SCUCYN

Jewish Research in Lida Uezd

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Alternate names: Scucyn and Шчучын [Bel], Szczuczyn [Pol], Shchuchin and Щучин [Rus], Shtutchin and שטשוטשין  [Yid], Ščučyn, Ščiutinas [Lith], Szczuczyn (Novogrudok), Szczuczyn Nowogródzkim, Szczuczyn Litewski. Belarus: 53°37' N, 24°44' E. 37 miles E of Grodno, 30 miles SW of Lida in Hrodna Voblast of Belarus as Scucyn district center. 2010 population was nearly 15,000. [Not Szczuczyn, Poland (Łomża gubernia, near Białystok although both towns were called "Szczuczyn, Poland" between the WWI and WWII. Jewish population: 1,356 (in 1897), ~2,000 (in 1930). 

 

The first known official mention of Scucyn is 1436, but the settlement dates from 1537, when Scucyn was mentioned in the Book of Acts of the Lithuanian Metrica (the Book of Lithuanian vital records), held in the Government Archive in Lithuania. Ownership of Scucyn passed from noble Radziwiłł family, then the Drutskiya-Liubetskis, the Scipions, and others. In the 15th–18th centuries, Scucyn became a member of the Lida council of the Vilnius voivode. In the first half of the 17th century, Scucyn was governed by the marshal of the Lithuanian principality, Scipio de Campo. Scucyn was an average-sized privately owned village in terms of population.

A Catholic Monasterial Order was established in 1726 by resolution of the Sejm. The Board of Scucyn was one of the biggest in Belarus. Scucyn was subject to ruin and ravage more than once in its history, the biggest during the North War, when the town was seized by the Swedish king Karl XII. After the third partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795, Scucyn, became a part of the Russian Empire. In June 1812 Scucyn was occupied by French troops and in 1915 by the German Kaiser. In 1919, the Red Army attempted to seize Belarusian land by taking the railroad line. However, superior defense forced the Red Army back.

 In 1939, Western Belarus, together with Scucyn, went under the control of the Soviet authorities. In World War II, Scucyn was occupied by German troops. During the Nazi occupation from June 25, 1941 until July 13, 1944 the Nazi forces killed about 2180 Jews from Scucyn ghetto, the majority killed on May 9-10, 1942.

Until the collapse of the Soviet Union, Scucyn was a home of one of the biggest Soviet air bases going back into 1941.

Resources:

·          Jewish Cemetery: http://www.iajgsjewishcemeteryproject.org/belarus/scucyn.html

·         Sefer zikaron le-kehilot Szczuczyn, Wasiliszki, Ostryna, Nowy-Dwor, Rozanka (Tel Aviv, 1966) 

·         LitvakSIG

·         JewishGen Belarus SIG

·         Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego (1880-1902), XI, pp. 864-865: "Szczuczyn" #1. http://www.polishroots.org/slownik/szczuczyn.htm

·         Shtetl Finder (1980), p. 89: "Sh'chuchin, Stutchin".

·         Pinkas HaKehilot, Poland, Vol. 8 (2005), pp. 621-625: "Szczuczyn".

·         Encyclopedia of Jewish Life (2001), p. 1276: "Szczuczyn (II)".

·         Еврейская энциклопедия (1906-1913), "Щучин, местечко".

·         Photos of Scucyn. http://www.belarusguide.com/cities/scucyn.html

·         Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scucyn

·         town images http://schuchin.narod.ru/gallery.html



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