(Shventenai, Schvenchionys, Shvencionys, Shvenchenis, Shventshenis)
Shvintzion, Svintzian, Sventzion
Sventsiany, Swenziany, Shvyentsiani, Shvyetsiani
Swieciany, Swienciany, Svieciany, Swenciany, Svenciany
~ For my great grandfather, Leib
Khonon Kovarsky ~
b. Sventsiany 1839 - d. Sventsiany 1892
Location of Svencionys
Lithuania, in the Svencioniu Rajonas
(literally, "Rural District"--an Administrative Region),
46.6 miles NE of Vilnius, the capital of the Republic of
Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika). It sits at an altitude
of 593 feet in a region with many forests and almost 300
sources from the 15th century date the founding of the town to
the 13th century. The name appears to derive from the
meaning holy, blessed, sacred, sainted, hallowed, or perhaps
also from the Lithuanian švente,
meaning holiday, gala, feast, festival. The modern name of the town of Svencionys is
pronounced as if its English spelling were "Shven-TSHYO-nis,"
with the accent falling on the next-to-last
Showing Roads and Railroads (Svencionys is 6.7
miles east of Svencioneliai, shown on this map; click on map to
The history of Svintsyan is linked to the tangled history of Lithuania, which has sometimes been an independent nation and sometimes not and was broken up between the two World Wars, with regions containing Svintsyan moving between several different countries.
Political History of Lithuania and Svintsyan with Regard to Location
presence in Lithuania dates back to the early part of the 14th
century. Lithuania was an important center for artisans
and craftsmen in the Middle Ages, and the Jews took part also in
these occupations. By the 17th century, Lithuanian
yeshivot had become famous all over the world. Many
Lithuanian Jews worked as craftsmen or leased businesses,
sometimes also administering estates belonging to others.
And they were moneylenders and tax collectors. Though Jews
in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth were limited as to what
they could own, they were given legal equality with
non-Jews. Perhaps for this reason, the number of Jewish
inhabitants of Lithuania increased steadily during the 16th
through the 18th centuries.
of the Jews in Lithuania
The period preceding the 19th century gave birth to several important Jewish religious movements that were to have varying degrees of influence in Lithuania and in Svintsyan. These were Shabbeteanism, Frankism, Hasidism, the Haskalah, and the Orthodoxy advocated by the Vilna Gaon.
Pre-19th-Century Jewish Religious MovementsWhat is a Litvak?
Lithuanian Jews under Russia
partitions of Poland ending in 1795 had made Lithuania part of
the Russian Empire. For most of the next 200 years,
Lithuania remained under Russian domination. Catherine the
Great, ruler of Russia at the time of the partitions, had
established a pale that restricted Jews, with few exceptions, to
certain prescribed areas within the Russian Empire, prohibiting
them from settling elsewhere. Various legal restrictions
continued to apply to Jews in the Pale of Settlement.
Napoleon and Svintsyan
The invasion of Russia by Napoleon in the early part of the 19th century was an event that could have changed the status of the Jews. Napoleon had shown himself to be a great friend of the Jews in Italy, where he had abolished the ghettos. He had promoted the idea of a Jewish homeland in Palestine and had given the Jews civil liberties and religious equality in France.
Napoleon and the Jews
But he was, of course, coming to Russia as a conqueror. Russian Jews were suspicious of Napoleon's reforms; and the Hasidic rabbis were afraid that, in turning toward Napoleon, the Jews might turn away from God. In Lithuanian territory in the summer of 1812, Napoleon had not reckoned on the heat and rain that transformed the roads into mud, impeding the progress of supply wagons. His inadequately provisioned soldiers rioted and looted in Vilna--a fact that undoubtedly also prejudiced the local population against him. Proceeding to Svintsyan, Napoleon stopped there for one night at the largest house in town and, in the morning, reviewed his guard and troops from the balcony. This house, known afterwards as "Napoleon's House," would eventually belong to a Jewish woman, Margolia Pliner, who, prior to the Holocaust, ran it as a mini-hotel with a first-floor refreshment bar and bakery.
