Researched & Authored By: Saul Zeichner

27 November 2000

Revised 3 November 2010


Hereditary family names developed at different times for different groups of people. The Chinese, for example, had hereditary family names dating back to 4th century, before the Common Era. Scandinavian countries developed mandatory family names as recently as mid-1800s (Kagnaoff, 1977). Jewish family names became more common in the 10th and 11th century as more Jews moved to the cities (Kagnaoff, 1977). The Jews of Spain, Portugal, and Italy had hereditary family names starting in the 14th century.

In 1781 Emperor Joseph II of Austria promulgated the Edict Of Toleration for the Jews, which established the requirement for mandatory hereditary surnames. The Jews of Galicia did not adopt family names until 1785. Family names were then required throughout the Austrian Empire by the year 1787, with the exception of Hungary (Kaganoff, 1977 & Rottenberg, 1977). The great bulk of the Jews in Germany and Eastern Europe continued to follow the tradition of using the personal name plus the father’s name (patronymic system). For example, Yisrul ben Zalman, Avraham ben Zevi (Rottenberg, 1977).


In Galicia the name a family received was often determined by the size of the registration fee that a particular family could afford to pay. Those families who were wealthy and/or could afford to pay a large fee received names that in Gerrman either denoted some form of wealth or related to something pleasant. For example, a precious metal like gold in Goldstein, or a flower like rose in Rosenthal. A lesser sum paid woud get a name based on more common items like Stahl (steel) or Eisen (iron). Those who were poor and could pay the lowest fee received names often related to nonsense syllables (Rottenberg, 1977). Most Jewish surnames were derived from one or more of the patterns listed in Table 1(Kaganoff, 1977).



P Patronyms-The most common form of surname. Names
are based upon those of the faher such as Aronson (son of Aaron).The ending -wicz or -witz designates, son of.
G Local Place Names-names based upon the name of a local city, town or place or place; such as, Rottenberg (a city in Germany).
O Vocational- names based upon a person’s vocation; such as, Schneider (Tailor)., Becker (baker), Fleisher (butcher)
H Family Symbols and/or Signs-names based upon family symbol or a sign that hung at or by the home; such as, Rothschild (red shield).
A,F Fanciful Names - Names that were imaginatively and/or assigned by clerks - Artificial names.
AN Animal Names - Derived from animals such as Lowe, Loeb
(from Judah the Lion which became Judah Lowe or Loeb)
D Names Describing Personal Characteristics-names; such as, Klein(small), Gross (large), Weiss (white)
M Names Derived From Feminie Names or Words - Often from Hebrew such as Bruck (Ben Rabbi Akiba); Levy (priests); or Rabbbinic in origin.
L Names From Acronyms or Denoting a Lineage-often from Hebrew; such as, Bruck (Ben Rabbi Akiba), Levy (priests)
JO An Ornamental Name Origin
U A name whose origin is unclear

Since Jews often had to move from one country to another, their surnames names often changed as they were translated from one language to another. For example, a Jew may have had the name Weiss. It means white in German, but would become Blanco in Spain, Feher in Hungary, etc. (Kaganoff, 1977).


L One who is a descendant of Abraham (Smith, 1956).
F German for eagle stone. An artificial name imaginatively invented or assigned by a clerk (Beider, 2004).
O, F The translation from German is a good deal so it my signify someone who gives you a good deal )Langenscheid Editorial Staff, 2000). However, Beider, 2004 reports that the name means all kinds of things. It could be an occupational name for a handyman or a name fancifully invented.
O From German ‘a good deal.’ Someone who gives a good deal.
Apfelberg, Appleberg, Appelberg
G Name meaning apple mountain or hill. May have derived from area in which family lived. (Rottenberg, 1977).
G A German geographic name mostly one from Hessen or Bavaia. (Beider, 2004)
D German word meaning sincere, candid, frank, open, honest, upright, straight forward (Betteridge, 1978).
F German word meaning oyster (Betteridge, 1978).
Axelrod, Axelrad
P Originally a first name appearing in the Middle Ages. Variant forms are Axeldar, Axelrood, Achselrad. Some explain the name as an inverted form of Alexander. Others see it as the German name Axel with various elaborations. Another explanation offered is that the name means shoulder or wheel (Achel and Rad in German) and is a reference to the circular badge that Jews were forced to wear on their shoulders. While all these theories are interesting, they do not offer a clear answer (Kaganoff, 1977).
