Entsiklopedicheskiislovar’ / nachatyi I. E.Andreevskim ; prodolzhaetsya pod
redaktsieyu K. K. Arsen’eva iF. F. Petrushevskago. Tom XVIIA.
Leipstig : F. A. Brokgauz ;S.-Peterburg : I. A. Efron, 1896. s.
[EncyclopedicDictionary /begun by I. E. Andreevskii ;
under the editorship of K. K.Arsen’ev and F. F. Petrushevskii.
Vol. XVIIA. Leipzig : F. A.Brockhaus ; St. Petersburg : I. A.Efron,
1896. p. 570-571.]
District capital of Vitebsk province,
nearLepel’ Lake and the Essa and Ul’yanka Rivers. Not far
frompresent-day Lepel’ is an ancient settlement , which bears
thename Stary i-Lepel’ (Old Lepel’); Lepel’ was
formerlyhere. In 1563 Russian troops burned Lepel’. In 1568
KingSigismund-August ordered a fortified castle built here. In
1805Lepel’ was made a district capital. Number of inhabitants
is6,797 (3,441 males and 3,356 females); Orthodox-2,391;
Schismatics(a)-96; Catholics-1,133; Protestants-180; Jews-2,966;
otherfaiths-31; nobility-148; clergy-32; prominent citizens
andmerchants-187; townspeople-4,599; peasants-1,683; other
socialestates-148. Two Orthodox churches; Catholic cathedral;
synagogue and4 Jewish prayer houses. Municipal 2-class school,
parochial schoolwith a girl’s section, primary school, Jewish
primary schoolwith a preparatory class. Municipal revenues in 1894
were 6,680rubles, and 6,600 rubles were expended, including 1,990
rubles fornonmunicipal administration, 890 rubles for public
education, 480rubles for doctors. One flour-mill, (at 50,000 rubles),
2 hullingmills, 1 brewery, 1 tobacco facotry. Hospital, 3 doctors,
Lepel’ district occupies 3,574 square
enter the southern part from Mogilev province, and theygradually
lower until the Western Dvina and form its steep banks.Among the
hills of the district it is possible to point out theKatarsa Hills,
which frame the Svecha River; then it is possible topoint out the
hills which are located between the town of Lepel’and the
village of Pyshno and are called "Pyshnogory" ("PyshnoHills").
Lepel’ district represents beautiful aeries ofsignificant hills
separated by rather large, clean lakes with mirrorsurfaces and
connected by narrow streams extending for many versts.The district is
washed by rivers emptying into the Western Dvina. Inthe south, near
the town of Lepel’, the waters of the Dneprbasin approach very
close to the waters of the Western Dvina basin.Even Peter I
considered connecti ng the Baltic and the Black Seas bymeans of the
Dvina and Dnepr Rivers. Paul I connected the BerezinaRiver by a canal
to the Ulla River, which flows into Lepel’district and empties
into the Dvina River (see Berezina System). TheSvyech and Osvyeya
empty into the Ulla River; the Ushach Riverempties into the Western
Dvina; the remaining rivers of the districtare insignificant. The
Ulla is navigable. Of the lakes the moresignificant ones are:
Lepel’ (see article), Cherstvyaty (11square versts), Yanovo (7 _
square versts), Ottolovo (8 squareversts), and others. Of the
marshes, which are spread out everywhere,the notable ones are: Rybno,
which surrounds Ahshukovo Lake, islocated 2 versts from Navlitsa
Lake, occupies up to 12 square versts;and Gryada Marsh, near Voron
Lake and up to 10 _ square versts. Thereare 2 springs with iron water
and 2 with sulphurous water. 116,790desyatinas (c) are under forest.
Of these forests 8,144 desyatinasbelong to the State Treasury; 185
desyatinas belong to the churches;107,150 desytinas belong to private
owners, including the 101,772desyatinas owned by the nobility; 1,011
desyatinas belong to thepeasants. There is no proper forestry. The
soil of the district isprimarily loam-sandy. There are 145,168
inhabitants (73,475 males and71,693 females); 106,282 Orthodox; 2,110
Schismatics, 15,870Catholics, 317 Protestants, 20,465 Jews, and 134
of other faiths.There are 5,319 nobility, 360 clergy, 815 prominent
citizens andmerchants, 22,941 townspeople, 112,312 peasants, 3,136 of
themilitary estates, 295 of other social estates. There are
88,400Belorussians, 4,500 Great Russians, 3,840 Latvians,
2,100Lithuanians, 20,465 Jews, 480 Germans, 25,200 Poles, 248
othernationalities. There are 14 small towns, 1,798 villages. The
mainoccupation of the inhabitants is farming. In 1894 there were
sown48,593 desyatinas in rye, 2,515 in wheat, 17,557 in oats, 15,296
inbarley, 136 in buckwheat, 4,182 in peas, 20 in lentils, 729 in
beans,10,708 desyatinas in potatoes. The inhabitants are occupied als
o incutting and hauling out timber, work on boats, making pitch and
tar,etc. The inhabitants of the towns of Bocheikov, Byeshenkovichi,
Ulla,Chashinkov are known as the best river pilots. Many go away to
workas navvies. Horticulture, truck farming, and apiculture are
notdeveloped. Cattle-raising is in a bad condition. There are
31,875horses, 23,470 head of cattle, 26,100 goats, 22,990 pigs.
