Subject:

Back from Ukraine...Trip Notes for June 2000 (Carpathia Rus, for merely part of Transylvanian, Hungary)

Date:

Mon, 3 Jul 2000 18:10:30 -0700

From:

Leslie Gyi <leslie@businessengine.com>

To:

h-sig@lyris.jewishgen.org

 

 

 

Below is a record of my trip preparation and research, and my travel notes

to Ukraine, to the ancestral home of my Grandfather, Pesach 'Meir' Feig,

from Nagy Bocsko, now know as Velykiy Bychkiv, in Zakarpatska Oblast, which

is the Ukrainian Name for Carpathia. Previously it has been under various

jurisdictions (Hungary, Austro-Hungarian, Czech, Romania, in addition to the

current Ukrainian government). Please note that as a result Velykiy which

means large and Bychkiv is a transliteration on the old Hungarian

landowner's name of Bocsko, and also means 'bull' in Ukrainian, has a

Romanian and Hungarian translation. The Romanian portion of Nagy Bocsko,

Bocociul Mare, where Bocociul is the Romanian transliteration of Bocsko with

the Romanian ending and Mare means 'big'. Finally Nagy Bocsko translates in

Hungarian as, Nagy means 'Big' and Bocsko was the name of the aristocratic

landowner.

In addition, I have included records from the Archives at Uzhgorod and

Rahkiv. (I still have follow-up work to do at Berehove.)

If you have any questions, please feel free to ask. I also have a website

with reading materials, as well as, all the vital records available on

Feigs. If you would like access, please let me know. As soon as I upgrade

my PC to Win98, I will also be posting digital pictures of the two

cemeteries and the old synagogue (which is for sale for anyone interested in

buying and renovating a synagogue) in Velykiy Bychkiv, (old Nagy Bocsko

north of the Tizsa River). Hopefully I will make a return trip to visit the

Romanian side of Nagy Bocsko, which is current day Bocociul Mare, Romania. I

understand from my cousins from the Romanian Bychkiv, that there is another

cemetery on that side of town to photograph. Unfortunately only locals can

cross the bridge between the two halves of former Nagy Bocsko. Foreigners

are restricted to the crossing at Zahony-Chop, or further east to

Cernivci-Suceava, making a visit to both halves of the town a long trip.

> We are all familiar with Ukrainian Jewish life without realizing it from

> watching the famous musical and movie, "Fiddler on the Roof", taken from

> the well-known Yiddish writer, Sholem Aleichem's Tevye stories set in

> Anatevka which is a ficitional village modeled after the real life village

> of Boyarka, 15 miles from Kyiv. The history of this area is ancient,

> recorded by Greek writers, and is characterized by a violent changing of

> hands over time as this fertile crop land was fought over by nomadic

> tribes, and eventually becomes a buffer between the eastern and western

> slavic nations. Onto this violent and bloody meelee wandered our Jewish

> ancestors looking for a better life than what they had in Western Europe,

> Spain and Germany in particular. When Carpathia was under the rule of the

> Transylvanian Hungarians, this emigration was not only encouraged with

> benefits such as land ownership, elective military service, freedom of

> religion, it was even solicited by recruitment in Germany. Many answered

> the call, both Christian and Jewish, escaping the harsh feudal states of

> Germany, Poland and Galacia. These recruitment campaigns came when the

> Hungarian population was twice reduced in half by Hun invastion. Hit

> particularly hard were towns in Carpathia, like Berehove and Xust. One of

> the hardest hit was Berehove, which to this day is primarily a Hungarian

> town within Ukraine. Both Berehove and Uzhgorod have large respositories

> of records in their archives that we will be concerned with.

>

> Jewish migrations can be traced via Cemetery stones. David Goberman in his

> book, "Carved Memories: Heritage in Stone from the Russian Jewish Pale"

> gives the following accounting. Ancient Jewish burial stones have been

> found in Galilee, stones from Egypt with Greek inscriptions around the 3rd

> decade of the 1st century. Stones are also found in Jewish catacombs in

> Italy and Spain during the same period. Stones from France date back to

> 7th century, found in brickwork and medieval walls and structures.

> Prague's cemetery dates back to 10th century, and Germany to the 11th

> century. The oldest in the Ukraine was in the Lviv cemetery when it

> existed, dating back to 1400s. In the Crimea, in the Chufut-Kale cemetery

> near Kerch are stones from the 7th century belonging to the Khazars own

> Jewish culture which will be mentioned again during the historical

> recounting of the area.

>

> Ukraine can be translated as 'borderland' or 'on the edge', at it has been

> through the centuries. From the 8th century BC through the 19th century

> AD, it has been the stage for battles between Central Asian Tartars and

> Turks, and the European Nations. In the 1st Century AD it becomes a

> crossroads between the Baltic and Black Sea via the Dnieper River. In the

> 9th Century it becomes the battle place of Western European Catholicism

> and Eastern European Orthodoxy, which eventual meets in the compromise of

> the Uniate church preserving Orthodox ritual, yet acknowledging Rome's

> leadership, enabling Catholic Poland and Hungary to rule the local

> inhabitants yet letting them keep their indigenous religion. In more

> recent times it has been a border between Russia and Poland in the

> 17th-18th century, Russia and Austria in the 19th century, and Eastern

> Slavic Russia and the Western Slavic Nations of Poland, Czeck and Romania

> during the 20th century.

>

> The earliest artifacts indicating human existence in this area are found

> in excavations near the village of Koroleve in the Vynohradiv district

> dating back 500,000 years ago, to the early Paleolithic period. Remains

> have been uncovered in Uzhhorod, Mukacheve, Berehove, and Khust. More than

> 30 Neolithic remains, 80 from the Copper and Bronze age, and many Iron-age

> settlements have been uncovered .

> The earliest written accounts for Ukraine exist in the poetry of Homer and

> the histories of Herodotus of Cimmerian horsemen, who were ousted by the

> Scythian warriors, an Indoeuropean people mixed with monguls speaking

> Iranian, around 8th century BC, as accounted in the histories of

> Herodotus. The Scythians who traded wheat grown by the local people with

> the Greeks inhabiting the shores of the Black Sea used their profits to

> create beautiful works of gold jewelry, that could be worn on horseback

> since they were primarily a nomadic people. Stories of Scythian gold

> traveled, and they were overtaken by the Sarmatians, an Iranian speaking

> warrior clan with Noble princes, approximately 3rd century BC. Their

> word 'Don' meaning water is the basis for the names Dnieper, Don and

> Danube Rivers. The Sarmatians included the Alans, Roxolani and Iazyges.

> The Sarmatians are also known for their Amazon women who weren't allowed

> to marry until they had killed in battle. Slavic tribes arrived from

> present-day Volynia and settled here in the 1st cent. A.D. The Mordivians,

> a Finno-Ugrian tribe, that were hunters and did solstice chants to the

> sun, existed in the forests approximately 1st century AD. Scandinavians

> established a trade-route along the Dnieper also around the 1st century

> AD. The Sarmatian people remained dominant in the area. Around the 3rd

> century AD, the Ostrogoths came from the west, and were followed by the

> Huns from the east in the 4th century AD pushing the Goths back west.

