka River. See the literature on
A.F S. (A. F. Selivanov)
waters of Vitebsk province, Lepel’ district, near thevillage
of Barkovshchina; only local inhabitants use them.
--Lake of Vitebsk province near the city of Lepel’ that
emptiesinto the Berezina system. The length of the lake is
12 versts, itsbreadth from 250 to 1,400 sazhens (d). It is
navigable only for ashort distance. The average depth of the
lake is 7 feet; the bottomis sandy; the shores are high and
steep. A fortified castle stood onthe bank of the lake in
antiquity; a church is now there.
(a) Schismatics refers to the OldBelievers,
who split off from the Orthodox Church in the 17thcentury.
(b) A verst is 3,500 feet.
(c) A desyatina is 2.7 acres.
(d) A sazhen is 2.134 meters.
Novyi entsiklopedicheskiislovar’ / izdaetsya pod obshchieiredaktsiei K. K.
Asrsen’eva. Dvadtsat’ chetvertyi tom.Petrograd :
Brokgauz-Efron, ca.1915. s. 376.
encyclopedicdictionary /published under the general editorhip of K. K.
Arsen’ev.Twenty-fourth volume. Petrograd : Brockhaus-Efron,
ca. 1915. p.376.]
of Vitebsk province, near Lepel’ Lake, andclose to the Essa
and Ul’yanka (Ulla) Rivers. 7,558 inhabitants(1910), of whom
63% are Jewish; 3 Orthodox churches and 1 Catholicchurch, 8
Jewish prayer houses. 7 primary schools; hospital.
14,600rubles in municipal expenditures (1910). In 1563
Russian troopsburned Lepel’; in 1568 King Sigismund-August
constructed here afortified castle. In 1802 the town of
Lepel’ became theadministrative center of the district and
in 1805 was converted tothe district capital. In 1812 Lepel’
suffered from the attacksof the French. In 1831 the
inhabitants of Lepel’ participated inthe Polish uprising.--
Lepel’district -- Southernmost district ofVitebsk province.
3,401.6 square versts (354,345 desyatinas). Lies onthe
watershed of the basins of the Western Dvina and Dnepr;
numerouslakes connected among themselves by streams, which
as early as underPeter I gave rise to the thought about
creating here an artificialwater route connecti ng the
Baltic Sea with the Black Sea (SeeBerezina System, VI, 75).
Of the lakes the more significant ones areLepel’,
Chersvyaty, Yanovo, Ottolovo. Many marshes. Iron springs(see
Lepel’ Waters). The soil is sandy-loam. About 1/3 of
thedistrict is covered with forests. In 1913 there were in
the district(without the city) 190,700 inhabitants (56 souls
per 1 square verst);this is the most thickly populated
district in the province. 82% ofthe population are
Belorussians; then come the Jews (12%), Poles,Lithuanians,
Latvians, and others. The basic occupation is farming:rye,
oats, barley, peas, potatoes. Of the local industries the
morewidespread is forestry (cutting, hauling out, rafting of
timber,making pitch and tar); of seasonal work--navvies and
river pilots. Ofthe industrial enterprises the more
significant ones are 2 cardboardfactories and 2 grain mills.
Local commerce (town of Byeshenkovichi).The southwest corner
of the district is crossed for 17 versts by thePolyessk
Railroad (Polotsk-Bagrationovka Line). There are 163
primaryschools, of which 38 are parochial, 86 are public, 27
are schools forliteracy, 10 are under the central ministry,
2 are Jewish (1911). Inthe estimate for 1914 the
expenditures of the district rural councilwere 284,200
rubles, of which 101,900 rubles were for publiceducation,
53,700 rubles were for medical care. In the district
thereare up to 400 burial mounds, and near the town of
Gomel’ are theremains of ancient castles.
Old Photo from Lepel