Time Line - The History of Kalinovka vs Jewish and European History

This is a compilation of information from a number of sources. It will never be complete.
Kalinovka is just over the eastern border of modern day Podolia.
The aim of the timeline is to give us a frame of reference for the way of life of the Jews in Kalinovka.

  Events in Kalinovka
Events in Jewish History
  Events in the Religious History of the Jews
  Events in Zionism & the State of Israel
  Events in European & World History
Date Events in Kalinovka Jewish Historical Events European Historical Events Source
10 - 11th century Podolia under the rule of the Kings of Kiev Ivrit
1240 Invasion of the Tatars Ivrit
1370 Taken over by the large kingdoms of Lita Ivrit
1569 Reunited under Polish Rule Ivrit
16th century The Kabalah becomes wide spread in Podolia due to trade between the Jews of Podolia & the Jews of the Balkans & Turkey Ivrit
17th century The Sabbatian movement gains ground in Podolia Ivrit
1618-1648 Thirty Years' War
1648-1655 Chmielnicki Massacres M&M
1654 Eastern Poland, White Russia & Lithuania conquered by Russia. Jews exterminated or expelled. M&M
1667 Podolia under Polish Rule M&M
1672 Podolia conquered by the Turks Ivrit
1699 Podolia returned to Poland Ivrit
18th century The Frankist movement is founded in Podolia Ivrit
18th century Podolia is the cradle of Hasidism Ivrit
1700-1760 Israel Baal Shem Tov - Besht
Beginning of Hasidism
1720-1797 Gaon of Vilna Ivrit
1764 Council of Four Lands ceased to exist by royal act
1765 4 Jews living in Kalinovka EJLBDH
1768 Pogroms in Podolia M&M
1772 Galicia is joined to Austria M&M
1775-1783 American Revolution
1789-1792 French Revolution
1793 Second partition of Poland. Podolia now under Russian rule.
1827 Conscription of Jews - 25 years "cantonists". Some Jews were even abducted at the age of 12, but time of service was reckoned from the age of 19. M&M
1820s Special tax on 'kosher' meat and on Sabbath candles M&M
1830-1831 52 Jews were farming in the Districts of Western Russia including Letichev (Podolia)
1840 Damascus Blood Libel M&M
1842 Jews of Poland forced to discharge military service in person like Russian Jews M&M
1843 Bnai Brit founded in America LZ
1845 Law frobidding the traditional Jewish mode of dress in Poland, as in Russia M&M
1844 A proposal known as Razbor - "to declare Jews as useful". 10,000 Jews applied for status as colonists. Agricultural colonies in Volhynia, Podolia and Kiev established.
1844-1864 Between 1844-1852, 19 Jewish argicultural colonies were established.
1848 Full Emancipation of Jews in France French Revolution M&M
1853-1856 Crimean War
1856 Ha-Maggid - first Hebrew weekly established in Russia M&M
19th century Haskalah - Jewish enlightenment in Russia M&M
1860 Alliance Israelite Universelle formed in Paris - chief program the defense of Jewish rights M&M
1861-1865 US Civil War
1868 Jews receive emancipation in Austria
1869 Jews receive emancipation in Northern German Confederation
1870 Agricultural School Mikveh Israel founded in Palestine M&M
1871 Jews receive emancipation in Southern Germany
1872 Society for the Spreading of Enlightenment among the Jewsof Russia M&M
1873 Union of American Hebrew Congregations formed M&M
1875 Hebrew Union College at Cincinnati opened LZ
1877-1878 Russo-Turkish War
1887 Petach Tikvah founded by Jews from Jerusalem M&M
1880 ORT established in St. Petersburg LZ
1881-1882 Pogroms in Russia - start of 2 decades of immmigration to America M&M
May 1882 'Temporary Rules' (the 'May Rules') which confined the Jews to the towns and townships of the Pale and forbade their settling in the villages. M&M
1882 BILU - Beth Iaakob Leku Unelkah movement established at Kharkov M&M
