Creating a resource for collaborative research
on the history of the Jewish community
in what is today Lyakhovichi, Belarus    

ShtetLinks

Shtetl Links: Lyakhovichi

 

Home Contact
 




Key Pages
Indices
Welcome
Documents
Photos
Biographies
Collections
Geography
History
Terms of Use
Copyright Info

NAVIGATION

Home
Contact Us!
JewishGen

Belarus SIG

ShtetLinks

This site is created as a way to further research and publication of materials on the history of Lyakhovichi.If you have been aided in your research and wish to contribute materials and resources to further our knowledge, contact Gary Palgon and ask how you can help.

This site is hosted at no cost by JewishGen, Inc., the Home of Jewish Genealogy. If you have been aided in your research by this site and wish to further our mission of preserving our history for future generations, your JewishGen-erosity is greatly appreciated.


Memoirs of Jewish Lyakhovichi and its surrounding communities

This section including histories of the Lyakhovichi Jewish community written as memoirs, reminisces, and local history, is part of our Biography section. Click on the "Biography" button in the left-hand column to read other articles in this section.

A Walk through My Devastated Shtetl
by Avrom Lev, 1952
translated from Yiddish by Dr. Neville Lamdan, copyright by Neville Lamdan 2007

               
Avrom Lev in 1951                          Neville Lamdan in 2006     

Introduction
Writing in Tel Aviv in about 1952, Avrom Lev has yet not come to terms with the fact that his home shtetl, Lechovich, has been brutally destroyed by the Nazis, together with virtually all the Jews who remained there during the War. He takes us on a “guided tour” of the town, ostensibly as he remembers it as a young man growing up before World War I. In reality, he is penning a moving testimonial to the many Jews he remembers from that period. In a tour de force, he manages to mention by name (or nickname) over 220 of them in the space of 50 pages of Yiddish, describing several individuals at length. He cannot comprehend how some of them went meekly to the Nazi slaughter without putting up any resistance. He is particularly saddened by those committed Zionists who failed to emigrate to Eretz Yisroel - and died.

In the process, he offers intriguing glimpses of Lechovich before 1914 – of Jews, balle-batim and bal-agoles, merchants and manufacturers, rich and poor, learned and illiterate, wise and naive, observant and less so (often from within the chassidic orbit). He recalls vividly events and places which impacted on him as a youngster – the agony of having one's hair cut, the ravages of a local quack-doctor, the nightly social gatherings at the post-office; the annual visits of the Koidanover Rebbe, the drama group, swimming in the river, scrambling up a mighty hillock just outside town He also reveals a traditional Jewish community being touched by modernity, secularism, Russification, Zionism, and radical politics, not to mention “big town” fashions and affectations. And unwittingly he knocks down various myths about the shtetl: some of the local Polish gentry were decently disposed towards Jews; Jewish toughs occasionally beat up local peasants; there were folk given to the bottle; not all women were faithful; a man could keep a gypsy girl; teenagers flirted deep in the woods; while ideological hot-heads were violent and capable of murdering their “enemies”.

Neville Lamdan,
Jerusalem

To Go to Other Pages of this Reminisce click:

My Devastated Shtetl, Part One You Are Here
My Devastated Shtetl, Part Two
My Devastated Shtetl, Part Three
My Devastated Shtetl, Part Four
My Devastated Shtetl, Part Five
Surname, Nickname, and Residents by Locale Index

Note from the webmaster - Bracketed notes are added for clarification by Dr. Lamdan; names were bolded on first appearance by the webmaster, divisions into Parts are by the webmaster

My Devastated Shtetl, Part One

Part One

Let's gather together hand in hand, all of us orphaned, saddened, crushed remnants of our splintered “nest” [home town] and begin our “Yizkor” walk. You ask: “From where to start?” What's the difference? The whole devastated “shtetl” [small town] is like a single wound which, wherever touched, gives you the same enormous pain.

We're beginning from the “Mizrach”, where one finds the real “balle-batim” [prominent Jews in Lechovich who, in this case, would have seats of honour in the “Mizrach” or “Eastern Wall” of a synagogue]. Here is the Market Place where, right in the corner, stands the two-storeyed stone house of our most affluent Jew, Reb Avrom Yaakov Kaplan, with a whole row of shops on the lower level.

