Preface
  1. Life is with People, The Jewish Little-Town of Eastern Europe, 1952, 1953 Mark Zborowski & Elizabeth Herzog (Forward by Margaret Mead) International Universities Press, Inc. New York, New York

  2. Life is with People, The Jewish Little-Town of Eastern Europe, 1952, 1953 Mark Zborowski & Elizabeth Herzog (Forward by Margaret Mead) International Universities Press, Inc. New York, New York, Page 32

Chapter 1
  1. Brief Galician History, Part 5: Seeking More Work--Emigration (written by Andreas Inhofner)

Chapter 2
  1. For a more "in-depth perspective", read the article "Eastern European Jewish Emigration Via The Port Of Hamburg: 1880-1914"

Chapter 3
  1. 1999 calculated inflationary value for $1500.00 in 1913 = $25,000 !
    Source is www.westegg.com/inflation.

  2. Article: Tarnopol (Encyclopedia Judaica)

  3. Morton Allen Ship Directory

  4. Article: "In search of my grandmother Chana, a graduated midwife"

Chapter 4
  1. Poland-Lithuania--defined by Jewishgenner Alexander Sharon, Calgary, AB (edited)

  2. THE NY TIMES ATLAS OF THE WORLD, 1940, 3rd edition

  3. This is an excerpt taken from a posting on www.jewishgen.org/Brody, written by Marjorie Stamm Rosenfeld (assisted byAndreas Inhofner). The material is no longer there but the author has additional information.

  4. This is an excerpt taken from a posting on www.jewishgen.org/Brody, written by Marjorie Stamm Rosenfeld (assisted byAndreas Inhofner). The material is no longer there but the author has additional information.

  5. Columbia Lippincott Gazetter of the World, 1931 with 1952 update

  6. Columbia Lippincott Gazetter of the World, 1931 with 1952 update

  7. Source: Where Once We Walked by Zachary Baker --"guide to Jewish Communities destroyed in the Holocaust"; published by Gary Mokotoff / Sallyann Amdur Sack

  8. For additional information on Frederick II, check out the following link: http://encarta.msn.com/find/Concise.asp?ti=03FD1000

  9. For additional information on Empress Maria Theresa, check out the following link: http://www.hapsburg.com/menu.htm

  10. For additional information on Catherine the Great II, check out the following link: http://www.ursulashistoryweb.f2s.com/CGREAT.HTM

  11. Source: http://www.kasprzyk.demon.co.uk/www/Decline.html

  12. The History of the Jews of Poland by Mike Rosenzweig, Ph.D. For a more complete background, read "Early History" - 11th century to 1800. Source: http://www.webinfonet.net/heritage/heritage.html

  13. Source: Encyclopedia Judaica (Supplementary Entries, pp 1325; includes references taken from Life is with People)

  14. This is an excerpt taken from a posting on www.jewishgen.org/Brody, written by Marjorie Stamm Rosenfeld (assisted byAndreas Inhofner). The material is no longer there but the author has additional information.

  15. Article by author-historian Adam Rosen--Part I "Introduction", Part II "Battle for Galicia"
    Binghamton Journal of History Spring 1998
    Contributors
    Binghamton University Department of History, 1998

Chapter 5
  1. Life is with People, The Jewish Little-Town of Eastern Europe, 1952, 1953 Mark Zborowski & Elizabeth Herzog (Forward by Margaret Mead) International Universities Press, Inc. New York, New York

  2. Life is with People, The Jewish Little-Town of Eastern Europe, 1952, 1953 Mark Zborowski & Elizabeth Herzog (Forward by Margaret Mead) International Universities Press, Inc. New York, New York

  3. Chapter II pgs 88-104--"From the Kheyder to the Grave"
    pp 91--"twilight hours in Kheyder during the winter hours are pleasant. The rabbi/melamed (teacher) goes to shul for afternoon and evening prayer. Candles are too expensive to light so the children sit in the darkness, close together on the benches at the table, or huddled near the oven for warmth ( called the pripichek) This is the hour for stories. "Crowding together against the winter cold and the fear of the wonders they are describing, they tell each other tales in which themes carried over from pagan myths jostle with folklore rooted in the Talmud."
  4. Life is with People, The Jewish Little-Town of Eastern Europe, 1952, 1953 Mark Zborowski & Elizabeth Herzog (Forward by Margaret Mead) International Universities Press, Inc. New York, New York

  5. pp 88--"entrance into the kheyder is a painful experience for the mere baby who is taken away from his mother's familiar presence to spend ten to twelve hours a day at study.
    And though the mother may weep, she would never oppose the commandment to teach Torah to a [big boy who is already three years old.]"
    "To ease the entry into the adult, masculine realm of study, a special assistant of the teacher will carry the child to and from school every day, until he is ready and able to go by himself."

  6. Frank Blitzer's autobiography Eyes on the Stars, 1999

  7. Life is with People, The Jewish Little-Town of Eastern Europe, 1952, 1953 Mark Zborowski & Elizabeth Herzog (Forward by Margaret Mead) International Universities Press, Inc. New York, New York

  8. pp 41--"as they (Jewish men) press homeward the shammes calls through the streets of the shtetl--
    A functionary of the synagogue, the shammes is a combination of sexton and beadle. He speaks with an authority more than his own, for when he calls "Jews to the bathhouse" he is summoning them to a comandment.
    The bath is like a Turkish bath and those who are prosperous enough to stop work early can plan to linger chatting in the steam, slapping themselves with "brooms" made of supple twigs and basking. For the others the ceremony must be brisk, since Sabbath is almost here".
  9. Frank Blitzer's autobiography Eyes on the Stars, 1999

  10. Life is with People, The Jewish Little-Town of Eastern Europe, 1952, 1953 Mark Zborowski & Elizabeth Herzog (Forward by Margaret Mead) International Universities Press, Inc. New York, New York

  11. pp 216 "No clear-cut distinction is made between religious and secular functions, since for the shtetl Judaism is not a [religion] but a way of life."
Chapter 6
  1. www.westegg.com/inflation

  2. Page from Gateway to the Great Lakes, 1982 Continental Heritage Press, Inc.
    I've attempted to contact the publisher to no avail. If anyone knows where they can be reached please advise.
  3. Gateway to the Great Lakes, 1982 Continental Heritage Press, Inc.