G German word meaning path or road. Applied to a person it probably means someone who lived by a path or road (Klatt and Golze).
U Original spelling is Bajdaf avariant of Bajdof and is of unclear etymology (Beider, 2004)
O, G Only found Balk-beam or timber (Smith, 1973). Beider defines it as someone who sold beams (Beider, 2004)
L Ashkenazic name common in Galicia, taken from the Hebrew acronym for “ben Rabbi Schmuel.” (Rottenberg, 1977).
G, L Abbreviation for the Hebrew, ben rabi levi meaning son of Rabbi Lieb (or Levi) (Beider, 2004). Someone from the Town of Bar in the Ukraine. The town was the property of Bona Sforza, 16th Century Queen of Poland, who was born in the town of Bari, Italy (
P,D,O Patronymic or East Ashkenazic nickname for Baranov, meaning ram. Given to a forceful or lusty man or else a shepard. (Hanks and Hodges, 1998)
P and/or L A form of bar aron, son of Aaron; indicates priestly descent (Kaganoff, 1977).
L or G Possibly from Bart, a descendant of Bart. Field a dweller in an open tract of arable land or open country, not fenced (Smith, 1973).
G English habitation name from any of the numerous places so called from Old English bere+tun, enclosed settlement, outlying grange (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
F, O Found in many areas of Galicia including Kolomea. German for cup, artificial name (Beider, 2004). Jewish origins unclear and may be same as German origins, an occupational surname for someone who turned wodden goblets or worker with pitch to make them water tight (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
P Common in Galicia. Patronymic from Yiddish masculine name Ber, meaning bear.(Beider, 2004)
O,D,F German for one who hunts with trained falcons, a falconer (Smith, 1988). Beider lists the meaning as wicked and refers the reader to Beisser from the German word for to bite (Beider, 2004). Speculating this could be from a personal characteristic or a name fancifully invented.
G or P As a place of origin, “one coming from Berg”, a hilly place. As a patronymic, the Hebrew Barukh was often transformed into Berge, Berg, Bergman (Kaganoff, 1977).
A,P Artifical surname common in all Galicia. It is the German word for amber. It can also be a patronymic surname, someone whose name is derived from a masculine given name, Ber. Yiddish meaning bear and is a descendant of a person named Berko or Berish, a miminutive for Ber.(Beider,2004
O A form of the name Bass-German for viola or double bass. Probably an occupational name for someone who played one of those instruments (Beider,2004).
D,F German for a beaver (Beider, 2004). Could be a name based on someone with prominent front teeth, a personal characteristic or a name fancifully invented.
G From the German Biege, “dweller on or near a hill.” (Smith, 1953).
O or A Either from Bickel, the German for pick-axe and denotes someone who used this tool in his work. Or an ancronym for bene yisrael kedoshim leadonai, “the children of Israel are holy unto Gxx” (Kaganoff, 1977).
A H An artificial surname from the German for pear tree or could be a family symbol or sign or ornamental durname. (Beider, 2004), (Kaganoff, 1977), (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
G Birn is German for pear. Birnbaum is a pear tree. Berg is German for mountain. Meaning is proably one who lives near or came from near a pear-shaped mountain. (Smith 1973)
O German for one who gathered alms in the town; one who worked for another on a farm (Smith, 1988)
O German for one who makes barrels. Variant of Beutner (Jones, 1990)
O, G A variant of the English name Blades, a metronymic occupational name for cutler from the plural genitive singular of Middle English blade or cutting edge, sword. Also a habitation name from a place of uncertain location and etymology (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
O German for one who worked with tin, a tensmith, (Smith, 1973)
D A name given to a pale person from German for pale (Hanks and Hodges, 1998)
F Derived from the surname Blitz, an artifical name possibly assigned by a clerk. German for lightening or flash (Beider, 2004).
G From the Slavic vlach, “foreigner”. Originated when Jews from central Europe migrated into Poland and were given the name. When they returned to Germany, the name was Germanized to Bloch (Kaganoff, 1977). This surname existed in Germany in the 17th Century and is a form of Wloch the Polish spelling meaning one from Italy (Beider, 2004).