Among the shop-owners is our warm-hearted Shloimke Rozovsky who, having been left an orphan from youth, became the sole provider for his family and therefore, even in his latter years, loving life and cheerful, he is still a father to his children. He is so hearty and full of gusto that on every occasion he is singing Zionist songs, giving expression to his strong “Love of Zion” - where he was not destined to go since in the Nazis' time, as a leader of the community, he paid with his life as a martyr. {Photo of Shloimke Rozovsky}

Here is the second two-storeyed stone house (in the Market Place), that of Reb Itshe Cohen – [who is known by] his nickname “Itshe the bandit”, although in his whole life he never harmed a fly on the wall. He came by that nickname only because, although a cohen [of the priestly tribe], he was quick to anger. His house was the decent “guest-house” in town, where itinerant preachers, cantors, travelers, Zionist speakers and propagandists were found, as well as brides and grooms who used to go there with their future spouses. And the encounters there were so very innocent, free of any tint of impurity, God forbid, as is usual in big-town hotels … Bal-agoles [carters, or horse and buggy drivers] had their pick-up stand there, taking their passengers to and from the railway. Between trips they used to grab a drink with a little something to eat – a piece of good gefulte fish [stuffed fish] or pickled herring which Reb Itshe's unassuming wife Chamme (Nechome)-Reizel had handily and tastefully prepared.

And everything (was done) without a lot of bother and scandal, God forbid. Only once a year, at Simchas Torah time [Festival of the “Rejoicing in the Law”], when the non-Jewish ruffians from the surrounding villages began to assemble for [military] conscription and found the “new recruits” from other nearby districts in Reb Itshe Cohen's guest-house, did a minor scandal break out from time to time, when the sorry, drunken louts became unruly and began to show some wild anti-Semitism. But they were soon silenced with the help of local Jewish fellows – butchers, carters, grooms, with Chaim-Azri'el at their head. Some used to drive straight into the frenzied roughs and mete out murderous blows with whatever came to hand.

Here is the third two-storeyed stone house that is like an “add-on” to Reb Itshe Cohen's guest-house. In the first storey of the house is located the “Monopol” [state liquor store] where embittered and forlorn souls seek consolation in a small flask of booze which they buy there. Upstairs, on the second storey, lives alone Reb Yisroel Mishkovsky, the town's “zakonik” [legal expert], the “Starosta” [Director] of the Jewish “Bourgeoisie” Administration [most Jews were classified as “petits bourgeois” in Czarist Russia]. The fortunes of the Jewish inhabitants very often depended on him: which of them will, or will not, go to the army; who will receive an inheritance; who will be granted the rights of an only son or a single bread-winner in a family after a father's death - and who will not. In general, the whole Jewish community is in Reb Yisroel Mishkovsky's hands, because he is a great expert in law. (It is said that) he can “reach the Czar himself”. Hence he is not dressed at all in a provincial fashion. A lanky Jew, cleanly and elegantly appareled, with a dressy hard hat even on weekdays, with a neatly trimmed little beard, a broad golden ring on his finger and a golden pince-nez on his nose.

Another two-storeyed building extends there, the continuation of Reb Yisroel Mishkovsky's house. It belongs to Reb Mich'l Dodes or Mich'l Agushes, a rotund, solid Jew, already of advanced years but still completely sturdy, always with a “bim” and a “bam” in the “sh'moine esre” [prayer composed of eighteen blessings], as is fit for a Chabad chossid.

Also here is a “guest-house” which his son, Dode (Dovid) runs. It is however much more modern than Reb Itshe Cohen's [place]. Christian guests often lodge there, such as magnates [landed gentry], inspectors and other state officials. Consequently, Dode was always cleanly dressed with a high stiff collar, even during the week - and he had even been seen without a hat. His wife Temme was a completely modern lady with a high coiffure, long earrings like bells, absolutely always powdered up and almost always with a cigarette in her mouth. And (what of) their older daughter, Hode? She is already a “super-moderne,” big-town “mademoiselle”!

However, their entire attentions are directed at their one and only son, Meir'ke – a fine young man with a curly head of hair, pink cheeks and a pince-nez on a neat little nose. Meir'ke had studied courses in a big town where he completed the “Opticians' [Academy]” in order to become an optician subsequently. He was the first to turn up in Lechovich on the High Holydays from the “big town” in a cap with a lacquered peak, making a big impression, you understand, among the young folk. With the onslaught of World War I, that warm family “nest” [unit] was also among the victims – and the very precious, ben yochid [only son] Meir'ke passed away before his time, leaving much grief among his friends and admirers.