> Both the Goth and Hun attacks on the Roman empire contributed heavily to

> its downfall. The Slavs followed in this void moving south, east and west

> from the Carpathian Mountains to current day Poland. During the 8th

> century, the Khazars of Turkic and Iranian tribes from the Caucus

> Mountains, took control of Ukraine. The Khazars were a nation that had

> elected conversion to Judaism after studying the current one-God religions

> of Christianity, Islam and Judaism, to replace its polytheistic religion.

> Also during the 6th century AD the Varangians, also known as Rus, which is

> the Slavic word for 'light', had traded from the Baltic through the Black

> Seas via the Dnieper River, and even raided Constantinople. Oleh of

> Novgorod, took over Kyiv in the 8th century, and from this grew the

> unified Rus state, which at its height spanned from the Volga to the

> Danube, and from the Baltic to the Black Seas. Rus leader, Svyatoslav

> crushes the Khazars during the 9th century only to be blocked by

> Constantinople and killed by the Turkic Pechenegs. His successor,

> Solodymyr accepts Christianity in Constantinople, forming the basis for

> the Russian and Ukrainian Orthodox churches, introducing Byzantine

> concepts of religion, imperial authority, art, architecture, education and

> law which forms the basis of Eastern Slavic Tradition. From the 11th

> through the 12th century the Kumans (or Cummans) a nomadic East Turkic

> people, the western branch of the Kipchaks, also known in Russian as

> Polovtsi came from Northwest Asian Russia, and conquered South Russia and

> Walachia (Romania), and for almost two centuries warred intermittently

> with the Byzantine Empire, Hungary, and Kiev. They are eventually

> defeated by the Eastern Slavs and Mongols. They were sold as slaves and

> assimilated into the Bulgarian, Hungarian and Mongol tribes. Kiev Rus

> moves north and west to avoid the Mongols around the 12th century. The

> Galician-Volynian gains control of the western portion of the area, the

> golden horde of the eastern part. The horde becomes Islamicised and

> trades with the Mediterrean states via Crimea. Black Death weakens the

> horde in the 14th century, and along with Russia, Poland and Lithuania,

> causes the horde to disintergrate, leaving only the Crimean Khanate under

> the control of Constantinople's Ottoman Turks. The Galacian-Volynian

> regime falls in the late 14th century, and the Ukrainian plain attracts

> runaway serfs, criminals, religious runaways, tatar groups which become

> known as kazaks (Cossacks), a Turkic word for outlaw. The Kazaks fight

> the Poles, Lithuanians, Russians, Turks, etc. Their own success is their

> undoing. Catherine the Great, of Russia destroys them. The mercenaries

> pose too big a threat to the established powers. Ukraine is absorbed into

> Russia in the 18th century, with the partition transferring western

> Ukraine to Poland, except the far west (Lviv) going to the Hapsburgs.

> After WWI, and the collapse of Czarist Russia, in 1919 Ukraine gains

> independence. In 1920 it is again partitioned between Poland, Romania and

> Czech. In 1922 it becomes part of the USSR, and Stalin starves 5-7 million

> Ukrainians. In 1941 the Germans gained control. From 1937-1939 1 million

> people were executed in the purges, and 3-12 million were sent to labor

> camps. In 1944 the Soviets retake the Ukraine, killing 6 million more

> Ukrainians during the war, leaving most of the Ukrainian cities in ruins.

> Approximately 1/2 the male population and 1/4 of the female poplulation

> were lost in the 20th century wars, famines and purges.

Zakarpatska is the region of Ukraine where we would be traveling.

Zakarpatska means Transcarpathia. It is known by many names such as Ruthenia

or the Carpathian Ukraine, by its Czech name of Subcarpathian Ruthenia, or

its Ukrainian name of Zakarpatska Ukraina which translates literally as

Transcarpathian Ukraine. Uzhgorod, our starting point, is the capital, and

also the closest major city to the Hungarian border crossing. Mukacheve,

and Khust are other large cities in Zakarpatska that we currently encounter

in our research.

> Uzhgorod, an ancient Ukrainian town that was our base for exploration of

> Carpathia Rus, was already a small town on the western edge of Kyiv Rus,

> as Kyiv grew to be a historically mighty state of Eastern Europe. If you

> are interested in this development, a very good, enjoyable account exists

> in the novel, "Russka", by Edward Rutherford, a Cambridge historian.

>

> Uzhgorod, a fortified city, guarded Transcarpathia. The name eminates

> from the Slav derivative of "Uzh" the river, and "Gorod" or town. The

> Hungarian Name Unhvar derives from the Latin translation of the slav

> "luzh" which is pool or bog and "var" which meant defence and derived from

> the Slav God "Var" whose role was defend heaven against evil. The

> Hungarian tribes which invaded Carpathia in the 9th century AD, did not

> succeed in conquering Uzhgorod until the 11th century BC. From 1281-1321,

> Uzhgorod and some Transcarpathian towns were within Halytch-Volyn (which

> becomes Galacia) headed by Prince Roman's son King Danylo and his son

> Lev.The Hungarians later retake this area when Lev's son Jury comes to

> power. The Hungarian rule was challenged in 1514 with a peasant

> rebellion, and again in 1648 when the Cossacks under Bohdan Khmelnitsky

> attacked the Castle in Uzhgorod. The city was attacked and plundered by

> the Austrians. However under the Austrian leadership of Maria Teresa and

> Joseph II, reforms were introduced to help the area. Uzhgorod

> participated in the 1848-1849 Hungarian revolution, sympathizing with the

> Hungarian desire for freedom - liquidation of serfdom. The

> Transcarpathian Rus Rada (Ukrainian Congress) decided to join

> Czechoslovakia in 1919, which was reinforced at the Paris Peace Conference

> in 1919. In 1920 it is again partitioned between Poland, Romania and

> Czech. In 1938 the first Autonomous Government of Carpathian Rus was

> formed. It is very exciting to see in the archives the result of this,

> records that are recorded in Ukrainian (Thank You Alexander Dunai, you are

> a historian's historian, for pointing out this historical anomaly that few

> have a chance to observe), not Hungarian, German or Russian. Due to German

> agression in Europe, the Hungarians are restored to power in this area

> until the Russians retake it at the end of World War II.