D German and French to describe a person with fair or flaxen hair or complexion (Smith, 1973). A blonde (Jones; 1990 and Beider, 2004).
G Someone who came from the town of Bochnia from the Polish spelling of the name Bochenski (Beider, 2004).
F Common in all Galicia including Kolomea. I made up name meaning brown or tan from the German (Beider, 2004).
O, G One who came from Brette or Bretagne. Bretzler is a pretzel maker (Smith 1973, Jones 1990)
O or G Several possible meanings. Literally it means a board or plank tailor. Occupationally it becomes a board sawer. It can also mean a tailor from Brett (Smith, 1973; Jones, 1973)
F, U Feld in German is field, but the word Brod is not in the German dictionary, nor was the name in any reference works. Perhaps it was originally Brot for bread, but then it has no sensible meaning unless it is a fanciful invented name (Langenscheit Editorial Board, 2000). It is German for Bread + filed, a fanciful name of unknown origin (Beider, 20004).
G Dweller at the fort or fortified place, one who came from burgh(fort), the name of many places in Germany and England- one who came from Burg. (Smith, 1988)
U German, Dutch-Flemish and English. A variant of the name Burger. Status name for a freeman of a town, especially one who was a member of the governing council. However, as a Jewish surname, the reass for its adoption are uncertain (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
F Possibly from the Spanish for donkey. German equivalent would be Esel (Random House, 1983).
L The most common surname among European Jews: some 2 to 3 percent of all Jews have this name or some variation of it. The name usually indicates a family claiming descent from Aaron, the first high priest (Kohen). (Rottenberg, 1977) Priests are generally regarded as members of a hereditary caste descended from Aaron, brother of Moses. This is not true of all Jews with this name since many Jews when being faced with drafting into the Russian Army changed their surname to Cohen because members of the clergy were exempt from service.(Hanks & Hodges, 1998)
It is a family name given to jews living in Ukraine. The origin of the name comes from a village by the name Choron near the little town of Seiny. In the past Choron was named Chorazyce and today is Kalwaria. In Polish the meaning is bearer of (1) mail or announcements or (2) the one used to carry the coffin of dead people. (Beider, 1993).
L Descendant of Dan, pet form of Daniel, (judged of god) (Smith, 1953).
P Probably Ukrainian for son of Daniel (Smith 1988)
L The son of David (Commander, beloved, friend) (Smith, 1953).
O May have been spelled Dauer. If so, it is one who prepares cordovan leather, one who is useful, (Smith, 1973)
G Yiddish derfl, the diminuitive of dorf meaning a village, one who lived in the village (Hanks and Hodges, 1998)
O, L or D A descendant of Daymond (day, protection); dealer in diamonds (Smith, 1973)
A, D Either an artifical surname or a personal characteristic surname from the root Dick. It is German for thick describing ones physical appearance or mental alertness. (Beider, 2004,). Ticker is an alternate spelling.
G, U The root of the name may be related to the City of Dunston in England (Smith, 1973). It could mean steam, mist, haze from the German(Beider, 2004).
G, O German eben meaning plain dweller. Literal translation from the German is even stone. (Langenscheid, 1958). Could be someone who deals in even stones for example paving stones or one who lives near even stones or a plain (Smith, 1973).
O, G The literal translation from the German is eber meaning wild boar and sohn meaning son, so literally it means son of wild board (Langenscheid Editorial Staff, 2000. This could be a fancifully invented as were some Jewish surnames or a personal characteristic of the son of someone as strong or untamed as a wild boar. In either case it is a patrronymic form of a surname because of the sohn similar in form to Mendelsohn, son of Mendel (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
Edelstein O, M German for noble stone, one who deals in precious stones (Smith, 1973), Jewel (Jones, 1990). It was probably one of the expensive names purchased from the authorities (Kaganoff, 1977)
L, G Derived from the name Eigen, from a rabbinic family existing since 17th Century. Also from the town Ege. In Czech called Cheb (Beider, 2004).
A Common in all Galicia. German for Unicorn.(Beider, 2004)
JO German for engel, angel and berg for mountain or hill. Ornamental name. (Beider, 2004; Hanks and Hodges, 1988).