Not far from Temme Agushe's stone house, as if cuddled up to Reb Idel Monye's two-storeyed house, stands Peretz Alezer's tailor-shop, built of wood. Peretz Alezer is a tall, handsome, broad-boned Jew with a black beard. He also wears a dressy hard hat, even on weekdays. (He is) the father of a tall, large robust son and an excellent prayer leader (in synagogue), especially on the High Holydays, when he used to pour out his soul in his smooth, heartfelt voice and transport with him even the biggest scoundrels, filling their hearts with belief and hope. Without regard to the fact that in his daily life, Peretz was a stutterer, no-one was his equal in (delivering) velvety, sweet Hebrew before the praying-stand. People argued vehemently about whether the wonderful transformation should be explained by the effect of the “awe of the community” [a Talmudic expression] or “know before whom you stand” [an admonition from the Mishnaic work, “Pirkei Ovos”]. All of us greatly missed Peretz when he left the shtetl and went off to America to his children. He traveled there because of his business difficulties, which even his fervent prayers could not resolve.

There stands in front of us the stone house of Reb Idel Monye, a saintly Jew, who cared ceaselessly for the health of his brother Jews. To that end, he actually founded in the shtetl the [so-called] “Hekdesh” [literally, a “religious foundation”], a kind of hospice for any poor and lonely (folk). Not without reason have we devoted a special chapter to this righteous man in our book. Very briefly, one could say of him that he was the “Angel Raphael” in human form. After his death, a cooperative bank was set up in the upper storey of his two-storeyed building and in the lower storey a road-house [an inn], which had nothing to do with people's health!

And there stands before us the shared building of Reb Leibe Kantorovich and Reb Yosef Bogin. The first is a fervent “Stoliner” chossid, in whose house was a place for the Stoliner chassidim in Lechovich after the revolt against the “dynasty” of the Lechovicher “Rebbes” [Chassidic Rabbis]. (It was) not an especially large “minyan”, [being made up] of important chassidim and God-fearing Jews, [imbued] with “flame and fire”. On the High Holydays, Succos [the Festival of “Tabernacles”] and Simchas Torah, the large dwelling of Reb Leibe Kantorovich was too crowded to contain the hundred or so “davenners” [people praying] and curious onlookers, [taken] by the enthused dancing and singing of those Stoliner chassidim. In particular, I cannot forget the sincere and dignified Jew, Reb Yitzchok Aron, the “melamed” [the cheder teacher] with his fine, silvery beard, when before the “hakoffes” [Procession of the Scrolls of the Law], he used to sit among his fellow chassidim before a little tumbler of spirits – not, God forbid, to get drunk, but only to be able to serve the Lord of the Universe with more devotion and enthusiasm. With his hoarse but sincere voice he used to sing the “Awm ani chawmo” (song) of the “Hoishannes” [part of the ritual on the festival of “Hoishanno Rabbo”], tapping his fingers on the table slowly, in time with the accompaniment of his “chaverim” [companions]: {Hebrew text of the “Awm ani chawmo” liturgical poem, with “prompts” in Yiddish}

The other partner (in the building), Reb Yosef Bogin, was also a chossid but, by contrast, a “Koidanover” [chossid], well-versed in worldly matters. (He was) a big flour-merchant who had links with the largest flour companies in Russia. Besides the Hebrew press, he also received a big Russian daily, (either) “Novoii Slavo” or “Virzhvevii Vedomosti”. He displayed a strong disposition towards Zionism and was the founder of the first “modern” cheder [religious school for young boys] in the shtetl. That cheder, by the way, caused not a few problems and “scandals” from the side of the local (old-fashioned) “melamdim” [cheder teachers].

While mentioning these two esteemed balle-batim, one should also not neglect Riva “di Almone” [the widow], who was well-known to all of us, and her charming daughter Shaindel with her husband Berl Postan, an intelligent young man who had taken the small shop below the stone house and sold soda water or, as we called it, “Seltzerske” [seltzer], mixed with good sour-cherry syrup or currant juice. After a heavy and greasy “cholent” [a dish generally eaten on the Sabbath], on a hot day, we really felt the taste of the paradise in that drink … you see, even without emptying the whole glass to the very bottom, the gas soon gives you a sharp clip in the nose, eliciting a deep and hearty belch. You quickly feel light in the soul – (it is) a real “life-saver” (“mechaye nefoshos”). Moreover, while the [soda] trade would go on Shabbes at full blast, Riva would not, God forbid, desecrate the Sabbath. Hence, instead of money, she used to take a something in pawn – a household teaspoon, or small scissors, or even a fork, on condition, you understand, that shortly after Shabbes they would all be redeemed for cash. There were also those who had an open credit with Riva and they could drink to their heart's content. Moreover, she did not wish that those so-called Shabbes-pleasures of a cold drink of [soda] water after cholent on a hot summer's day should denied even to complete strangers and thus everyone who chanced by profited from her goodness, through those “pawns”.

