Nizhniy Studenyy, Ukraine Нижній Студений, Yкраïна
also known as: Alsóhidegpatak (HU), Nižný Studený (CZ), Nyzhnii Studenyi (RU), Studna (Yid)
48°08' N / 23°49' E
~ Introduction ~
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Nizhniy Studenyy was part of the Kingdom of Hungary (11th century - 1920 and 1938-1944) with the name of Alsóhidegpatak in Máramaros megye (county), next part of Czechoslovakia (1920-1938) with the name of Nižný Studený in Podkarpatská Rus (Sub-Carpathia), then part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1945-1991) with the name of Nyzhnii Studenyi and, since 1991, known as Nizhniy Studenyy, in the Mizhhirskiy rayon (district) of Zakarpats'ka oblast (county) of Ukraine.
In Yiddish, Nizhniy Studenyy was known as Studna.
Other spellings/names for Nizhniy Studenyy are Nižné Studené and Nižné Studené.
Nizhniy Studenyy is located about 14 miles NNW of Mizhhirya (Ökörmezõ).
Jews probably settled in Nizhniy Studenyy in the late 18th century.
In 1830, the Jewish population was 181, and in 1880, the Jewish population decreased to 124 (of a total population of 846).
By 1921, during the Czechoslovakian period, the Jewish population rose to 153. A number of Jews were engaged in agriculture and commerce, with 12 as merchants, eight were artisans, a few were farmers and one operated a flour mill.
With the Hungarian occupation of Nizhniy Studenyy in March, 1939, Jews were persecuted and pushed out of their occupations. In 1940-41, Jews from Nizhniy Studenyy were drafted into forced labor battalions and others were drafted for service on the Eastern front, where most died.
By 1941, the Jewish population had increased to nnn and it was at this time, about ten Jewish families without Hungarian citizenship were expelled to Nazi occupied Ukrainian territory, to Kamenets-Podolski, and murdered there.
The remaining Jews of Nizhniy Studenyy were deported to Auschwitz late May, 1944.
A great many of the Jews from Nizhniy Studenyy were murdered in Auschwitz and any survivors settled elsewhere.
In 1991, Nizhniy Studenyy had about 1,141 inhabitants and no Jews live there today.
Sources (portions): The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust, (2001) p. 897
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