Nowy Targ, Poland
Lat: 49° 29' N, Long: 20° 02' E
Translation of Nowy Targ, means "New Market"
Map of Neumarkt (= Nowy Targ), and other highlighted towns, old Map of Austro-Hungary, 1917
(extracted from a larger map purchased by this webmaster)
Google Map of Nowy Targ, Poland, and vicinity, highlighting its proximity to Krakow, and two towns now in Slovakia
Nowy Targ is a city situated in southern Poland,in the Malopolska province,the county seat of Nowy Targ. Nowy Targ was once one of the many towns in the area known as "Galicia." It is 85 km south of Krakow, and 433 km south of Warsaw. The full name of Nowy Targ in Polish, is Królewskie Wolne Miasto Nowy Targ, which translates to "Royal Free City of Nowy Targ."
You can find information on the
general history of the town of Nowy Targ from various sources,
especially on the
internet. Very few mention anything about the Jews who once lived
there. But see some of the sources below.
The following section describes some pieces of history of Nowy Targ as it pertains to the Jews who came to live there in the middle of the 19th century and onward.
On JewishGen, in the Town Finder, you can key in Nowy Targ,
and you will see a map and a list of nearby towns and how far they are
from Nowy Targ. After World War I, families appeared to have moved
from Nowy Targ, either further into Poland; parts of what is now
Ukraine; as well as into what is now Slovakia and the Czech
Virtual Shtetl, a Polish language website for the most part, has some portions that are in English. One of these is on the local history of Nowy Targ. However, no mention of the existence of a Jewish community appears in that description.
Virtual Shtetl has another site for Nowy Targ with a brief history that includes names of some of the Jewish residents of Nowy Targ. The following are excerpts from this site, so as to highlight the people named therein:
"...Dr. Abraham Blumenfeld, who in 1847 came into the possession of an agro-industrial complex specializing in brewery[1.5].. He owned: a flourmill, a sawmill, a house, farm buildings and arables. In 1871 he sold his vast estate for the sum of 21,500 Rhine ducats. To conclude the purchase the town hall had to incur a debt with the Jewish bankers: Aron Mandl, Salomon Goldman and Józef Herz. In 1875 the property was leased to Józef Goldman and in 1894 it was taken over by Józef Herz. "
"...They actively participated in town life and financed many social initiatives, such as the establishment of the fire-brigade. Jakub Goldfinger, who for 15 years held the office of the vice mayor, served as a paragon of a citizen.
"More than 60 congregations fell within the kehilla’s jurisdiction. The office of the rabbi was then held by Jakub Hirsch, and later by the unpopular Hirsch Meislich. The wealthiest members of the local community were part of the congregation’s council, e.g. Jakub Goldfinger and Józef Herz."
"The situation began to deteriorate in the 1930s with a rise in anti-Semitism among Poles ... Nevertheless, Jews still actively participated in town life. The National Defense Fund, which was established by virtue of the decree of April 9, 1936, was supported also by financial contributions made by citizens of Jewish origins. Dr. Zahariasz Goldner was the most generous donor in the town’s history with a contribution to the amount of 100 golden koronas."
"...According to the census conducted in 1945, 15 Jews lived in Nowy
Targ in 1945, while in 1946 only 5 Jews remained in the area. It was in
this period that an attempt at reviving local religious and cultural
life was made. David Grassgrün declared himself president
of the Jewish community. Before the outbreak of the war he worked in
agriculture and traded horses. He miraculously survived the slaughter of
August 30th only to die at the hands of Poles who were part of a
The museum of Beit Hatfusot (The Museum of the Jewish People)
, located on the campus of Tel Aviv University, Israel, has
archives that include histories of places where Jews once lived.
This includes a section on Nowy Targ. Another person mentioned in that section is the intriguing Leopold Trepper:
"...During the war, Leopold Zakharovitch TREPPER, who was born in Nowy Targ, (February 23, 1904) headed a Russian spy network in Western Europe, called the "Rote Kapelle" ("Red Orchestra"). ..." Leopold TREPPER's brief memories of Nowy Targ can be seen in the Nowy Targ Yizkor Book. An article appeared in Israel's Haaretz Newspaper about him. He died on January 19, 1982, and is buried in Jerusalem, Israel.
In this 17:32 minute YouTube Video of Nowy Targ, you can see where some Jewish
sites (The synagogue, prayer houses, cemetery, mass grave, a monument to victims of the Holocaust, many gravestones) once existed as well as places that are memorials to those who
once lived there.
The video with mournful music starts off with a memorial wall for
Holocaust victims. The synagogue is now a "kino" -- a movie theater,
called Tatry. The video appears to show the back of the theater
and you can see four arches, filled in, that were probably windows, even
stained glass perhaps, of the former synagogue.
The video focuses on a building of a former Beit Midrash
(study hall); and a store front that was the site of a former Hasidic stibl.
Most of the video (15 minutes worth) covers
the cemetery, starting with a memorial stones for those former
residents of Nowy Targ and Podohalie who were killed during the
holocaust and have no actual burial place. There is a mass grave of those
rounded up and murdered in the cemetery itself.
Many stones are unreadable and
either missing or have fallen down. The first readable stone
appears at 7':15". While the film makes reading these stones
difficult, photos taken by Sally Mizroch, June 2016, and the Hebrew
inscriptions translated by Madeleine Isenberg, we can now identify these
relative certainty. See more about this on the "Religious" menu option.
This is a Youtube "Roadtrip" that takes you to the central square, about six minutes long, it is accompanied by music that sounds very "Country and Western!"
Gesher Galicia website: Since Nowy Targ is situated within Galicia, a visit to this site should prove helpful, although as of June 2017, the information for Nowy Targ is limited.
Yad Vashem. If you put "Nowy Targ" in the search field for Place, you will get over 6,000 records, some of which may be multiples for the same person.
Virtual Shtetl covers all of Poland.
Among JewishGen's Yizkor (Memorial) books, is one written by Robin O'Neil, Rabka Police School (Poland). It has a lot of information about Nowy Targ in the World War II period, including names of people and what happened to them, the removal of tombstones from the cemetery and re-purposed at the Rabka School.
Some have already been indicated above. More will be added as needed.
Thanks are due to people who contributed information, photographs, documents, etc., to add to this KehilaLinks site.
|For photographs of the town of Nowy Targ and specifically for a focus on the cemetery.
|Photographs of his Nowy-Targ grandmother, Eleonora (née LERMER) SCHIPPER and a brief history
|Yad Vashem Archives,
|Discovering other photographs of tombstones.
There have been visits to this page since 1 March 2017
9 March 2017Copyright Â© 2017
Updated 3 July 2017
Madeleine R. Isenberg
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