Here we take a turn right and stand before Mich'l Noah's house - a simple, plain (“one of the people”) Jew, who left dear, mild, pious children and grandchildren after him. Some of them are in Eretz Yisroel [the Land of Israel] and some are in America. Among them are devoted Zionists who are taking a productive part in the development of the Land. One of them is the Chaverah [“comrade”] Tzipporah Bat-Ami, who was to be found among the first in the ranks of “He-chalutz” [a pioneering youth movement] at the beginning of the Third “Aliyah” [wave of immigration to Palestine] and who straightaway assumed a prominent place in the Women Workers Movement in the Land (of Israel). Also her brother in America, M. S. Mallov, together with his wife, are very active on the development of our country, putting out great sums of money for it.

Not far from Mich'l Noah's house and the little house of his son Avrom, a really saintly Jew and a great God-fearer, stands the two-storey stone house, which faces forward, that of the Vinograd family - all fervent chassidim and important merchants of wax, pig's bristle and wood. Their merchandise even went in big shipments abroad, reaching as far as America. A small fellow, Reb Shlomo Vinograd or, as he was called: “Reb Shlomo Feivel's”, but a righteous Jew who was always ready to help another, despite the fact that he was not a very affluent man.

Although he himself was an ardent chossid and very much believed in the Stoliner Rebbes, he did not prevent his daughter, Gitel, from being a fervent Zionist. Nor did he stop his son Yitzchok from going on his free(-thinking) ways. His brother Boaz was also a staunchly devoted chossid of the Lechovicher Rebbe, Reb No'achke. Of all his brothers, Boaz was the biggest merchant and had large connections abroad. And really because of that, in contrast to his brothers, (Boaz) was elegantly fitted out, (also) with a hard hat – even his beard was well rounded off.

A bit further on from the Vinograd's stands a little wooden house, divided with a wall into two. In the back is a dwelling and in the front, looking out onto the market, is Reb Cheme (Nechemyah) Shaiyel's shop for cobblers' needs. He was known as an upright Jew. It was said of him that every Pesach [Passover] “he splits the sea”. On each seventh day of Pesach, he used to stand a trough full of water in his house. Then taking off his boots, slinging them over his shoulders, and striding barefoot in the direction of the trough with a stick in hand, he turned to his wife, Bashe – a dear, little, “kosher”, Jewish woman – with the words: “Bashinke, my wife, ask where am I coming from”. And when she did as her husband requested and asked: “Chemele, my husband, from where are you coming?”, he replied: “From Egypt!” Then she went on and asked him, according to the script which she remembered from previous years: ”And where are you going to, my husband?” He responded: “To Eretz Yisroel!” And then she called out and asked: “And what do you want to do, my husband?” – and he replied: “To split the sea!” … Then, without further thought, he started with the stick and gave a clout to the water in the trough and the “sea”, you understand, was “split”, just as Moishe Rabbenu [Moses, our Teacher] (did) to the Red Sea! (Oy, such) dear, naïve, kosher, Jews!!!

A little further (down) from them [Cheme and Bashe Shaiyel's] is the single-storey stone house of (Cheme's) brother, Reb Mordechai Shaiyel's, which is much better kept than his brother's. Besides his own business undertakings, which are not simple, he manages the shtetl's (public) “chest” in his place (that is funded) by the “candle tax” [a special tax imposed upon Jews], from which the salaries of the town's Rabbi and Dayonim [religious judges, sometimes assistant rabbis who ruled on certain issues] are paid. Although not at all wealthy himself, he had children who later became big and prominent merchants and also warm Jews. Of them, two are in Shanghai, while the daughter who stayed behind, Beroche, (was) a pious Jewess with a warm heart, ready to help anyone in need until the last day of her life when the accursed Nazis put her to death.