The Jews and the Russian Army
Various forms of repression for the Jews had begun in Russia before Napoleon and continued after his campaign there failed. Many of these had conversion of the Jews to Christianity as their aim. A particularly heinous 1827 statute of Tsar Nicolas I required a quota of army conscripts from each Jewish community. Unlike other Russians, who were required to serve in the army for 25 years, Jewish boys had six years added to their term of service prior to age 18, which meant that 12-year-olds and sometimes boys even younger were often forcibly removed from their families and obliged to serve in the military
Jews in the 19th-century Russian Army
Jewish Religious Movements
In the 19th century, the Haskalah, or Jewish "Enlightenment," which had long been active elsewhere, finally reached Lithuania and began to gain many adherents there. Another religious movement, the Musar (or "Mussar") Movement, with some elements of both the Haskalah and Hasidism, also attained prominence at this time but eventually died out in Lithuania.
19th-Century Jewish Religious MovementsThe great appeal to Russian Jews of the Haskalah had been that it stressed secularism and assimilation and thus was envisioned as a movement which could put an end to antisemitism. But in this particular aim it would fail in 19th-century Lithuania and the rest of the Russian Empire because of a dramatic event in St. Petersburg.
Assassination and Its Aftermath
March 1, 1881, Tsar Alexander II, a popular monarch who had
freed the serfs, was assassinated. Although of the six
conspirators subsequently rounded up, only one was Jewish (a
young woman named Gessia Gelfman), pogroms broke out in many
southwestern areas of the Pale of Settlement, prompting a wave
of Jewish emigration that would eventually spread to other parts
of the Pale and continue for many years. The Jews of
Lithuania were initially spared because the Governor of Vilna
Province prohibited pogroms. But fires set by arsonists ravaged
many Jewish neighborhoods throughout Lithuania.
Although the next Tsar, Alexander III, promulgated some reforms favorable to the Jews, this attitude was short lived. In 1804, Jews had been ousted from villages and ordered to settle in rural areas--a plan which soon, however, proved largely unworkable. The 1882 "May Laws" reduced the area of the Pale and confined Jews to towns, prohibiting them from settling in rural areas. Jews could not own land or property except for the houses they already lived in, and they were barred from many professions. The numerus clausus of 1887 established quotas of only 10% for Jewish students in Russian schools and institutions of higher learning within the Pale of Settlement, and there were even more restrictive quotas for Jews living in Moscow and St. Petersburg.
The expulsion of the Jews from Moscow in 1891 brought refugees pouring into the northwestern part of the Pale and gave impetus to a subsequent flood of Jewish emigration from Lithuania. The emigrees from Lithuania went primarily to America; and they went, in somewhat smaller numbers, to South Africa.
Zionism and the
Jews of Svintsyan
Interest in establishing Jewish settlements in Palestine was also sparked. In 1897, Theodor Herzl convened the First Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland, writing in a prophetic September 3, 1897 diary entry, "In Basel, I founded the Jewish State."
Svintsyan's Jews raised funds or traveled to the Holy Land with
the Vilna "Lovers of Zion" to purchase tracts and plant
vineyards. A few "Svintsyaners" went to Palestine to live
in the latter part of the 19th century; more would immigrate and
settle there in the 20th. These aliyahs would save many
Lithuanian Jews, including the immigrants from Svintsyan, from
annihilation in the Holocaust.
Religion in Svintsyan
followers of the false messiah, Shabbetai Zvi, could still be
found in Lithuania for many years, in shtetls like Svintsyan one
of the most insulting things one could accuse a fellow Jew of
By the 19th century, much of Jewish life in Svintsyan (as in other Lithuanian towns) revolved around the shtetl's Orthodox synagogues. One such synagogue, now referred to by survivors as the "Old Synagogue," was a substantial brick structure that could house a large congregation. It eventually became home also to a family of storks, who built a nest on its roof and returned there every year.
Photo of Svintsyan's "Old Synagogue"
addition to the "Old Synagogue," for adherents of the Orthodoxy
propounded by the Vilna Gaon (mitnagdim), Svintsyan had
two Hasidic congregations and a synagogue for craftsmen and
artisans. It would eventually have a fifth synagogue,
referred to as the "New Synagogue"--also for mitnagdim.
The 19th century saw the establishment of some of Lithuania's most famous yeshivot, those of Volozhin, Slobodka, Mir, Radin, and Telz. The yeshivot at Lida and Ponevez would be established early in the 20th century.
Svintsyan had a yeshiva for awhile, too, under Rabbi Isaac Jacob Reines.