>

> My brother Philip and I decided to travel to the Ukraine for 5 days,

> following in the footsteps our our ancestors. We, unlike our ancestors

> had the benefit of our Ukrainian guide, Alexander Dunai, recommended by

> Louis Schonfeld, in search of my paternal grandfather's ancestral home. I

> have attempted to use Ukrainian names where ever possible, since this is

> the current official name. In parathensis I have included the Russian and

> Hungarian names, previous legal names used, the first time I mention a

> locale, since these will be the names found in maps and guide books, and

> on road signs. This is an attempt to eliminate confusion regarding

> geographical names that exist due to the changes in government that have

> occurred over the years in Carpathia-Rus. In addition we may know these

> cities, towns and villages by different names from the stories handed down

> through our families, and these are quite often Yiddish transliterations

> of the language of the time. I have included at the end, not only the

> official Ukrainian, Russian and Hungarian names used by the legal

> governments, but also the Yiddish names in use by our families over the

> years. Our family study group (Mordechai Bas, Marvin Cherrin, Paul

> Cherrin, Dan Feig, Brad Feig, Philip Feig, Dolph Klein, Cherie Korer)

> actually worked months to decipher these names, locations and then find

> them on maps. We have quite a map collection out on our family web site.

> This is just a small taste of what our ancestors experienced living in a

> land that was under the jurisdiction of up to five different countries

> (Austro-Hungary, Czech, Hungarian, Romanian and Ukrainian). There is the

> old joke that it was one of the few places where your citizenship could

> change five times, without a person physically moving.

>

> Our trip really began with our visit to the Ukrainian Consulate in NYC.

> The first introduction to a country is always through the Consulate or

> Embassy if you need to deal with one prior to departing. A visa is

> required to go to Ukraine (note they do not use the article 'the' in front

> of the country name, just like you wouldn't say 'the' France or 'the'

> Hungary). To apply for a visa, you need a letter from a Ukrainian travel

> agency which is in Ukrainian, two passport photos, a form that you fill

> out once you are there (it is not on the website but in the future I think

> I would try to call/fax a copy in advance as it asks for information

> contained in the Ukrainian travel agency letter which is unreadable for us

> in Ukrainian) and a money order. Get use to this. Everything in the

> Ukraine is in cash. The Consulate or Embassy is actually being very

> modern by allowing money orders. The base cost of a visa is $45 plus $30

> for a total of $75 for a normal single entry visa. If you need to

> expedite it, you can pay $60 or a total of $105 for a 3-day turnaround, or

> $100 or a total of $145 for the same day/next day service. Also be

> prepared to wait. The NYC Consulate is only open Monday, Tuesday,

> Thursday and Friday from 9:30am to 12:30pm. Since the room where they

> actually process applications is very small room in a building at 249 East

> 49th Street, one stands in line outside. People that have already applied

> and are returning are 'allowed' to cut ahead at the front of the line to

> pickup their documents. Get use to this too. We stood in line

> approximately 3 hours, and spent another 1 hour inside filling out

> paperwork. We also did not take seriously their request for a money

> order, instead trying to give them cash, and we had to run out around the

> corner to buy a money order for $1. They were very nice though, allowing

> us back into the Consulate at 1:30pm, well after closing. The Consulate

> and Embassy observe both Ukrainian and US holidays, which are quite a few,

> so don't make the mistake we initially made of showing up on one of the

> holidays. For further information visit the website where all this

> information is documented. Always check to make sure their has not been

> any changes to the above information. http://www.brama.com/ua-consulate/.

> It is also a good idea to check the status of travel for Americans to the

> foreign destination prior to travel to any part of the world. This

> includes not only political status, but Medical, Security, Safety at

> http://travel.state.gov/ukraine.html. Note that we started this process in

> March for a June trip trying to give ourselves enough time. If you are

> like us, and have other things going on in your life, and make a couple of

> mistakes you will be glad you planned up front. After a couple of false

> starts we finally completed the application in May, picking the visa up 10

> days later, putting us just pass the Memorial Weekend holidays, in the

> first week of June, one week before departure.

>

> Alexander Dunai, our Ukrainian guide, picked us up in Budapest on Sunday,

> June 11. Over dinner we reviewed the trip objectives of gathering as many

> records from the archive in Uzhgorod (Uzhorod, Ungvár) . We were

> uncertain whether to also go to the Berehove (Beregovo, Beregszász)

> archive listed in Miriam Weiner's book as the source for Velykiy Bychkiv

> (Velikij Bycko, Nagy Bocsko), or Rakhiv (Rahov, Rahó ), another archive,

> so we decided to wait and see what happened at the Uzhgorod archive and in

> Velykiy Bychkiv interviews.

>

> We left Budapest on Monday morning around 10am for Uzhgorod. Most of the

> driving was through Hungary. We drove south from Budapest along route

> E573 through Szolnok, at which point the road heads north and east to

> Debrecen, which is approximately 25-30 kilometers from the Romanian

> border. The E573 then heads due north to Nyiregyhaza, the last large

> Hungarian city before the border. At Nyiregyhaza Route 41 heads more east

> than north to another border crossing near Berehove, however this border

> is for locals only (Hungarians and Ukrainians, and not open to others

> nationalities). So we continued on E573 which after heading north and

> east turns almost due north to the border crossing at Zahony. It was a

> very hot day, 30+ degrees C, but the roads were practically empty due to

> the holiday and the heat. The border crossing went quickly. First we

> bought medical insurance, and you need local currency to purchase this.

> Next was passport control, don't forget to remove your sunglasses if you

> are wearing them, they will want to see your eyes. You will received a

> small piece of paper that you must keep with your passport and will be

> required to exit. It is not required at hotels checkin when you show your

> passport so do not surrender that piece of paper to the hotel staff. Last

> but not least was customs where you need to declare all cash, any currency

> over $1000 USD, but not travelers checks, as well as, jewelry and

> electronic equipment like cameras, computers, personal organizers, cell

> phones, etc. You fill this form out in duplicate (there are no carbon

> copies). They keep one copy and you get one copy. They tape over the

> areas with the lists so they can not be changed. You will need to provide

> this to customs when you leave, and you should not have more cash then you

> entered the country with. It was a holiday for the Hungarians, Ascension

> Sunday had been the day before, and Alex was very familiar with the border

> crossing procedure. Even a little glitch, like no customs forms in

> English left, he handled by having us fill out the Ukrainian form, guiding

> us through it, translating each block for us to fill out. All and all it

> went smoothly and we were done in under an hour. After crossing the

> border the sights were similiar, same houses, same country side, the only

> differences being that signs were now in Ukrainian. Uzhgorod is close to

> the border at Chop (Cop, Csap), and we were soon winding our way through

> cobblestone streets and quaint storefronts to our hotel that was right

> downtown, walking distance to the Archives, the Ethnographic Museum and

> Castle. The hotel was surrounded by a tall, white wall and gated. The

> gate had plywood sheets covering it on the inside. I do not know if this

> was to obscure the view or re-enforce the gate. Inside the compound was a

> pool, parking area, and a very attractive, comfortable 3 story,

> white-washed inn with restaurant, bar and sauna. Our rooms were larger

> than standard hotel rooms and very comfortable (A/C, TV, sitting area

> consisting of an alcove filled with two chairs and a table, lots of

> windows, a 3 section wardrobe containing a hanging section, a drawer

> section and a storage area for pillows and comforters). Being tired from

> the long car trip in the heat, we elected to eat in for dinner. We had

> Selyanka, a savory meat soup of 2-3 meats, usually pork and liver, but

> sometimes veal too, lemon, olives, sour cream, onion and pickled cucumber.