And there stands the Chazanovich's stone house – first the father's, Reb Yehoshu'o Chazanovich; and after that, his son Moshke's. Apparently both were clever Jews – but not so clever in planning their lives. For his whole life, Moshke was an ardent Zionist – but he got stuck in the shtetl until he perished.

And there is the stone house of Reb Leibe “Pelzel” [the fur-man, furrier]. (He was) a sturdy little Jew, a joyful chossid. However, his two sons, Yona and Yankel, although they went in their father's ways, were “caught in the act” [of stepping out of line]: They became fervently devoted Zionists and at every opportunity spoke Hebrew with their friends. However, (making) a bare livelihood was so hard that they did not even think about traveling to Eretz Yisroel, like their cousin Yosef Busel. They stayed in Golus [in the Diaspora] and died in the greatest misfortune.

And there is the long courtyard of the brothers Shimmel and Berl Berkovich, well-established market balle-batim, simple, down-to-earth Jews. One of them, Berl, had a daughter, Malke, who was a “God's prayer”. Darkly lovely, with a pair of blazing black eyes, full of energy, well brought up and also very educated. She was one of the leaders of the Socialist Zionist Movement in the shtetl. She would certainly have taken a leading place in the [Women's] Emancipation Movement even in a larger town [similar to the “Suffragette Movement” in England?]. She was, by inclination, a kind of Jewish Vera Zasulitsh or a Vera Figner [non-Jewish women's leaders]. In the end, she left the shtetl and went away to Switzerland. Her family who remained behind perished at Hitler's hands.

And not far from there stand the stone house of Botche “der Hoicher” [the “Tall”], a big merchant who even had business abroad, and the house of the Malavitzky's, merchants in pelts and wood. There is always tumult and noise in their home. They were continuing an argument over an inheritance, even though they were market balle-batim and had appearances to keep up!

And there is the little house of Libe “der Geller” [“the Red Head”], with a tiny (cod)fish shop (facing on) to the market. Opening the little door rang the bell (that was) a signal to the “saleslady”, busying herself inside the dwelling, that there was a customer there. Or she could sit completely quietly by herself because customers very seldom come and the bell seldom rings. The whole little shop, you know, is only a sideshow while Libe's husband resides the whole year round in the Crimea where he makes a decent living. He was a very bashful person and when he came home to his wife and his one and only son, Lippe, for Pesach or the Yomim Nawro'im [High Holydays], one almost did not notice him, either in the market or in shul [synagogue]. As silently as he came [to town], so he departed for his distant parts. Oy! Why did he not take away his wife and son with him? Simple – he could not separate them from their little shtetl.

And there on the street-corner is the home of Reb Zundel Gedalyo's Karelich, a melamed and a great scholar, who did not understand [anything written in] a non-Hebraic script [literally: in a Goyyish letter] and [for whom] speaking a simple “Goyyish” [Russian] was [ like] “splitting the Red Sea” [a virtual impossibility]. Once the town constable apprehended his wife, Tzippe, for some “crime” against the law in their little tailor-shop – and he, her husband [Reb Zundel Gedalyo's], raced to rescue her from Goyyish hands. However, he could not reason with the constable and when the latter turned to him with a question: “Who are you?” he replied briefly: “Tzippe, mai muzh” [muzh means a mouse in Russian], which should have meant “I am Tzippe's husband” … Hence, God had blessed him with sons who knew fluent “Goyyish” really well – both were good “external” (college) students, one of whom later became an important doctor. Before he became a doctor, he was one of the leaders of the Socialist Zionists' Party, a friend of Malka Berkovich. He himself, a sturdy, solid fellow, often used to come out with a theory that one also had to take part in “practical” work, whereas his opponents in the Bund Party used, in discussion, to incline to “manual” work – and would get a “double portion” [a vigorous reply] from him. - Blessed be your memory, dear, good-natured friend, Yudel Karelich, who with your diligence and energy was a model for our shtetl youth who aspired, like you, to culture and education. There, on the opposite street corner, is the large house of Reb Pinye Gavze, a chossid and a great God-fearing Jew. He could serve as a model for wealthy Jews, both near and far, of how fortune [literally mazel – luck] plays with an individual. Actually, he was a little fellow, Reb Gavze. At the beginning [he was] a big pelt merchant, (with business) reaching as far as foreign lands (and) a home full of everything good. Anyone who has not seen how money was distributed at his home, at the banquet for Purim [the Festival deriving from the “Book of Esther”], with the customary pile of large platters that stood on the table filled with all kinds of coins, copper and silver, has not seen how tzedokke [charity] is copiously handed out. And the banquet itself? A real banquet “fit for kings”. And suddenly this little fortune took a turn [for the worse] and Reb Pinye was a pauper. After his death he left a home full of distress. Some of his surviving children were dispersed over the big, wide world, searching a livelihood, and some perished with the remaining Jews in the shtetl [in World War II].