Engler (dd>A An artifical surname related to the name Egel, German for Angel (Beider, 2004)
D, F The literal meaning in German of the two parts of the name are erbse (pea) and haut (skin). One speculation if that is the actual meaning, then it could derive from two sources. It may apply to someone with greenish cast to their complexion or it could be a fanciful name that was created (Klatt and Golze, 1958).
H or P or A House No. 62 in Frankfurt bore the sign of the Falke, falcon or hawk, and some Falks derive their name from that source. In addition, Jews called Joshua (Yehoshua) adopted Falk as the Kinnui (secular first name) in the forms of Falk, Valk, Walk, Wallik, Wallich. However, we are not certain as to whether these mean falcon since the association between falcon and Joshua is not clear. (One researcher states that just as a falcon circles its prey, so Joshua circled and explored the Holy Land before swooping down on it. This is an amusing, but far fetched explanation.) Finally, some derive Valk from an acronym of veahavta lereakha kamokha, love thy neighbor as well as thyself. (Kaganoff,1977).
P The son of Feodor, Ukrainian-Russian form of Theodore meaning gift of God.Variations are Fedorenko, Fedorchuk, Fedoruk (Smith, 1988).
Artifical name for the German, refined gold. May be an occupational surname for someome who refined gold, not mentioned in Beider. (Beider, 2004)
G,O,F German literal meaning is felsen (rock) stein (stone). It could be someone who lives near a rocky or stony area. It could be somone who deals in stone. It could be a nonsense type name with two different words with the same meaning. (Betteridge, 1978, Smith, 1988.
G German for a dweller at a distant stream or a swampy stream. (Smith, 1988)
Feuer, Feuermann
P A name selected by one called Uri or Meir, signifying light or fire in German. Feurerman would be the man who brings light or lights the fire.(Kaganoff, 1977).
F or M Finkelstein is the Yiddish for Pyrite, a mineral which, according to folklore, brought good luck and was, therefore, selected as a family name. A second possibility is that it is a matronym from Finkel, a popular name for Jewish women in medieval Germany. Finkelster is probably a variant of Finkel or Finkelstein .(Kaganoff, 1977)
P From the Yiddish masculine name Fishl derived from the Yiddish for little fish (Beider, 2004).
O, L From modern German, fisch or Yiddish fish, selected either as an occupational name for a catcher or seller of fish. Because of its association with the Hebrew given name Yona, Jonah and Efraymm Ephrain. Jonah for his being swallowed by a great fish and Ephraim because he was blessed by his father Jacob with the words, veyidgu larov. “Let them grow into a multitude” the verb yigdu containing the root letters of the Hebrew dag or fish (Hanks and Hodges, 1998.
to be determined
G From Friedland, in Upper Silesia, or from Markisch-Freidland, in Prussia.(Kaganoff, 1977).
L From Yiddish Frenkl or Bavarian German Frank(e)l. It is diminutive of Franconian (Franconia is a province in Germany). This appellation appears as a Jewish name in the 17th century taken by descendants of two scholars from Swabian town of Wallerstein; Moses ha-Levi Heller and Aaron Heller.(Beider, 2004)
P,D Literal meaning is man of peace (Jones, 1990). Patronyms for Shelomo (Solomon) or shalom. There were many European countries in which it was forbidden to assume Hebrew names as Family names. By selecting names like Fried or Friedman which were good German words the Jews could still preserve the meaning of Solomon and shalom (Kaganoff, 1977).
G, O or D There are two different spellings of this name, pronounced the same, but none with a single ‘Z’ as in Friez. I suspect that Friez is a variant of either Fries, Friese, or Friesz. The first two spellings are German, Jewish, or Swedish. They are ethnic names of someone from Frisia. The name of this region is ancient and of uncertain etymology. The most plausible speculation derives it from Indo-European root prei to cut with reference to the dykes necessary for cultivation of low-lying land. Occupational name for a builder of dykes and dams. Friesz is a diminuitive of Frederick meaning peace and power. My suspcion is that it is related to the former and not the latter spelling. (Hanks and Hodges, 1998). Beider translates it as fabric so it may be an occupational name for one who sells fabric (Beider, 2004).
D Nickname for someonewho is a companionable person (Hanks and Hodges, 1998)
F or D The German equivalent of the English name of Fox. It may have denoted a cunning individual or been given to someone with red hair or some other anecdotal reason. Some Jews Anglicized the name and added a cognate to make it Fuchsman or some variant of that to avoid association with the slang English venacular word “f---” (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
F Pfund in German, Funt in Yiddish and means pound (Beider, 2004).