> It can also be made of fish, usually sturgeon. We indulged in some

> wonderful caviar, and moved on to fish, Sturgeon and Trout fried crisp. We

> finished off the meal with Chai, the same word used by the Turks and

> Indians for tea.

>

> Tuesday morning we walked through town, passing shops and a small park to

> the Uzh River. The river was low, and there were areas where you could

> see the river bed and stones, with patches of water. It was a hot day,

> and people were swimming in the river. The road along the river was open

> to pedestrian traffic only, and lined with beautiful old houses. We

> walked along the river, until the archives, where we cut across on a side

> street passing the post office.

>

> Alex has worked with this archive, and already knew two of the three women

> would be cooperative, and the third would need to be distracted while we

> did business. Alex told the young women we were interested in vital

> records for FEIGs. We were asked if we had any other interests and we

> provided the names KLEIN and WEISS for Marvin Cherrin. We were escorted

> to a waiting room, and after about 10 minutes, the young woman had found

> one record, for the death of Ignatz Klein, son of Majer Klein, who was

> already dead. It was in Hungarian, but was translated for us by the young

> woman and Alex as:

>

> Date of Registration: 31 April 1927

> Date of Death 30 April 1927

> Name: Ignatz Klein

> Born In: Tecso 'Tyachevo'

> Birth Date: 1860

> Confession: Israel

> Age: 67

> Wife: Reza 'Rose' Weiss

> Parents:

> -Father Majer 'Mayer' Klein - deceased

> -Mother name not listed - deceased

> Cause of Death: mrtirce (we need to get this translated)

>

> This one record provided Marvin with new information, his GGGF, the father

> of his GGF, who was unknown until this time, taking the family tree back

> one generation. It also raised questions. The official record shows his

> wife as Reza or 'Rose', yet oral history shows it as Eszter. Also, cause

> of death, while not yet translated, we doubt it matches the oral history

> version of his Ignatz being beaten and dumped at the synagogue.

>

> We then asked about the Berehove Archive and was informed by the young

> women that the director there is difficult to work with, but that she had

> a good relationship with him (I have no doubt of that since she was very

> young, pretty and pleasant, and in addition Alex informed us she was

> trained as a lawyer in Lviv). So we decided to leave that to her, and

> Alex will follow up by phone for the records retrieved from the Berehove

> archive.

>

> Afterwards we did some errands, exchanging money (everything is in cash,

> so get use to carrying it and get one of those pouches you hang around

> your neck if you feel uncomfortable carrying your documents and cash on

> your person), going to the post office for postcards and stamps, and did

> an impromptu trip on a small train with 2 cars and an engine, for a very

> short ride down the river and back. A tour group was originally scheduled

> to use the train, but never showed up, so Alex persuaded them to take us

> instead, so we went, and were joined by the local children that were

> playing in the area. At the end of the line, we disembarked and waited

> for them to turn the engine around. At this point was a park with an

> unused outdoor dance pavilion. After out train trip we stopped for lunch

> at an outdoor cafe just off the main square in town. We had Pirohy or

> Piroshky, which are meat pies like Cornish pasty washed down by Fanta.

> Most of the soft drinks we had were distributed by Coca Cola (no one

> called it Coke), and consisted of Coca Cola Regular, no diet, Sprite,

> Fanta and mineral water with gas. We saw Coca Cola trucks again and

> again, and I believe they were coming from the bottling plant in Kyiv.

>

> Finally we went to the Ethnological Museum, which was closed on Tuesdays.

> Alex persuaded them to let us walk around the grounds, which contained

> buildings from the Carpathian Mountains from the 1800s. We decided to

> return the following day to see the interior of the museum, and also the

> insides of the buildings in the park area. This museum reminded me of

> Greenfield Village in Dearborn. On the grounds were a variety of houses,

> blacksmith, church, school, inn, water-powered mill, which gave us some

> idea of what the buildings from the Carpathians looked like, when our

> ancestors lived there in the 1800s. There was also a pit where witches

> were burnt (sounds like Salem, MA doesn't it). A local women from the

> refreshment stand indicated that the women were reported as witches by

> their neighbors, but we never found out why, whether it was pure malice,

> or whether it was for property gain like in New England.

>

> We stopped for a drink, and met two wrought iron workers who were very

> curious about us. We had a nice conversation with them, with the help of

> Alex as a translator, about our trip, our impression on Ukraine, and the

> recent visit of President Clinton. They invited us to their workshop and

> showed us the antique wrought iron (approximately 100 years old) they were

> trying to copy, and then let us watch while they made a piece. We then

> viewed their showroom which had very beautiful pieces of not only wrought

> iron, but stained glass. There was also a book of pictures of the homes

> and churches they did stained glass for. We would have liked to bring it

> home, but packing and carrying it seemed challenging. If you are

> interested in things like this, take an extra hard covered suitcase for

> packing the items. They insisted we take a candlestick as a souvenir,

> refusing payment (Alex cautioned us at this point that we would insult

> them by offering money and that a gift would be more appropriate), so we

> went back to the refreshment stand and bought a round of cold beer for

> everyone (about five men). With the temperatures at 30+ degrees C, and a

> hot fire for heating the iron, it was REALLY hot in their workshop. By

> the time we finished the castle was closed, so we decided to return the

> another day time permitting to finish the Ethnological Museum and the

> Castle.

>

> For dinner we went to a very nice Hungarian Restaurant, down the road on

> the opposite side of the Uzh river. The restaurant was facing the river.

> It was a two story building, where you had to walk up a flight of stairs

> to get to the patio, and restaurant inside. We went inside to the

> restaurant, and it was a very nice formal room, typical of so many

> Hungarian restaurants, with red plush chairs, and white linen table

> clothes, and a place for a band. It was a little hot and stuffy inside

> and they had no other customers inside so it was suggested we sit outside

> on the deck overlooking the pool and the river. The pool is used as a

> swim club and was surrounded by deck chairs and some with tents above them

> and some exposed to the sun. The property itself was quite large with

> plenty of space for soccer fields or expanded development, perhaps a

> resort type inn, and it was all enclosed inside a gated fence. We had a

> nice dinner of soup, caviar and pork stuffed with tongue and mushrooms.

> The gypsy musicians played a mix of Hungarian, Gypsy and Ukrainian music,

> dedicating all songs to us. We found out later why. They wanted a tip,

> which we probably would have given anyway, but I think it bothered Alex

> more than Philip and I that they blatantly asked for it. He has decided to

> rethink bringing clients to this restaurant. The food was very good, but

> one little wrinkle like this and Alex is concerned about us being

> offended. This is one of the really outstanding points of using a guide

> like Alex. Based on his previous experiences he knows what to do, and

> what to avoid, shielding clients from customs, business practices,

> infrastructure that is not comfortable for Americans. The few short days

> of a trip are truly quality touring days.