Not far from Reb Pinye Gavze's house, steps lead to Leibel Avrom-Yitzchok's. A happy-go-lucky fellow – making a living, not making a living. A Yiddish joke, thanks be to God, is always to be had …

Click here to go to My Devastated Shtetl, part 2

* * *

 



Important Notes about This Page

All names on this page were included in Surname Index Nov 2009

Find any name on this page by hitting "control F" on your keyboard and typing in the name.

Find any name anywhere on this website by going to the Google Search bar and typing the name immediately before this phrase
site:http://www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org/lyakhovichi/

from the word "site" to the slash after lyakhovichi (just cut and paste it into your browser)



Lyakhovichi street

Lyakhovichi's street of stone buildings "Market Square" Here is the second two-storeyed stone house, that of Reb Itshe Cohen – his nickname “Itshe the bandit”, although in his whole life he never harmed a fly on the wall. He came by that nickname only because, although a kohen, he was quick to anger. His house was the decent “guest-house” in town, where itinerant preachers, cantors, travelers, Zionist speakers and propagandists were found, as well as brides and grooms who used to go there with their future spouses. And the encounters there were so very innocent, free of any tint of impurity, God forbid, as is usual in big-town hotels … Bal-agoles [carters, or horse and buggy drivers] had their pick-up stand there, taking their passengers to and from the railway. Between trips they used to grab a drink with a little something to eat – a piece of good gefulte fish [stuffed fish] or pickled herring which Reb Itshe's unassuming wife Chamme (Nechome)-Reizel had handily and tastefully prepared.

 

Lyakhovichi's Stoliner Shul, part of a warehouse on Market Square, owned by Bogin and Kantorovich

And there stands before us the shared building of Reb Leibe Kantorovich and Reb Yosef Bogin. The first is a fervent “Stoliner” chossid, in whose house was a place for the Stoliner chassidim in Lechovich after the revolt against the “dynasty” of the Lechovicher “Rebbes”. ... not an especially large “minyan”, [made up] of important chassidim and God-fearing Jews, [imbued] with “flame and fire”. On the High Holydays, Succos and Simchas Torah, the large dwelling of Reb Leibe Kantorovich was too crowded to contain the hundred or so “davenners” [people praying] and curious onlookers, [taken] by the enthused dancing and singing of those Stoliner chassidim. ... The other partner, Reb Yosef Bogin, was also a chossid but, by contrast, a “Koidanover”, well-versed in worldly matters.


Each of these young people appears in the remembrances of Avrom Lev
From right to left: Malke Berkovich, Meir Epstein, Mala Brevda, Faye Khurgin, Avigdor Greenspan, and laying down, Dr. Yudel Karelitzky.

Malke Berkovich ...One of them, Berl, had a daughter, Malke, who was a “God's prayer”. Darkly lovely, with a pair of blazing black eyes, full of energy, well brought up and also very educated. She was one of the leaders of the Socialist Zionist Movement in the shtetl.
Meir Epstein ...However, their entire attentions are directed at their one and only son, Meir'ke – a fine young man with a curly head of hair, pink cheeks and a pince-nez on a neat little nose.
Mala Brevda ...it was always difficult for outsiders to make out who was the father or the grandfather, the mother or the grandmother, the married daughters or the daughters-in-law. ... And then one could not but notice that everyone's faces were fair and fine – especially the face of the younger daughter, Mala (Malka) with her constant smile.
Faye Khurgin One of them, Faye Churgin, an extremely gifted young lady, was very popular among the shtetl's young people. Wherever there is a simche [celebration], she is there with her Zionist songs which she finishes up by collecting money for the Keren Kayemet le-Yisrael [the Jewish National Fund].
Dr. Yudel Karelitzky Before he became a doctor, he was one of the leaders of the Socialist Zionists' Party, a friend of Malka Berkovich. He himself, a sturdy, solid fellow, often used to come out with a theory that one also had to take part in “practical” work, whereas his opponents in the Bund Party used, in discussion, to incline to “manual” work – and would get a “double portion” [a vigorous reply] from him.