1884 Jewish Technical School at Zhitomir closed M&M
1880s Hobebe Zion (Lovers of Zion) established with large centers in Odessa & Warsaw M&M
1886 Jewish Theological Seminary opened in NY M&M
1890s ICA - Jewish Colonization Association incorporated by Baron Maurice de Hirsch M&M
1894-5 Trial of Captain Alfred Dreyfus in France
1895 Theodore Benjamin Zeev Herzel writes his book 'Jews' State M&M
1897 1,052 Jewish residents (41%) of population EJLBDH
1897 World Zionist Organization founded LZ
Aug. 1897 First Zionist Congress in Basel
1897 Hativah chosen as national anthem LZ
1899 Jewish Colonial Trust founded M&M
1900s Mizrachi Orthodox party under the leadership of Isaac Jacob Reines M&M
1901 Jewish National Fund founded M&M
1902-1914 29 new settlements started in Palestine with funds of the Zionist Organization M&M
1903 Pogrom in Kishinev
1905 Jewish Encyclopedia completed M&M
1905-1906 Pogroms
1905-1914 750,000 Jewish immigrants from Russia to US M&M
1906 American Jewish Committee founded M&M
1906 Bezalel School in Jerusalem founded M&M
1909 Tel-Aviv founded M&M
1911-1913 Beilis Trial M&M
1912 Haddassah founded in NY LZ
1914 Joint Distribution Committee - included American Jewish Joint Distribution (Relief Committee) and relief committees in neutral countries M&M
1914-1918 First World War
American Jewish Congress founded LZ
1915 Zion Mule Corps made up of 600 Palestine refugees in Egypt which fought in Gallipoli. On disbandment formed nucleus of the Jewish Legion for service in Palestine. M&M
1917-1918 British troops capture Palestine from the Turks
Nov. 2, 1917 Balfour Declaration
Feb. 1917 Revolution broke out in Russia
1917 End of czarist government brought the repeal of anti-Jewish laws. M&M
1918-1921 Russian Revolution
9 May 1919 Pogrom - 10 Jews murdered
Additional riots in the following months
July 1919 7-8 Jews murdered in riots. EJLBDH
1919-1939 Western Podolia under Polish Rule Ivrit
1921 World ORT Organization established LZ
1922 High Commissioner of Palestine declares Hebrew as an offical language on a par with English & Arabic
1924 Palestine Jewish Colonisation Association founded by Baron Rothschild
April 1925 Hebrew University in Jerusalem formally opened
1920s 1,097 Jewish residents WOWW
1924 Jewish Kolhoz was founded employing dozens of Jews. EJLBDH
Jewish school was opened under Soviet rule and operated until the 1930s. EJLBDH
1929 Pogroms in Palestine LZ
1936 World Jewish Congress founded LZ
1936-1939 Pogroms in Palestine LZ
1939 Jewish population 979 EJLBDH
1939 White Paper - British report recommending against partition of Palestine
Sept. 1939 Germany invades Poland
June 22, 1941 Germany invades Russia
Part of the Jewish population succeds in fleeing by train to the area of Tashkent in the eastern part of the Soviet Union.
22 July 1941 Germans capture Kalinovka. EJLBDH
Summer 1941 510 Jews murdered outside the town. EJLBDH
mid-1942 Skilled workers who had been kept alive, were killed. EJLBDH
April 1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising LZ
August 1943 Bialystok Ghetto Uprising LZ
Sept. 1943 Vilna Ghetto Uprising LZ
May 8, 1945 War in Europe offically over
29 Nov 1947 UN partitions Palestine
14 May 1948 State of Israel is declared
1948 War of Independence
1949-1950 Operation Flying Carpet
50,000 Jews from Yemen flown to Israel and 1,770 Jews from Aden.
April 1950 Operation Ezra & Nechamia
130,000 Jews flown from Iraq to Israel.
1956 Sinai Campaign
June 1967 Six Day War
Oct 1973 Yom Kipur War

EJLBDH - The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust
Ivrit - Haencyclopedia HaIvrit
LZ - Lexicon Zioni (Hebrew)
M&M - Margolia and Marx, History of the Jewish People
WOWW - Where Once We Walked
Copyright © 2002 Rose Avigael Feldman