>

> On Wednesday, we drove east through the Carpathians, passing through

> Mukacheve (Mukacevo, Munkács) with a Soviet-era tank in the square,

> through to Xust(Hust, Huszt, also seen in English as Chust or Khust), and

> on to Tjaciv(Tjacev, Técsõ), which is a rail center, and also where Marvin

> Cherrin's family was from. We drove down the main street, and circled

> around to the train station looking for the Inn and Restaurant that

> Marvin's family owned, but were unsuccessful in locating it. Instead we

> pushed on to Velykiy Bychkiv which I was most anxious to see, figuring we

> would return to Tjaciv if we finished up in Velykiy Bychkiv. Upon our

> arrival into Velykiy Bychkiv, Alex asked for directions to the town hall,

> where we met with the mayor and his assistant. They remembered the Feig

> Family telling us they had emmigrated from there in 1972 to Canada. They

> told us that the old man, Mendel Alter Feig was Director of the Lumber

> Mill (Saw Mill). That his father had been Issac, and that his son Issac

> had immigrated to Canada in 1972 selling his house which was currently

> occupied by a retired school teacher, and her daughter, also a school

> teacher. We found out later that her husband, now dead, had been a

> communist party member, and a friend of Feig. Both the mayor and his

> assistant switched around the names Issac and Mendel, so the lineage is

> uncertain, but it didn't seem possible that Mendel Alter would be son of

> Issac who was also son of Issac, but we shall have to search the Feigs in

> Canada to solve this mystery. They provided a physical description of the

> Elder Feig in Velykiy Bychkiv as being a big, strong man with a red face,

> hair that was neither dark nor light so probably brown, a round face.

> They said his son was stout, but had a wife that was taller than him, and

> very beautiful. Their daughter Sonya married a dentist by the name of

> Henrik. We went to the house which was number 34 on the main street, and

> Alex approach the occupant asking if we could speak to her. The house was

> small but beautifully kept with roses and a trellace walkway covered in

> vines. She brought us around back and invited us in, taking off her

> shoes, we also followed suit. She lead us into her sitting room, and

> offered coffee. While she was making the coffee it gave us a chance to

> observe the room. One whole wall was covered with a solid wood wall unit.

> Another wall had a sectional sofa, and across from it two chairs. There

> was a coffee table, which she replaced the everyday scarf with an

> embroidered and lace one, setting down a tray of demitasse coffee cups of

> instant coffee and some chocolate. She is the one that provided us

> information about the daughter and son-in-law, as well as confirming Feigs

> physical appearance. We gave them a small gifts of an illusion pearl

> necklaces, and they gave us a carved wooden tray and box. We said our

> good-byes and headed off to the first of two cemeteries with the mayor's

> assistant. They cemetery was fenced in, with a chain and lock, but the

> lock was not locked. There were approximately 44 tombstones standing, two

> either small or broken stones, and two stones lying on the ground. They

> ranged from fairly new ones with current calendar dates and names in

> Ukrainian to old stones, containing inscriptions barely visible to the

> eye, where you feel the inscription by running your fingers over it. I

> video taped the entire cemetery, every stone. Decided to return another

> day to use my 3.3 megapixel camera to photograph the stones, since the

> battery needed charging. Next we drove through the Jewish section of town

> visiting the synagogue. It was deserted and starting to crumble. The

> administrator informed us it was no longer used, and was last used as a

> storage area during the war. There was a big nest of storks on the roof,

> a mound of dirt out front from which we could peer in at the ceiling of

> color tiles with the Star of David still intact. The mayor's assistant

> indicated that the synagogue was for sale. It would be nice to acquire it

> and fix it up. Next we stopped at the administrator house. It was also a

> very pleasant, cool place. She served us cool water from the spring under

> her house. We used the outhouse behind the house which was wallpapered

> and stocked with toilet paper. The only think missing was the plumbing.

> On the way back in I met the cow and pig in front of the compost. She

> provided us a history of Velykiy Bychkiv which has a population of 9,000.

> They claim to have hidden 50 Jews during the war. The town is 625 years

> old, though they did not know how it came to be, nor are there any

> descendants of the original inhabitants to ask. I have a feeling that

> Hungarians may have moved here after the unsucessful Turkish invasion of

> Transylvania when they retreated to the mountains to fight the Turks

> killing off the entire Turkish army. After that the Ottman Sultan decided

> that the mountains were not worth the effort and that any people who

> fought so valiently should be free. The next Turkish invasion of Hungary

> would be from the southwest across the plains, leaving Transylvania and

> the Carpathian Mountains free. This successful invasion probably caused

> Hungarian migrations into the Carpathians. Velykiy Bychkiv has a

> Ukrainian majority, unlike the neighboring towns of Biserca Alba(Biserica

> Alba, Fejeregyhaza) or 'white church' which is Romanian and definately

> more prosperous due to the special arrangements for the inhabitants to

> cross the border, hence opportunity to trade; and Solotvina (Solotvina,

> Aknaszlatina) which has a Hungarian majority. Both these towns were of

> interest since we have vital records on Feigs in these towns from Prof.

> Gyemant from the Romanian Archive in Baie Mare, but have no idea how yet

> how these Feigs are related to our relatives from Velykiy Bychkiv and

> Tjaciv. We have posted Dr. Gyemant's records on the MyFamily.Com web site

> for family members' access. Velykiy Bychkiv has a Hungarian Minority with

> a church being established in 1996. The Christian cemeteries are next to

> the Jewish cemeteries. There are multiple Christian cemeteries, divided

> not by church, but by ethnic group, though certain ethnic groups tend to

> be similiar denominations, which consists of Russian Orthodox, Uniate

> Catholic, Catholic, Methodist and 7th day Adventist. The family of our

> administrator had been Russian Orthodox with everyone converting to 7th

> Day Adventist (Ukrainian 7th Day Aventist drink alcohol where in the US

> they do not), except her, since her husband is Russian Orthodox. There

> were three schools in the town. The administrator and her mother-in-law

> used to make carpets, but sold their loom. We were told this was a way

> that mother-in-laws checked out the skills of their son's potential

> brides, by working together on projects. Next we went to the 2nd

> cemetery, and it was even larger and older. It had the remnants of a

> fence, with the framework in place, but no mesh. There were approximately

> 107 stones in this cemetery which I also capture on digital video tape,

> but returned another day for the digital still camera. The administrator

> informed us that the previous mayor and spent several months in the US

> traveling around and fund raising. With these funds the cemeteries were

> restored and kept up, though they could all use some grass cutting, new

> fences since these are rusted, partially missing fence parts and not

> locked up. It was getting late, and Alex did not want to drive at night.