Rabbi Isaac Jacob Reines
Isaac Jacob Reines (1839-1915), who became Svintsyan's religious leader in 1869, was an important proponent of the Haskalah in Svintsyan. Reines established a yeshiva there in which non-religious subjects as well as religious ones were taught and physical labor was encouraged. His devotion to the study of Russian secular subjects brought him into conflict with Svintsyan's ultra-Orthodox population, particularly the Hasidim, and Reines was obliged to close his school and leave for Lida in 1888. Reines eventually became a staunch admirer of Theodore Herzl, joining the Zionist movement in 1898, and publishing the book Or Hadash Al Tzion (A New Light on Zion) in 1902. Although at the 6th Zionist Congress in 1903 the practical Reines supported the British proposal for a Jewish homeland in Uganda, Reines is best known today as the founder of the Mizrachi movement, which envisioned the return to Palestine and establishment of a Jewish homeland there as the solution to the problem of Jewish persecution.
Rabbi Isaac Jacob Reines
Mordecai Menahem Kaplan
One of the most famous "sons of Svintsyan" was Mordecai Menahem Kaplan (1881-1983), born in Svintsyan to Israel Kaplan and Anna Kowarsky, a member of a large family prominent in Svintsyan for many years. (One of Anna's brother was Jonas Kowarsky, born 1866, died 1933.) At the age of 9, Mordecai Kaplan immigrated to America with his parents. In spite of the Orthodoxy of his mother and father, Kaplan was attracted to heterodox philosophies. Eventually he attended Jewish Theological Seminary, becoming an ordained rabbi in 1902. Kaplan rejected a literal interpretation of the Bible, called for a concept of Judaism as a religious civilization, founded the Society for the Advancement of Judaism, and established the Reconstructionist Movement in Judaism. Kaplan's liberal leanings brought him into conflict with the Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the United States and Canada. In fact, his unorthodox ideas were rejected by most of the Conservative faculty at Jewish Theological Seminary. Nonetheless, he taught there for 50 years. By the time of his death in New York on November 8, 1983, Kaplan was revered as one of American Judaism's most influential thinkers.
biblical prohibition against the making of images kept Jews out
of art for many years. There were Jewish artisans but not
Jewish artists. But 19th-century liberalizing trends in
Lithuanian Judaism eventually led to the appearance of
Lithuanian Jewish artists. Some of the most famous were
landscape painter Isaac Levitan (born in Kibartay, 1860),
William Zorach (born in Jurbarkas, 1887), Jacques Lipchitz (born
in Drushkininkai, 1891), Chaim Soutine (born in Smilavitchy,
1894), and Ben Shahn (born in Kovno, 1898).
Svintsyan also had someone who became a famous American Jewish
artist: Meyer Matzkin, born in Svintsyan in 1881.
Matzkin was a self-taught painter, primarily of portraits and
landscapes. In 1904, he immigated to America, settling in
the Boston area. His works were displayed at the
Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the Chicago Art Institute, and
Philadelphia's Pennsylvania Academy of Art.
The Smithsonian (Archives of American Art) has conducted an oral history interview with Matzkin, and microfilm showing some of his paintings is also available from the Archives of American Art.
World War I, the Russian Revolution, and Jewish Socialism
Russia was attacked by Germany in 1914, Russian Jews sprang to
the defense of their country. But the long-standing
Russian anti-semitism was not to be dispelled so easily.
Jews in Lithuanian areas of Russia were accused of being German
spies. They were even expelled from part of the
In some parts of the Russian Empire, invading German forces treated Jews well--a fact which was to lull Jews into a false anticipation of German intentions later during World War II. But Jews were sometimes also subjected to maltreatment by the Germans during World War I. Many Jews from Vilna and nearby villages were incarcerated by the Germans at Poligon (literally, "shooting range"), the site of a former Polish Army camp near Novo (New) Svintsyan less than seven miles distant from Svintsyan. During this period, the Jews of Svintsyan and Novo Svintsyan, who had been more fortunate than their Vilna counterparts, organized relief efforts at Poligon.
Meanwhile, in Russia, the winds of Revolution were blowing. Food shortages during the winter of 1916-1917 caused rioting in Petrograd, and Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate. A struggle for control of Russia ensued between two kinds of Socialists--the radical Bolsheviks and the more moderate Mensheviks.
