also known as: Beregkisalmás (HU), Záluž (CZ), Zaluzh'ye (RU), Zalysha (Yid)
48°22' N / 22°52' E
~ Introduction ~
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Zaluzhzhia was part of the Kingdom of Hungary (11th century - 1920 and 1938-1944) with the name of Beregkisalmás in Bereg megye (county), next part of Czechoslovakia (1920-1938) with the name of Záluž in Podkarpatská Rus (Sub-Carpathia), then part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1945-1991) with the name of Zaluzh'ye and, since 1991, known as Zaluzhzhia, in the Mukachevskiy (Mukachivs'kyy) rayon (district) of Zakarpats'ka oblast (county) of Ukraine.
Other spellings/names for Zaluzhzhia are Zaluzh', Zaluža, Zaluzha, Záluzs, Zalusa, Zaluzsje, Zaluzzja, Kisalmás.
In Yiddish, Zaluzhzhia is known as Zalysha .
Zaluzhzhia is located about 19 miles NNW of Mukacheve (Munkács), 15 miles ENE of Uzhhorod (Ungvár).
Jews probably settled in Zaluzhzhia in the first half of the 19th century.
In 1830, the Jewish population was 45.
By 1880, the Jewish population was 162 (of a total population of 1,371).
In 1921, during the Czechoslovak period, the Jewish population rose to 177.
By 1941, the Jewish population dropped to 168.
Among the Jewish breadwinners were families that earned their livelihoods from trade (16 in trade and 10 in crafts) and some farmed. Jews also operated a distillery and a few belonged to the professional class (doctor, pharmacist or lawyer).
With the Hungarian occupation of Zaluzhzhia in March, 1939, Jews were persecuted and pushed out of their occupations. In 1941, Jews from Zaluzhzhia were drafted into forced labor battalions and others were drafted for service on the Eastern front, where most died.
In August, 1941, a number of Jewish families without Hungarian citizenship were expelled to Nazi occupied Ukrainian territory, to Kamenets-Podolski, and murdered there.
The remaining Jews of Zaluzhzhia were deported to Auschwitz mid-May 1944.
A great many of the Jews from Zaluzhzhia were murdered in Auschwitz and a few survivors returned, but eventually settled elsewhere.
In 2001, Zaluzhzhia had about 1,268 inhabitants and no Jews live there today.
Sources (portions): The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust, (2001) p. 1351
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