> The roads are somewhat challenging with no signage, so at every

> intersection Alex hailed pedestrians to confirm we were on the road going

> to the destination city. Also there were no traffic signals making left

> turns challenging. He also indicated that many cars had headlights that

> didn't work, so you couldn't see them, and all roads are two lanes

> requiring passing which is done rather aggressively, so it would be hard

> to see the passing cars and avoid them. Part way back the lightening and

> thunder started, followed by torrential rain and hail. We stopped under

> the shelter of some trees so Alex could cover his car with a blanket and

> protect the car from the hail. The majority of the storm was over in

> minutes, but the lightening, thunder and light rain continued through the

> evening. For dinner we went to a Ukrainian pub and had Zharkoe, a meat

> and potato soup, and stuffed pork cutlet.

>

> On Thursday, we did some errands. I replaced the shampoo and deodorant

> left behind in Budapest. While not as large of a selection as the US,

> there still was a selection of 4 brands, two that we were familiar with

> and two that we were not. The prices were reasonable. Philip also bought

> some film, and we looked at cameras, thinking we might buy another, since

> Philip's had some trouble the previous day, and mine are all digital hence

> dependent on batteries. In the end we passed on cameras thinking they

> would not focus well on tombstones in cemeteries. Upon leaving the store,

> Philip realized the film had expired, and Alex returned it for us. Glad

> we didn't have to try to do that in Ukrainian without his help. What was

> different about this store from the US, was though it carried a variety of

> products like most US stores it was not as large a choice. It carried a

> wide range of items not found in one US stores unless you go to Cosco or

> BJs, but the Ukrainian stores were much smaller in size than our

> warehouse-style stores. Next we headed to an automotive store while Alex

> was in search of fluids for his car. The store didn't have the product

> that he wanted, but then I wouldn't have expected to find this in

> Georgetown, Downtown Alexandria, or Cambridge, which Uzhgorod reminded me

> of. We mailed our postcards, exchanged more money, and returned to the

> Museum. There was one gallery of local painters that were for sale, and

> another of textiles and wood carvings that were being packed up for an

> exhibition in Kyiv. We found out the items were for sale, but only in the

> giftshop. A call was made to the owner and we waited a few minutes for

> her arrival. I bought a root carving for my carving collection, and

> Philip bought painted eggs and a table cloth with the pattern woven on

> both sides making it museum quality. There were also painted gourds that

> had been purchased by the buyers from the Chicago Art Gallery, a Violin, a

> beautiful painting of horses on silk, and a wide selection of embroidered

> tablecloths and napkins, which are actually the majority of items

> available. Not wanting to spend our research time on shopping we left to

> to check out of our hotel and move on to Xust to make travel further east

> easier. On the way we stopped in Uzhgorod for water and Kleenex (for the

> outhouses along the road). We stopped again in Mukacheve for automotive

> fluids but Alex did not find the quality he wanted. We also stopped part

> way for Shashlik, a wonderful pork kebab, at a roadside stand being served

> from a camper at the foot of a hill overlooking the flat plain. It use to

> be made of lamb, but is more commonly made of pork, cause the lamb is hard

> to find fresh. It could be a remnant of the Turkic invaders, the

> influence of Crimean Muslims in Ukraine, but we have no concrete

> information on this. In Xust it took awhile to find the hotel, cause it

> was on the third floor of an auto repair shop, much like our new

> franchised repair shops with many bays, a large parking lot, a parts store

> and restaurant. The hotel had an interesting decor with wood floors, a

> colorful stripped carpet runner, walls of light yellow and green, with

> ornate carved plaster decorations on the ceilings from which lights were

> suspended. It was a long hallway, surreal as Philip put it, broken into

> cubicles. There were large windows on the right, with large planters

> below, and the rooms on the left. The regular rooms had a sofa as you

> entered with a coffee table flanked by twin beds. On the left rear was a

> small alcove with a refrigerator (that worked in my room and Philip's but

> not Alex's) leading to the bathroom. The bathroom sink and tub shared

> plumbing, with a long faucet that swung between the two basins. I opted

> for the suite, which was few bucks more. For this I got an entry way,

> with the bathroom to the left, and a kitchen with fridge to the right.

> Straight ahead was a sitting room with the same sofa flanked on the left

> with a wooden wall unit filled with books and ceramic dishware, and on the

> right two chairs. Through the right of the sitting room was a large

> bedroom with a sofa, love seat and two chairs, a wall filled with

> cabinets, a bed consisting of two twins hooked together and a vanity. The

> best part of the rooms were the large window that opened to views of the

> red tiled houses silouhetted by the Carpathian mountains. As we unpacked I

> spied Alex buying fluids for his car from a truck driver who had a large

> bottle that they poured some off into a cleaned out coca cola bottle from

> the car. We picked up some supplies in the local market (water and toilet

> paper) and headed for the local spa, one town over in Chayenne (spelled

> differently but sounds like our Indian tribe and city outwest). It had

> two large hotels, and third that had partially burnt down. We stopped at

> a cafe for drinks on the terrace. The only incident of the whole trip

> occurred here where a drunk walked up to Alex, pushing his elbows into

> Alex's shoulder. Alex gracefully leapt to his feet, used a Judo hold to

> put the man on his back, placing his foot on his chest to make sure he was

> immobilized and dragged him off the patio onto the grass and threw his

> dilapidated slippers after him. The other table sitting next us, stopped

> to comment, when they departed, letting him know they felt he really had

> no other option except to do what he had done. Who knows if the man would

> bite or be violent, and Alex certainly didn't wait to find out. We really

> hadn't worried about anything up to this point, but after this display, we

> knew we had absolutely no worries come what may. Stopped at the spa to

> fill our large water bottles, one of each type of water (one had heavy

> vitamins with the taste of the well water we use to get in Canada at Aunt

> Elaine's cottage) We returned to Xust for dinner eating at "The Cafe"

> recommended by the Hotel Administrator and the people on the street. We

> had Zhakusky, ham and cheese appetizers, soup, Varenyky which are meat or

> potato filled noodles like pirogies (we had a plate of each) and a leg

> quarter broiled on the grill with the drumstick capped with a chef's hat.

> Most dinners costed about $15 for the three of us, with the exception of

> the first hotel where we spent about $30 for the three of us. It was an

> excellent meal. We listened to local music, Beatles and Ve Ve, a

> Ukrainian group that also plays French music, played by a saxophonist and

> electric piano player who also sang.

>

> Friday we drove to Rakhiv, to an archive Alex has not visited. We drove

> north along the left side of the Tizsa river with scenery very familiar to

> New Hampshire. The River snaked around, and was shallow enough to see the

> stones below the rushing waters in some places, in others if was filled

> with brownish rushing water. It was raining out, as we drove, passing

> houses, fruit stands and finally the marker for the center of Europe, as

> measured by the Austrians under the Austro-Hungarian Empire. We stopped

> to photograph the site which was by an "S" bend in the river and a bridge.