Eva Broido, a Menshevik from Svintsyan
Gordon Broido (1876-1941) was the daughter of a Svintsyan timber
merchant. Nearby forests had made the timber
industry an important one in Svintsyan, and the 1895
establishment of a rail line along the
Postava-Svintsyan-Novo-Svintsyan route, and later to the town
now known as Panevezys, had given the industry a boost by
enabling easier transportation of wood as well as of other
freight and also passengers.
Eva Gordon grew up to be a strong-willed woman who trained as a pharmacist but became a revolutionary. Her second husband was Mark Broido, also a revolutionary and childhood friend whose family had lived in Svintsyan before moving to Vilna. Arrested in St. Petersburg as revolutionaries, Eva and Mark were married in jail and exiled to Siberia but escaped following a mutiny. In 1914, Eva was again arrested and exiled to Siberia, this time without Mark. But when revolution broke out in Russia in 1917, Eva became Secretary of the Central Committee of the Menshevik Party, while Mark was given an important position in the Petrograd (former name, St. Petersburg) Soviet.
In late 1918, with the Provisional Government fallen, the White Army under General Yudenich challenging the Reds, and Russia in the throes of civil war, Eva and her youngest daughter, Vera, began an odyssey that led them from Moscow to Poland to Vienna, where they rejoined Mark, eventually making their way to Berlin. Only later did they find out about events in Svintsyan during the Civil War in Russia.
The Combattants and the Jews of SvencianyIn Germany, Eva and Mark associated with other important ex-patriate Mensheviks such as Menshevik leader Yuli Martov, theorist Pavel Axelrod, and Menshevik revolutionary Feodor Dan. Returning to Russia in 1927 to contact Mensheviks still there, Eva was arrested, sentenced to solitary confinement, and subsequently exiled to Central Asia. Though she was brought back to Moscow in 1930, she was not a defendant in the Menshevik show trials of 1931--a fact which has been cited as evidence that she could not be induced to "confess" to fictional crimes. Mark died in 1937; and in September 1941, coincident with the German invasion of Soviet Russia, Eva was executed by firing squad on orders from Stalin.
Sojourns in Svenciany and SurroundsThe Bund and Svintsyan's Aron Kramer
the aliyahs that began in the 19th century and continued in the
20th would save many Lithuanian Jews (including immigrants from
Svintsyan) from annihilation in the Holocaust, another movement
that arose at the same time as Zionism would keep many Jews at
home in Lithuania, leaving them in harm's way later.
Only a few weeks after the convening of the first Zionist Congress in Basel in 1897, the General Jewish Labor Federation of Russia and Poland, an organization which came to be known as the Bund, was founded in Vilna. One of its founders, its most active organizer, and its primary proponent in Svintsyan was Arkady (Aron) Kramer (sometimes also spelled "Kremer"), born in Svintsyan in 1865. With Menshevik leader Yuli Martov, Kramer wrote an important Socialist pamphlet, On Agitation. The pamphlet advocated the emancipation of the working masses through their own efforts but called on the Social Democrats to lead the workers.
In contrast to Zionists, who emphasized the importance of a Jewish Homeland, the Bundists were fierce proponents of staying put. They envisioned a peaceful coexistence with their non-Jewish neighbors, one in which antisemitism would disappear and the Jews could flourish in a non-religious but distinctly Jewish cultural environment. Bundists helped establish the great literary tradition in Yiddish and were instrumental in organizing Jewish resistence against pogroms. But by their fierce opposition to Zionism and to Jewish emigration in general, they helped encourage the Jews to stay in Eastern Europe on the very eve of the Holocaust.
Yiddish Socialist Labor Movement
Bund Manifesto Against Zionism
Some Views of Pre-World War II
Wisniewski's Clickable Photos at Search for Polish Society
(There are photos here for both New Svintsyan and Old
Clickable Photos (Enter Swieciany for Town in search
Before Germany invaded Poland and the Holocaust began, Ze'ev
Jabotinsky issued the following warning:
It is already THREE years that I am calling upon you, Polish Jewry, who are the crown of World Jewry. I continue to warn you incessantly that a catastrophe is coming closer. I became grey and old in these years, my heart bleeds, that you, dear brother and sisters, do not see the volcano which will soon begin to spit its all-consuming lava. I see that you are not seeing this because you are immersed and sunk in your daily worries. Today, however, I demand from you trust. You were convinced already that my prognoses have already proven to be right. If you think differently, then drive me out of your midst! However, if you do believe me, then listen to me in this twelfth hour: In the name of G-d! Let anyone of you save himself, as long as there is still time, and time there is very little.
