also known as: Tisza-Újlak (HU), Výlok (CZ), Vilok (RU)
48°06' N / 22°50' E
~ Introduction ~
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Vylok was part of the Kingdom of Hungary (11th century - 1920 and 1938-1944) with the name of Tisza-Újlak in the Ugocsa járás (district) and Mármaros megye (county), next part of Czechoslovakia (1920-1938) with the name Výlok in Podkarpatská Rus (Sub-Carpathia), then part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1945-1991) with the name of Vilok and, since 1991, known as Vylok in the Mukachevskiy (Mukachivs'kyy) rayon (district) and the Zakarpats'ka oblast (county) of Ukraine.
Other spellings/names for Vylok are Tiszaújlak, Ujlak, Vülok, Wylok, Wylak and Wujlak.
Vylok is located 32 miles SSE of Mukacheve (Munkács), 14 miles SE of Berehove (Beregszász), 10 miles SW of Vynohradiv (Nagyszõllõs) and is a border crossing point to Hungary.
The town is located on the right bank of the Tisza river, a stones throw from Hungary. The town was first mentioned in 1304 under the name Wylak. Újlak was the name of the dwelling-house of the adjective and nouns in the composition of the mansion. The Tisza (river) reference was added in 1773 because this was an important crossing-point for ferries.
In the Middle Ages, Vylok served as an important commercial center, i.e., salt and timber was transported here to the Tisza river.
The town has experienced difficult times over the years: once ravaged by the Mongols and the Turks and has been nearly destroyed several times by flooding, due to its close proximity to the Tisza river.
Jews probably arrived here at the turn of the 17th century and in 1696, one Jewish family was recorded. In 1737, two Jewish families were present.
Apparently in the mid-18th century, the Jews abandoned the town, returning only in the early 19th century.
In 1840, the Jewish population was ten and by 1880, grew to 773 (of a total 2,588 or about 30%). In 1910, the Jewish population was 1,208.
In 1921, under Czechoslovakian rule, the Jewish population was 1,115.
In the 1930s, 4,000 people lived Vylok, of which 1,600 (or 40% of the total) were Jews who led the trade. Most Jews were engaged in trade with 50 miscellaneous stores, 2 banks, a pharmacy, a butcher shop also operating as a slaughterhouse, 20 shoe and boot factories Fifteen Jews were artisans and Jews owned two flour mills. A few Jews were officials or professional people (including six doctors) and some also farmed.
In November 1938, the Hungarians annexed the town canceling Jewish business licenses. At this time, Jews were involved in 95-96% of the trades.
In 1941, the Jewish population was 922 with forty-one families identifying themselves as Jewish Yiddish as their mother tongue and the remainder as Hungarian-speaking Jews. Dozens of Jewish men—born between 1889 and 1926—were drafted into the labor battalions, most being sent to forced labor on the eastern front, where some perished. In August of 1941, a few Jewish families without Hungarian citizenship, were expelled to Kamenets-Podolski and murdered there.
In 1944, the remaining Jews of Vylok were forceably moved to the Nagyszõllõs ghetto and then were deported to Auschwitz between 20 May - 3 June 1944.
During the period of 17-16 November 1944, the Stalinist terror occurred in Vylok and 147 people were deported, 23 of them never returned.
Today, Vylok is a still a small town with about 3,292 inhabitants (2001). The street where the Jews once lived, is still referred to as that "Jewish street". A great number of the Jews of Vylok were murdered in the Holocaust and only one Jew lives there today (2010).