> Then it was on to the archive. The women looked very stern, and told us to

> wait our turn. Alex had his doubts about whether we would get anything

> from her. We were there cause the mayor told us the records for Velykiy

> Bychkiv were kept there, contrary to Miriam Weiner's Appendices on towns

> and archives. Alex explained the situation, as well as my grandfather's

> illness and the fact that we knew nothing about his family but wanted to

> know. I could see he caught her attention, yet she looked tentative or

> cautious. Meanwhile a constant stream of local citizens were coming

> through for paper work that was filled out and stamped. Another woman

> arrived in the office, and I was afraid this might complicated things, but

> she appeared junior in position, and took over all the work, while the

> older woman went through the index of births, yes there was an index,

> looking up each record. As we got into the work, and I started to make

> some connections, she actually started to get interested if not excited.

> She was having a hard time reading Hungarian documents of Jewish names,

> but this is where Alex was able to help her and lighten the load. Without

> his help, I don't think we would have made it through. The list I

> currently have, and will type at the end of this email, is his handwritten

> notes of some 33 records. He is going to type these up for us, but as an

> interim, I thought I'd write out the records so everyone has access.

> There were two large books, about the size of legal paper to go through.

> The book from after the war was smaller, but there were no birth records.

> Everyone must have been killed, immigrated, or those living in the

> village, older. Next she went through the marriage books, also indexed,

> which are absolutely the best since they have dates, ages and parentage.

> Finally she told us the death records, which I was most anxious for to

> locate my GGF's death, were packed for transmittal to Uzhgorod, that she

> didn't know how long it would take to get them there, nor how accessible

> they would be since there would be a very large volume of books from many

> towns. This is where Alex amazed me. He talked her into unpacking those

> books and sitting for a couple of hours going through unindexed books

> while we had lunch. First we stopped to buy Philip a sweatshirt, cause he

> had short sleeves and it was rainy and cold. the store had a wide

> assortment of items, but only a selection of a few things in each

> category. Philip had a choice of a really heavy coat, a camouflage coat,

> a multi-colored sweatshirt or a blue sweater....he went with the

> sweatshirt. Then we had lunch at a cafe of Borscht (finally) and stuffed

> veal cutlet. We even splurged and had desert, the guys had eclairs and I

> had a tart filled with jam and meringue. Back to the archives and she had

> found only a few death records, unfortunately none of my GGF. I think

> this is because the records are from 1900 forward, and that prior to 1900

> they are probably in Berehove. They also had records for BAS which I

> thought Mordechai would be interested in, but most of the day was gone by

> then, and it would soon be getting dark, so another trip will be needed to

> get these records, either remotely by letting Alex handle it, or as a

> guided tour. We returned to the hotel stopping for Shashlik, which at

> this point I had developed an addiction that Alex noticed and catered to,

> and a Ukrainian dish like Polenta of cornmeal and pork fat, very tasty.

>

> Saturday we returned to photograph the cemeteries in Velykiy Bychkiv and

> Tyachev with my 3.3 megapixal digital camera. Since many of the stones

> are not readable I only did those that the lens would focus on in the two

> graveyards in Velykiy Bychkiv, which was approximately 25% of the stones.

> We will need to find a technique like stone rubbings to cover the others,

> or bring on the next trip someone who reads Hebrew and Yiddish, preferably

> by Braille, so we can preserve the information carved into these stones.

> In Tyachev, I photographed the overall graveyard, so others would have an

> idea of how large it is and how many stones it has. We also talked to the

> older people since it was the weekend and the town hall was closed so we

> couldn't find the mayor. They indicated that Tyachev was heavily damaged

> in the war, and rebuilt. No one recognized nor could remember the Inn and

> Restaurant in Marvin's pictures. We did find the graveyard with much

> help.

>

> Later we went to Myzhiria, up the mountain to a very pretty glacial lake.

> Both the drive to Myzhiria and Rahkiv went through mountains that look

> like New Hampshire's white mountains except their shape is more rounded

> whereas the white mountains are more pointed, and the pine trees are much

> taller in the Carpathians than in NH. We returned to "The Cafe" in Xust

> for the same wonderful dinner. Only the ham was slightly different.

>

> Sunday we drove back to Budapest. Again the border crossing was quick,

> this time it was a holiday in Ukraine. We stopped over the border in

> Hungary for lunch. There was no English, but the menu was in Hungarian,

> German and Russian. Alex got us through in Russian. That is an

> incredibly useful language, recognized around FSU (Former Soviet Union

> Republics and Eastern-block countries). Once in Budapest we went back to

> our favorite Karpathy restaurant that makes authentic Transylvania Kaposta

> (stuffed cabbage), and has a whole page of goose liver dishes which we

> indulged in since the cost is 1/10th of France or the US. Listing to the

> Gypsy violinist play classical, gypsy and show tunes.

>

>

> Births

> -------

> 1905 Alexander son of Issac, age 31 and Gofman Berka age 29

> 1906 Zoltan, son of Issac and Gofman Berka

> 1907 Etlice who dies in 1907

> 1907 JenoL, son of Joseph and Schtuhl Zinke

> 1908 Leah Feig, daughter of Ignatz and Gofman Berta (dies in 1908)

> 1909 Itzik, son of Israel and Schpritsen Etel (dies in 1909)

> 1910 Golde, daughter of Israel and Schpritser Etel

> 1911 Lazar Jakob, son of Israel and Schpritser Etel

> 1913 Eizik, son of Berko and Rachel Feig

> 1914 Rosa, daughter of Israel and Schpritser Etel

> 1915 Herman, son of Israel and Schpritser Etel

> 1916 Abrahaim, son of Baruch and Rachel

> 1916 Isaak, son of Isaak and Schwarz Jitte

> 1917 Dora, daughter of Israel and Schpritser Etel

> 1919 Herman, son of Ignatz and Schwarcz Lotti

> 1919 Zigmund, son of Israel and Schpritser Etel

> 1921 Mayer, son of Geza and Schleimovitch Jitte

> 1923 Hencie, daughter of Joseph and Adler Teresia (Roman Catholic)