What else I would like to say to you on this day of Tisha B'Av is whoever of you will escape from the catastrophe, he or she will live to see the exalted moment of a great Jewish wedding - the rebirth and rise of a Jewish state. I don't know if I will be privileged to see it, but my son will! I believe in this, as I am sure that tomorrow morning the sun will rise.
Ze'ev Vladimir Jabotinsky
Tisha B'av 1938
In 1939, following the German invasion of Poland, Polish
refugees, including Jews, began to pour into Lithuania.
Svintsyan was in Poland at this time:
Genealogy Questions and Answers
However, Lithuania had declared independence in 1918 following
World War I. Below is a little-known story of how the
Lithuanian government helped many Polish refugees until this
Lithuanian government fell in 1923.
"The Silent Helpers," by Ginutis
In 1940 the Soviets established army bases in Lithuania and annexed the entire country, including the Vilna region, as the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic. A strong Lithuanian nationalist movement sprang up in reaction to this, causing the Soviets to exile thousands of Lithuanian citizens considered politically unreliable in June of 1941, including Jews from Svintsyan.
Soviet Deportations from Lithuania
Only a week
later, in violation of his pact with Stalin, Hitler invaded
Lithuania and the Soviet Union. The German invasion of
Lithuania fed the hopes of Lithuanian nationalists and their
aspirations for a lasting independence from the Soviet
Union. Jews, 4000 of them as volunteers, had helped defend
Lithuania in its bid for independence from 1918 to 1923. Yad
Vashem has a photo of some of them:
Who Fought for Lithuanian Independence Gather in Utena,
had begun even before the German invasion, and many young
Lithuanian Jews--including some from Svintsyan--joined the
Soviet Army or Jewish partisan units. Some Jews from
Svintsyan were deported; some fled to the Soviet Union before
the German advance. But many more Lithuanian Jews,
including most of the Jews of Svintsyan, remained in their
homes. There they became fair game for the Nazis, aided by
Lithuanian police, or Schutzmannschaft ("protective
Almost immediately after the German invasion, severe repressions against Jews began. The order for Lithuanian Jews to move into ghettos came on August 4, 1941, on the pretext that this would protect the Jews from excesses by the Lithuanian non-Jewish population. Although some Lithuanian Jews were sent to Nazi labor camps, most were soon imprisoned within the newly established ghettos. Svintsyan was the site of one of four Lithuanian ghettos. Throughout Lithuania, mass executions of Jewish populations were soon initiated, with only Jews in "strategic occupations" initially exempted. The executions were carried out by Einsatzgruppen, so-called SS "action groups" that had begun as intelligence units tasked with "combatting hostile elements" but soon became mobile killing squads directed primarily against Poles and Jews.
Only a few hundred Jews, the workers who could aid the German War effort through forced labor, had been allowed to remain in the Ghetto. In Every Day Remembrance Day, Simon Wiesenthal writes that several hundred more Jews were murdered by the SS near Svieciany (Svintsyan) on January 7, 1942. Some of those remaining sought, by any means, to save their loved ones. One of the most amazing such stories is that told by Father Romuald Jakub Weksler-Waszkinel.
The Confession of a Polish PriestA More Recent Article on Jakub Weksler-Waszkinel
in Ozmiana, October 1942
the Diary of Zelig Kalmonovitch Following the Report by Gens
Svintsyan PartisansThe Svintsyan Ghetto was finally completely liquidated in April 1943, when remaining Jews were packed into boxcars and told they were being relocated to Kovno. The train stopped instead at Ponary, the site of the mass slaughter of Jews from Vilna. At least one of the guards opened the door of a car and told the occupants to run, but then guards shot at the fleeing Jews. Only a handful made it to the forests--among them a brother and sister of Bronia Porus Chosid, the Svintsyan survivor who supplied this account.
the only Jews from Svintsyan still alive after the Holocaust
were those who had been able to wait out the war in exile in the
Soviet Union, had survived through service in the Soviet Army or
partisan units or in Nazi labor camps, or had managed to survive
by hiding in forests or with Righteous Gentiles.