  4. Page from Gateway to the Great Lakes, 1982 Continental Heritage Press, Inc.
    I've attempted to contact the publisher to no avail. If anyone knows where they can be reached please advise.

  5. Gateway to the Great Lakes, 1982 Continental Heritage Press, Inc.

  6. Encyclopedia Britannica

  7. Encyclopedia Britannica

  8. Gateway to the Great Lakes, 1982 Continental Heritage Press, Inc.

  9. Gateway to the Great Lakes, 1982 Continental Heritage Press, Inc.

  10. Gateway to the Great Lakes, 1982 Continental Heritage Press, Inc.

  11. Gateway to the Great Lakes, 1982 Continental Heritage Press, Inc.

  12. Gateway to the Great Lakes, 1982 Continental Heritage Press, Inc.

  13. Picture from Gateway to the Great Lakes, 1982 Continental Heritage Press, Inc.

  14. I've attempted to contact the publisher to no avail. If anyone knows where they can be reached please advise.

  15. Picture from Gateway to the Great Lakes, 1982 Continental Heritage Press, Inc.

  16. I've attempted to contact the publisher to no avail. If anyone knows where they can be reached please advise.

  17. Taken Augst 17,1992 by my cousin, Rosalie Reiter De Witz visiting from Portland, Oregon. We traveled to Toledo to visit the "old neighborhoods".

  18. Picture from Gateway to the Great Lakes, 1982 Continental Heritage Press, Inc.

  19. I've attempted to contact the publisher to no avail. If anyone knows where they can be reached please advise.

Chapter 7
  1. $1500 then would be $26,431.17 in 2001. Equivalently, if you were to buy exactly the same products in 2001 and 1913 they would cost you $1500.00 and $85.13 respectively.www.westegg.com/inflation.

  2. Told to me by my cousin, Sadie Reiter Rubin

  3. Sybil Schaner Greenberg

  4. Chajcze/Ida, pronounced Hasha--Russian for the name Chana

  5. Told to me by my cousin Fanny Reiter Levy

Chapter 8
  1. Gateway to the Great Lakes, 1982 Continental Heritage Press, Inc.

  2. Zuker also spelled Zukor, Zucker, or changed to Sugar

  3. Efraim/Frank Reinstein's mother's family and maternal grandfather of Adolph Blitzer

  4. Norma Spitalny was the daughter of Phil Spitalny, founder and conductor in the 1930s of an all-girl orchestra

  5. Millie's second marriage; first husband was ?Trager, father to son Max

  6. Louis' first two wives--Chaya Kobert died giving birth to son , Boruch Moses; Yetta Wasserman died giving birth to daughter, Fanny Reiter.

  7. StocksandNews archives-"General Motors" article by Brian Trumbore, President/Editor

  8. Excerpt from "The History of the Jews of Poland" by Mike Rosenzweig, Ph.D

Chapter 9
  1. http://www.mtsu.edu/~baustin/holo.html

  2. Yvette Levy Levin letters

  3. Gateway to the Great Lakes, 1982 Continental Heritage Press, Inc.

  4. www.westegg.com/inflation

  5. Gateway to the Great Lakes, 1982 Continental Heritage Press, Inc.

  6. http://www.buyandhold.com/bh/en/education/history/2001/generalmotors.html

  7. Martin Gilbert, The Atlas of the Holocaust

  8. Robert Frazer, Jewish Gen Discussion Group digest - (rgfraser@iinet.net.au) 3/23/01#31

  9. http://www.mtsu.edu/~baustin/nurmberg.html

  10. http://www.mtsu.edu/~baustin/knacht.html

  11. Notes by Diane Samuels, author of the play, "Kindertransport"

  12. http://www.geocities.com/old_time_time/CCC.htm

  13. www.westegg.com/inflation

  14. Paul Silverstone - paulh2@rcn.com
    Date: Tue, 16 Jul 2002 22:53:20 -0400 - X-Message-Number: 36

Chapter 10
  1. Galicia Holocaust History by Isaiah Trunk, excerpt from: http://www.heritagefilms.com/POLAND2.htm Galicia District

  2. http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/WWII_Women/NewTimeline.html#1939

  3. PINKAS HAKEHILLOT--Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities, Vol II, Eastern Europe, pp 320-322, Yad Vashem--MARTRYS' AND HEROES' REMEMBRANCE AUTHORITY, JERUSALEM 1980

  4. Article, Toledo Calling, Vol 3, No. 3, Toledo, Ohio, Anna Kline Stauber, editor, April 1945

Home - Introduction - Prologue - Preface - Table of Contents - Chapter 1 - Chapter 2 - Chapter 3 - Chapter 4 - Chapter 5 - Chapter 6 - Chapter 7 - Chapter 8 - Chapter 9 - Chapter 10 - Guest Book - References


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