Factoriesand plants are the following: 1 paper plant (at 40,000
rubles), 4hulling mills (at 15,800 rubles), 28 flour mills (at
302,500 rubles),10 distilleries (at 210,000 rubles). Only the town of
Byeshenkovichi(see article) has commercial significance. There are 4
peasantcommunal units, 18 peasant territorial communes. There are
23Orthodox churches. The Ministry of Public Education has 27
primaryschools with more than 700 students. The village societies
spend 6 _thousand rubles on them and pay the teachers 6,360 rubles.
There are23 parochial schools with 393 students. There are several
cheders andJewish schools. A. M. Sementovskii in the book
"BelorussianAntiquities" counts up to 400 burial mounds in
Lepel’ district.The remains of ancient castles were preserved in
the town ofGomel’ and 54 versts from Lepel’ on the left
bank of theTurovka River. See the literature on Vitebsk
A.F S. (A. F. Selivanov)
Iron waters of Vitebsk province, Lepel’ district,
near thevillage of Barkovshchina; only local inhabitants use
--Lake of Vitebsk province near the city of Lepel’ that
emptiesinto the Berezina system. The length of the lake is 12 versts,
itsbreadth from 250 to 1,400 sazhens (d). It is navigable only for
ashort distance. The average depth of the lake is 7 feet; the
bottomis sandy; the shores are high and steep. A fortified castle
stood onthe bank of the lake in antiquity; a church is now
(a) Schismatics refers to the
OldBelievers, who split off from the Orthodox Church in the
(b) A verst is 3,500 feet.
(c) A desyatina is 2.7 acres.
(d) A sazhen is 2.134 meters.
izdaetsya pod obshchieiredaktsiei K. K. Asrsen’eva.
Dvadtsat’ chetvertyi tom.Petrograd : Brokgauz-Efron, ca.1915. s.
encyclopedicdictionary /published under the general editorhip of K. K.
Arsen’ev.Twenty-fourth volume. Petrograd : Brockhaus-Efron, ca.
capital of Vitebsk province, near Lepel’
Lake, andclose to the Essa and Ul’yanka (Ulla) Rivers. 7,558
inhabitants(1910), of whom 63% are Jewish; 3 Orthodox churches and 1
Catholicchurch, 8 Jewish prayer houses. 7 primary schools; hospital.
14,600rubles in municipal expenditures (1910). In 1563 Russian
troopsburned Lepel’; in 1568 King Sigismund-August constructed
here afortified castle. In 1802 the town of Lepel’ became
theadministrative center of the district and in 1805 was converted
tothe district capital. In 1812 Lepel’ suffered from the
attacksof the French. In 1831 the inhabitants of Lepel’
participated inthe Polish uprising.-- Lepel’district --
Southernmost district ofVitebsk province. 3,401.6 square versts
(354,345 desyatinas). Lies onthe watershed of the basins of the
Western Dvina and Dnepr; numerouslakes connected among themselves by
streams, which as early as underPeter I gave rise to the thought
about creating here an artificialwater route connecti ng the Baltic
Sea with the Black Sea (SeeBerezina System, VI, 75). Of the lakes the
more significant ones areLepel’, Chersvyaty, Yanovo, Ottolovo.
Many marshes. Iron springs(see Lepel’ Waters). The soil is
sandy-loam. About 1/3 of thedistrict is covered with forests. In 1913
there were in the district(without the city) 190,700 inhabitants (56
souls per 1 square verst);this is the most thickly populated district
in the province. 82% ofthe population are Belorussians; then come the
Jews (12%), Poles,Lithuanians, Latvians, and others. The basic
occupation is farming:rye, oats, barley, peas, potatoes. Of the local
industries the morewidespread is forestry (cutting, hauling out,
rafting of timber,making pitch and tar); of seasonal work--navvies
and river pilots. Ofthe industrial enterprises the more significant
ones are 2 cardboardfactories and 2 grain mills. Local commerce (town
of Byeshenkovichi).The southwest corner of the district is crossed
for 17 versts by thePolyessk Railroad (Polotsk-Bagrationovka Line).
There are 163 primaryschools, of which 38 are parochial, 86 are
public, 27 are schools forliteracy, 10 are under the central
ministry, 2 are Jewish (1911). Inthe estimate for 1914 the
expenditures of the district rural councilwere 284,200 rubles, of
which 101,900 rubles were for publiceducation, 53,700 rubles were for
medical care. In the district thereare up to 400 burial mounds, and
near the town of Gomel’ are theremains of ancient castles.
Old Photo from Lepel