In "The Birthday Party," published in the January 2000 issue of Commentary, Avner Holtzman recounts the fate of some of the Jews from Svintsyan. The story he tells is an elegy for all who perished.
"The Birthday Party"Despite cooperation with Nazi aims by some of the non-Jews living in the Svintsyan area during World War II, others tried to help Jews, risking their lives and those of their families to do so. Yad Vashem in Israel has recognized some of these brave people as Righteous Among the Nations:
of Svintsyan (Type Swientziany into the Search window)
Svencionys into the Search window)
Svintsyan's Jewish Poet, Menke Katz
Poetry can also serve to memorialize. One more distinction for Svintsyan was the birth there, early in the 20th century, of someone who would eventually become a famous poet. This was Menke Katz (1906-1991). Katz emigrated to the United States with his family in 1920, after losing a beloved brother who had been imprisoned in a German labor camp during World War I. Accomplished in Yiddish and English, Katz wrote poetry in both languages and edited an international poetry journal, Bitterroot, in Spring Glen, New York. Two of Katz's favorite forms for poetry were the sonnet and the triangle. During his lifetime, eighteen books by Menke Katz (nine in Yiddish, nine in English) were published, and Katz was a Pulitzer Prize nominee and winner of the Stephen Vincent Benet award. All of Menke Katz's books, translations, and essays, as well as the periodicals he edited, are listed at the Web site belonging to his son, Dovid Katz (http://www.dovidkatz.net). To see a rundown of what this prolific writer was involved in, go to:
Menke Katz poetry about Svintsyan is in the yizkor book, Sefer zikaron le-esrim ve-shalosh kehilot she-nehrevu be-ezor Svintsian. Below is some other representative poetry and additional information about Menke Katz, whose nine Yiddish books have now finally been translated into English by Benjamin and Barbara Harshav of Yale University.
Menke Katz, Poet
Some Menke Katz Poetry
Lithuania and Svencionys Today
The Vilnius Yiddish
"Kaddish De Rabbanan," a Poem
"Why?" a PoemThe LitvakSIG Poetry Page
The present-day Svencionys Region boasts the tourist attraction of a National Park, Aukstaitija, by the Zeimenio Lake. Boating is available in the waterways of this park, and the hilly ridges of the Lithuanian Highlands are there. More than 70% of the park consists of pine stands, and there are ancient oaks, as well as endangered rare plant species. Accommodations may be had in old windmills that have been converted to inns. Camping is also permitted in the Park.
Aukstaitija National Park
Lithuanian State Department
at Radzima Site
of Svencioneliai at Radzima Site
Yad Vashem's Photos of Svencionys (Typing Swieciany in
the Search window will yield the most photos. Some of these
are pre-War photos, some are Holocaust photos, some are
Maps of Svencionys Area
the Holocaust, Svintsyan had five synagogues--two Hasidic, two
devoted to the Orthodoxy of the Vilna Gaon, and a synagogue for
craftsmen and artisans. There is no longer a synagogue in
Svintsyan. Before the Holocaust, there were almost 4,000
Jews in Svintsyan--approximately 50% of the local
population. In November 2000, there were five Jews in
Although it appears no 19th-century Jewish records of births, marriages, and deaths for Svintsyan have survived, Russian Revision List (census) records for this shtetl for the years 1834, 1850, 1851, 1858, 1868, 1872, 1873, 1874, 1875, 1877, 1889, 1890, and 1898 are available from the Lithuanian State Historical Archives. These can be a good source of genealogical information. Address inquiries to:
Baranova, Head Archivist
Lithuanian State Historical Archives
Gerosios Vilties 10
FAX: (+370 5) 213 76 12
pre-1940 Lithuanian records are now located in the Lithuanian
State Historical Archives above. However, birth, marriage,
and death records for Svencioneliai (formerly New, or Novo,
Svintsyan) for the year 1940 can be obtained from the Lithuanian
Central Civil Register Archives, Kalinausko 21, Vilnius 2600,
In 2009, the
Vilna Gaon Jewish Museum, Vilnius, published a book
entitled, The Ghettos of
Oshmyany, Svir, Svencionys Regions: Lists of Prisoners.