O In German, a setzer is a typesetter (Klatt, 1958).
D, F Found in Kolomea. From the German meaning passable (Beider, 2004. It could be a name that reflects a personal judgment, someone is passable or one that is caprisiously assigned.
O Hebrew word for vine. Name was assumed by wine merchant. (Kaganoff, 1977)
M Hannah becomes in Yiddish the affectionate Hene or Hendel. Since the Russian alphabet has no letter h it is always replaced with a g and among Russian Jews Hendel becomes Gendel. (Kaganoff, 1977).
F, JO German for gold. Could be an ornamental name, but most likely it is an assigned artificial name. (Beider, 2004).
O or F In German, gold kingdom or empire (Klatt and Gloze, 1958). Beider supports this conclusionwith a definition of someone who is rich in gold, thus a gold kingdom (Beider, 2004).
D Polish meaning humpbacked from Garbaty, also spelled Horbaty (Beider, 2004).
O, F The name is derived from the root name of Goren and Shtein or Stein. It is a Jewish name Gore from an altered form of Horn since the Russian lacks an ‘h’ and laters the ‘h’ in borrowed words to ‘g’. In Israel the name has been reinterpreted by folk etymology as being from Hebrew, threshing floor. This is really not etymologically or semanticaly related (Hanks and Hodges, 1998). When looked-up under the name Horn, it states that Horn is a Jewish name possibly referring to the shfar blown during some holidays or strictly an ornamental name. Stein meaning stone or rock together makes it probably either an ornamental name or an invented name (Hanks and Hodges, 1998). Beider lists the name spelled Gorenshejn with many spelling variants (Beider, 1993).
A,P An articifical surname from the German for God’s love or a patronymic surname from the German Christian name Gottlieb or from Yiddish Gotlib (Beider, 2004)
German, house name from a house distinguished by the sign of gryphon. Nickname for a grasping man, the gryphon in folk etymology having come to be associated with the German greifen, to grasp or snatch. Jewish is of uncertain orign, but possibly related to greifen (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
Grinberg, Gruenberg
G Dweller on or near a green hill or mountain. (Smith, 1953).
To be determined
Grunstein also Gruenstein and Greenstein
G, O German for one who lives near a green mountain (Jones, 1990). Literal translation from the German is green stone or rock (Langenscheid, 1958). May also mean one who lives near or sells green stones.
F,U In German, green paper (Klatt and Golze, 1958) German for green leaf (Beider, 2004).
D German for intensely looking, a personal characteristic name (Beider, 2004)
F Only word that comes close is german word haber, to have or possess, Betteridge, 1978)
O From the English for one who cultivates the soil with hoe or hack, maker of hacks (Smith, 1953). Also means hachet, axe, heel or pickaxe (Beider, 2004)
P or H or D Hahn means rooster in German and there were two houses in Frankfort that had the sign of the Red Rooster and the sign of the Golden Rooster. It may also be an unpleasant name conferred by the naming officials upon the bearer. Finally, Hahn became a by name for several Hebrew first names such as Hanoch, Elhanan and Manoah. (Kaganoff, 1977).
A German for stem or stalk (Beider, 2004)
G This is one of the most widespread Jewish names. It is derived from the city of Heilbronn in Wurttemburg, Germany, where it was first assumed about four hundred years ago. There are many variations and some are: Heilpern, Halper, Helpern, Heilbrun, Heilbronner, Heilprun, Alpron, Alpern, Galpern and Halprin. (Kaganoff, 1977)
L A descendant of little Hann, a pet form of John (capricious gift of Jehovah),(Smith, 1973)
P Harris is an English name and means son of Harry(Henry). Jews with the name Herz, Hirsh, or Aaron (nicknamed Haare or horre in Yiddish) often adopted this name in English-speaking countries. (Kaganoff, 1977)
G One who came from Hartenstein, a city in Germany (Jones, 1990). Hartenstein is a hard stone or wooded peak (Smith, 1973)
O Possibly one work works with or deal in skins. Haut in German means skin.
O One who chops, who cultivates vines, a vine grower (Smith, 1973), and enclosure dweller (Jones, 1990).