> 1923 Simche, child of Israel age 32 and Farkas Fani age 25

> 1923 Eta, daughter of Geze age 28 and Slomovich ida age 28

> 1923 Ludwik, son of Ezra age 3 and Stein Zli age 24

> 1925 Regina born in 1898 but not registered until 1925, daughter of

> Jozefa age 18

> no father listed

> 1925 Berta, daughter of Ignatz age 37 and Forkosh Fani age 30

> 1928 Ibar, son of Ibarrus Feig age 33 and Rori Preislev age 23

> 1929 Feige, daugher of Rifka Feig age 43 and no father listed

> 1931 Izak, son of Rifka age 42 and father not listed

> 1931 Yosef Getzl, son of Markus age 35 and Roze Preisler age 26

> 1936 Strul, son of Chaim Mortico born 1895 and Preisler Rachel born 1904

>

> Marriages

> ---------

> 1909 Feig Berta born 1890 marries Katz Marton born 1882

> 1914 Feig Tizik born 1890 to Feig Joseph and Srabo Braun

> marries Schwarz Gite born 1887 to Scwartz User and jakubowitz

> Prive

> 1918 Feiga Feig born 1893 to Feig David and Chana Dwora

> marries Fried Zsigmund born 1896 to Jakob and Hollender Regina

> 1919 Feig Josef Hersh born 1887 to Moses Chajem and Mendelovich Chaje

> Dwojne

> marries Adler Tobe born 1889 to Beihisch Leah and Adler Abraham

> 1919 Feig Israel born 1891 to Feig David and Appel dore

> marries Stei Zlata born 1896 to Stein Hersch and Fruchten Szasza

>

> Deaths

> ------

> 1/3/1896 Feig Jozsef, son of Jozsef Feig and Szuhl Liba

> 4/3/1899 Eizik son of Abraham and mother not listed

> 11/19/1899 Feig Mendel son of Mendelovics Chaja (mother) reported by

> Feig Moses Chaim

> Euauslice????

>

> I have left it in Hungarian format of Last Name/First name. I have

> entered them into Familytreemaker and have posted it to the Feig Family

> Web Site. I have not shown anyone with a 2nd spouse since I thought it

> would be harder to review, nor have I made any assumptions on spelling.

> If it is spelled different, I have made a new entry. Some of the names

> may match with prof. Gyemants from Tizsakarasonfalva, so more than just my

> grandfather's family may have moved, but I have left the records separate

> resulting in a duplication. I have restuctured the entry of this data to

> be under multi-national feig, under Nagy Bocsko. Under this category I

> have one category for the Ukainian side of town, one for the Romanian side

> of town and one for the genealogical information from Eli Wiesel's book,

> "Memoirs: All Rivers run to the Sea" which has been combined with

> Mordechai Bas's info from his mother. Please let me know if I need to

> make corrections or if there are any additions. Once Alex has a chance to

> update his notes, I will correct his email and the Familytreemaker

> version. I will not merge these areas until we are able to prove the

> relationships. Even if we never do prove these relationships, at least we

> have collected and centralized all the information on FEIGs.

>

> Sub-Carpathian FEIG Towns

> Virismort, Rom. (Tiszavere, Tiszaveresmart, Wiresmort); pop. 98, 139 km N

> of Cluj;

> Poienile de Sub Munte, Rom (Havasmezo, Kopkas, Poenile de Sub Munte,

> Poienile de Sub Muntz, Polien Riskeve, Ruski Pole,

> Ruspolyana, Ruszpolyana, Urmezo, Vermezif); pop 726; 133 km NNE of Cluj

> Ruscova, Rom. (Riskeva, Riskeve, Riskova, Riskovi, Ruskava, Ruskova, Visa

> Orom, Visha Orom, Visooroszi);

> pop 1.034, 126 km N of Cluj

> Velikiy Bychkov, Ukr. (Bicskof, Bikivics, Bochkuv, Bukkospatak, Bukovec,

> Nagy Bocska, Veliky Bockov);

> pop 1,708; 146 km WSW Chernovtsky

> Craciunesti, Rom. (Karacson Falva, Kretsnif, Tiszakaracsonfalva); pop 889;

> 139 km N Cluj

> Tyachev, Uk. (Tachovo, Tacovo, Tech, Tecs, Tecso, Tetsh, Tiacevo, Tiachev,

> Tiacheva, Tiaczowo); pop 12,661

> 176 km WSW Chernovtsky

>

> <<...>> <<...>> <<...>> <<...>>

>

> Bibliography

>

> Russka, Edward Rutherford

> Culture Shock! A guide to Customs and Etiquette, Meredith Dalton

> Borderland, Anna Reid

> Ukraine: A tourist Guide, Osyp Zinkewych, Volodymyr Hula, Marta D. Olynyk

> Lonely Planet Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, Lonely Planet Travel Survival

> Kit

> Ukraine: A History, Orest Subtelny

> A history of Ukraine, Robert Paul Magocsi

> Ukraine: A Historical Atlas

> Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka, by Nikolai Gogol

> Festive Ukrainian Cooking, Marta Pisetska Farley

> The Jewish Travler: Hadassah magazine's Guide to the World's Jewish

> Communities and Sights,

> Alan M. Tigay and Jason Aronson

> Babi Yar: A Document in the Form of a Novel, Anatoli Kuznetsov

> Erdely, a map of Transylvania with all names in the original Hungarian,

> and the current day

> Romanian or Russian Name.

>

> Web References

>

> Cimmerians,

> http://www.fwkc.com/encyclopedia/low/articles/c/c005000584f.html

> Cimmerians, Quotes from Herodotus, http://www.hrothgar.com/cimmerian.html

> Cimmerians Expelled by Scythians,

> http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/4123/eb11crim.htm

> Scythians, http://www.hempbc.com/magazine/jul95/scythians.html

> Scythian Geneaology, http://hsa.brown.edu/~maicar/Scythia.html

> Scythian, Gold of the Nomads,

> http://www.hermitage.ru/html_En/03/hm3_10_1.html

> Scythian Gold, Hermitage Collection,

> http://www.hermitage.ru/html_En/03/hm3_2_6.html

> Scythian Gold, Two Faces of the Hermitage,

> http://www.kahbonn.de/1/9/2e.htm

> Scythian Description from the Hermitage,

> http://www.hermitage.ru/html_En/03/hm3_2_15.html

> Sarmatians-Scythians,

> http://www.archaeology.org/9903/newsbriefs/ipatovo.html

> OstroGoths, http://www.encyclopedia.com/articles/09688.html

> Huns, http://www.encyclopedia.com/articles/06152.html

> Goths & Huns Attack Sarmatians,

> http://www.encyclopedia.com/articles/05034.html

> Mordivians, http://www.nupi.no/cgi-win/Russland/etnisk_b.exe/Mordvinian

> Kumans, http://infoplease.kids.lycos.com/ce6/society/A0814241.html

> Ukrainian History: From Kyivan State to Renaissance, Mykhaylo

> Hrushevs'kyi, http://www.ozemail.com.au/~retengnr/ukrhist.html

> Zakaraptsky, http://lycoskids.infoplease.com/ce5/CE056906.html

> Zakarpatsky History,

> http://www.freenet.kiev.ua:8080/ciesin/Ukraine/zakarp-hist.html

> Zakarpatsky Historic Towns and Villages,

> http://www.myfamily.com/isapi.dll?c=Content&htx=View&siteid=3vjD&contentid

> =YZZZZZX9

> Russian, Ukrainian and Hungarian Names of Towns,

> http://www.myfamily.com/isapi.dll?c=Content&htx=View&siteid=3vjD&contentid

> =YZZZZZXB

> Uzhgorod Weather Report,

> http://wunderground.dogpile.com/auto/dogpile/global/stations/33631.html

>

>

>