1942. The Table of Contents can be seen at http://www.jmuseum.lt/index.aspx?Element=ViewArticle&TopicID=383.
4, Vilnius, Lithuania (Telephone: +370 5 262 8979; E-mail:
also search for Svintsyan information with the following,
putting "Swieciany" into the search windows for the interwar
period when Svintsyan was in Poland:
Logan Kleinwak's Search Engine for Online Historical Directories
Genealogists with relatives who immigrated from the Svintsyan area to New York may want to contact one of the three cemeteries in that area with landsmanschaft plots:
(1) Swencianor Association (Anshei Swenziony), New
Mt. Carmel Cemetery, Queens, 718-366-5900
(2) Congregation Agudath Achim Anshei Swenziony, United Hebrew Cemetery, Staten Island, 718-351-0230
(3) Anshei Schwinziane, Washington Cemetery, Brooklyn, 718-377-8690
Researchers will also be interested in the following sites:
Do Lithuanian Genealogical Research
Find the Svintsyan (Svencionys) Yizkor (Memorial) Book
JewishGen Lithuania Database (for Svencionys)
Click the button to show all entries for Svencionys in the JewishGen Lithuania Database. (About the JewishGen Lithuania Database).To Find Information on Other Shtetls
Material on Svencionys at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum (Click on "Search the Collections," and enter "Svencionys" into subsequent search windows. You may need to click on the name of a collection to get a search window.)
Yad Vashem and its Remembrance Projects
Institute for Jewish Research
Lithuanian History from NerisLithuanian History from Scantours
Jews in LithuaniaThe Jewish Virtual History Tour: Russia
History of the Russian Federation
The Hard Long Road Toward the Truth
The author is
grateful to the many contributors whose work appears at this
site. Thanks are especially due Professor Avner Holtzman
and his mother, Svintsyan survivor Lila Holzman, and also former
Svintsyan residents Leyb Pliner, Bronia Porus Chosid, Rahel Gil
Grindlinger, and Boris Jochai, all of whom contributed advice,
information, and material. Thanks are additionally due
Harold Jochai for allowing the publication of the statement of
his recently deceased father regarding the latter's partisan
activities. Helpful information and support for the
project were also provided by Professor Dovid Katz, who teaches
Yiddish Language, Literature and Culture at Vilnius University
and is the son of poet Menke Katz; by Leon Matzkin and Evelyn
Matzkin, the children of artist Meyer Matzkin; and by Sofija
Tsiboulskiene, the daughter of Svintsyan resident Bluma
Katz. The author is additionally grateful to Mike
Kazakevitch, of Kelly Graphics, Carlsbad, California, who
donated scanning services, and to members of the Svintsyan
Research Group--particularly to Steven Weiss, Jaqueline
Sokolinsky, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Blum, Barbara Lefcowitz, Batya
Olson, Dick Goldman, and Clifford Karchmer, who offered advice,
information, and moral support. Special appreciation certainly goes,
as well, to Eilat Gordin-Levitan, who translated from Hebrew and
donated the fine partisan account by Alexander Bogen, and to
Ginutis Procuta, who granted permission for the use of his
interesting article "The Silent Helpers."
Additionally, thanks are due Richard Tyndorf, whose special interest is Catholic clergy who helped Jews during the Holocaust and who was extremely helpful in sending the author information on Righteous among the Nations recognized by Yad Vashem from the Svintsyan area.
Thanks also are due all the publishers who kindly gave permission for the reproduction of articles or portions of books, and the museums, universities and galleries who gave permission to link to images of artwork owned by them, as well as to Bret Werb, of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, who donated his fine translation of Lila Holzman's lyrics for the partisan song "Rise Up and Fight."
All major artwork at the site is by Lithuanian-born Jewish artists. In order of appearance:
(In addition to sites given under Acknowledgements above,
following are some, but not necessarily all, of the other sources consulted.
Information was also derived from personal interviews and correspondence.)
Books and Articles
Arad, Yitzhak, ed. The Pictorial History of the Holocaust, MacMillan Publishing Co., New York, NY, 1990.
Bauer, Yehuda. A History of the Holocaust, Franklin Watts, New York, NY, 1982.Beider, Alexander. A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames from the Russian Empire. Avotaynu, Teaneck, NJ, 1993.
Broido, Vera. Daughter of Revolution: A Russian Girlhood Remembered, Constable, London, 1998.
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comments, corrections, and suggestions for additions to
Marjorie Stamm Rosenfeld
Copyright 2000 M S Rosenfeld(last updated on 5/5/2013)