O or P One who assists or helps another. One who came from one of many German towns named Helfe (Smith, 1953)
G,P,D Common in all Galicia. Can be georgraphic surname meaning someone from the town of Schwabisch-Hall (Wurttemberg Province, Germany) Could be realted to masculine given name Hel(l)er a variant of Hiler used by German Jews in 15th century. The surname Heller has existed in Schwabia since16th century. Also may be a personal characteristic surname, German for pale, fair or artificial surname German Heller for coin. (Beider, 2004) From Halle, a town in Germany, the russian form is Geller.(Kaganoff, 1977)
U A variant of Hilsenrad, German for hull (or pod or case) + wheel (Beider, 2004).
Henzel, Hensel, Hansel
P These are all variations of the diminutive form for the name Hans which is German from medieval given name, an aphetic form of Johannes. When borne by Ashenazic jews, it presumably was an adoption of the German surname. (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
F Ukrainian for large woolen female headband or neck ribbon worn in Galicia. The name is either assigned by a clerk or imaginatively created (Beider, 2004).
G From the jewish for hoch, tall and berg moutain meaning a dweller on a high hill or mountain (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
D Hoch is German and Ashkenazic Jewish nickname for a tall person from the German hoch-tall; Yiddish hoykh. (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
Hoefling, Hofling
G From German, Hoff meaning dwellers in a courtyard or a fenced in place. One who came from a farm (Smith, 1953).
O, JO German for honey wax possibly soeone who worked on a bee farm and/or sold hoey or a Jewish Ornamental name of unknow origin, (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
To be determined
F, G Hohenstein is German for a high stone. It is an artificial or imaguinatively created name (Beider, 2004). It is a geographical name of someone from Hohenstein, the name of several places in Germany (Smith, 1973).
G Huls is a marsh (Smith, 1973). Hulle is German for a covering, wrap, or envelope (Klatt, 1958).
A,O From the German meaning hunter(Beider, 2004) or could mean one whose occupation was as a hunter (Zeichner, 2009)
F German for friend of Jews. An assigned artificial name (Beider, 2004).
D Jewish name from German or Polish spelling of the Yiddish yust meaning someone who is well to do. (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
L An ramaic lineage surname from Kohen or Cohen in English, a descendant of the Temple Priests (Beider, 2004)
O Literal meaning in German is limestone. Probably someone who dug or sold limestone. (Klatt and Golze, 1958).
U A variant of the name Kampfer and Kampg. German for struggle (Beider, 2004)
G Someone from karlin a suburb of the town of Pinsk (Beider, 2004).
L Acronym for Kohen Tzedek, Priest of Righteousness, Psalm 132.9. Lineage to 17th Century as a family name. First appearance in 10th Century Gaon of Pumbedita. (Beider, 2004).
O German for writer or copyist (Beider, 2004)
O Manager of a granary (Smith, 1973); or one who made cabinets, a chestmaker (Jones, 1990).
F In German, keller is cellar (Klatt, 1958).
G, D German for chestnut. One who lives near chestnuts or it may relate to one with hair of a chestnut color. (Smith 1973)
O or F or G A Kessel in German is a person who made kettles. It is also someone who came from castles or a dweller near a fort or castle. Haut in German means skin (Smith, 1953).
JO, O, H From German or Yiddish for cherry. Someone who lived by a cherry orchard or wild cherry tree. Among Ashkenazic Jews it represent an ornamental name (Hanks & Hodges, 1998). One who grew or sold cherries or dweller at the sign of a cherry (Smith, 1998)
G, O Means cherry tree, probably someone who lived by or raised cherry trees, (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
A An artificial surname from the German klapfer meaning rattle.(Beider,2004).
Kleiner, Kleinman
D The small man, the younger man (Smith, 1953).
G One who comes from Kling, a dweller near a mountain stream (Smith, 1973). A deep gorge with a noisy stream (Jones, 1990).
F, D There are two spellings for this surname, one with an umlaut “u” and one without. Both come from root KLUG, central Yiddish for clever, intelligent. This name is listed as an artificial name (Beider, 2004). It is found in 11 different shtetls in Galicia. It is also listed as a Yiddish nickname for someone clever or wise (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
F German for nodule or tubercule (Beider, 2004).
F, G, O From the German Korner/Korn. Made up name from German or grain (Beider, 2004). Smith gives a different meaning, German for dweller near a mill, one who dealt in grain, one who came from Korner, a place where corn or grain grew in Germany (Smith, 1988
P or D Koenig is the German for king and is often a translation of the Hebrew name Melekh (king) or Elimelekh (God is King). Sometimes a person who played the part of the king in the Purim shpil (the special dramatic presentations of the festival of Purim) would be dubbed Koenig and this became his family name. Finally, some of the naming officials would make sport of some poor or wretched Jew by giving him the name king. (Kaganoff, 1977)
O Comes from the german root word, Kaufer, to buy. May be an occupational name for someone who works as a buyer. (Beider, 2004)
O Someone who is rich in grain (Hank & Hodges. 1998)
F, O German word from root name Knopf meaning knob or pommel. Alternate meaning is to yield a small button (Beider, 2004). The name is listed as a Metronymic occupation name for a maker of buttons, normally made of horn (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
G F L or O No listings found for Knisbacher. Bacher was found as one dwelling on a brook; wild boar or is from Jewish bachur which is the Talmud student, (Smith, 1973). Additional possibilities are German words kneten to knead dough and bachen to bake or even a baker of knishes (Klatt, 1958, Knishbacker family lore). No listing found for Knis.
G Kolomear is the Polish spelling for someone from the Town of Kolomyja/Kolomey/Kolomay/Kolomea depending upon the language used. (Beider, 2004).
D Derived from the word crow that in German is Krach. May be someone who is noisy like a crow or catches crows. (Hodges and Hanks, 1998). A noisy or old decrepit man (Smith, 1988)
O Dutch or German. The shopkeeper or tradesman, one who traveled through the country buying butter, hens, and eggs which he carried to the market in a cram or pack on his back. (Smith. 1988).
O German word kram means one in a retail trade, as huckster (Smith, 1973). Krame is a shopkeeper or retailer (Jones, 1990).
F Krautbauch is not listed in Beider’s book of Surnames of Galicia. Its literal translation in German is Cabbage Belly. Krautbach is listed and noted only found in Kolomea and means Cabbage Brook, also a constructed name (Beider, 2004).
F, D A variant of the name Krummbein, an artificial name found in Kosow and Sniatyn. German for bow leg (Beider, 2004). Also listed as a personal characteristic of someone who has bowed legs (Smith, 1988).
G or O Kraut is one who raised or sold vegetables (Smith 1973); A person from Krautheim, an herb Hamlet (Jones, 1990).
F Northeastern Yiddish (in Russian Krejgel) for a gold crown (Beider, 1993).
F Present in Galicia and Kolomea, derived from Krys, the Polish spelling meaning end or limit (Beider, 2004).
M Foud only in Kolomea. Derived from Kressel. From Yiddish given name Kresl. A hypocoristic form whose base form was of either Romance or Czech origin (Beider, 2004).
O, G, F Ffrom the German for a bentwood plant that grows beyond the tree line (Beider, 2004. This may make it an occupational name. Someone who sells this wood, a geographical name for someone who lives by this plant, or a fanciful name,
H, G Polish or Ukrainian for dweller at the sign of a ball or some natural feature shaped like a ball (Hippocrene Books, 1993).
O Literal translation from the German is copper man. Probably one who sold copper utensils (Klatt and Golze, 1958). Beider supports this meaning (Beider, 2004).
P or G or F The name, when Lachman is usually taken as a German translation of Issac (he laughed). As Lach, it is from the German for a dweller at or in, the bushes or small wood; dweller near a small pool. As Lachs, it may be from the German for Salmon (Rottenberg, 1977; Smith, 1953).
G Polish spelling for topographic surname, someone from the cillage of Lanczyn. Surname only found in Galicia. )Beider, 2004)
O May be related to Polish word laszczycsie meaning wash or one who washes (Hippocrene Books, 1993).
German Enemy of dull, rude, boring or stupid person (Elisha Amidan, email 5/1/2005).
G German and Askenazic Jewish. A topographic name for someone who lives on the side of a mountain or slope of a hill. (Hanks and Hodges, 1988)
G German for one who came from Lichtenstein (light stone) in Germany or from Liechtenstein, the Pricipality between Switzerland and Austria (Smith, 1956).
G Represents a geographical or place name. One who comes from Lindau. Name of several places in Germany and Switzerland. There are two translations offered, (Smith, 1970) translates it as lime tree meadow while (Jones, 1990) translates it as swampy meadow.
G Dweller near a lime or linden tree (Smith, 1973)
O, G Closest explanation is names derived from the same root-lipp. German for descendant of Lipp, a pet form of Phillipus (lover of horses). Someone who loved horses or cared for horses; one who came from Lipp or Lippe (muddy place; bank of river) or someone who came from one of several places in Germany with that name (Smith, 1988).
To be determined
H, F, or D German for dweller at the sign of the lynx, one with sharp eyesight: lynx (Smith, 1973)
D or F German for air (Klatt, 1958).
G An alternate spelling of Luttwok or Litwak from the Polish for a Lithuanian Jew. (Beider, 2004)
H, D A dweller at the sign of the lynx, one with sharp eyesight (Smith, 1973).
G or O or H In German or English, the vassel or servant, one who came from the Isle of Man, a Manxman; descendant of Mann (man); dweller at the sign of the happy man, a Frankfort house sign (Smith, 1956).
P, D Ukrainian for a descendant of Moroz or one born at a time of frost (Smith, 1973).
P English meaning descendant of Marco. Italian form of Mark, which means belonging to the god, Mars, god of war, (Smith, 1988). Marcus as a surname would be a patronymic for son of Mark. Hans and Hodges state that Mark is in many cases an Anglicization of several like-sounding Jewish surnames (Hanks and Hodges, 1988). Since Mark has also been an Askenazic surname in Eastern Europe, where English influence is out of the question, there must be at least one other explanation. Another explanation is that it is from the Yiddish masculine given name. Markus which is related to Marcus, a name of Latin origin borrowed from German. Christians (Beider, 2004).
M, J, O From the French name Marguerite from a lower Latin female name Margarita Perl. The Ashkenzic variaqtion is Magolis or Margulis or even Margolies/Margulies. It is predominately an ornamental name. ( Hodges and Hanks, 1998). Smith lists it as of Hebrew, Ukrainian, or Russian origin meaning descendant of Margolis, a form of Margaret, Pearl. (Smith, 1988.
P Ukrainian for son of Martyn, form of Martin (belonging to the god Mars) (Smith 1988)
O G or F From Polish mielcarz, owner of a malt kiln or brewer. Also meltzer (steward) in Daniel 9:16 (Kaganoff, 1977). One who brews, a brwer or one who came from Meltz, Germany (Smith, 1973)
A Polish spelling of the diminuitive of the word man. (Beider, 2004)
Polish word maczar for flour dealer. (Beider, 2004)
G A person from a town between the water or between two rivers, Polish meaning is poet (Family Member).
P Means light in Hebrew (meir). Any names in combination with Meyer are elaborated forms of Meir, for example, Meyersberg, Meyerstein, etc. (Kaganoff, 1977)
D, G German or French. One who comes from Morocco, Moor, a dark or black man. A descendant of Mohr, a pet form of names beginning with Mor (importance) such as Morfrid and Morhart, a dweller on the moor or wasteland. (Smith, 1988). A German cognate of the English name Moore. A topgraphic name for soemone who lived on a moor or in a fen. A nickname for a person with swarthy complexion. (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
O Mer in Polish means mayor, so possibly nmae was given to someone who was mayor of a town.
O From the German meaning mill builder, an occupational name (Beider, 2004).
O, H German for person who worked by moonlight. Dweller at the sign of moonlight (Smith, 1998)
G Represents a geographical or place name. From German, morgental or morning valley.
JO Jewish, Ashkenazic, from modern German, morning star; Yiddish morgnshtern, one of a class of Jewish ornamental names taken from natural phenomenon. (Hodges and Hanks, 1998).
To be determined
D Neighbor or nearby resident (Smith 1973)
P Spelled Nachmann and is from the Yiddish masculine given name Nakhmen, Talmudic origin. (Beider, 2004)
O German for needle maker or in some cases, a tailor or a dealer in needles. (Beider, 2004)
O or G One who made nails; one who came from Nagel (nail), the name of two places in Germany (Smith, 1956).
D Negro or someone with a swarthy complexion (Smith)
O or M From the German and Hebrew. The recent arrival or newcomer; one who performed as a notary (Smith, 1956).
G The original spelling of this name was probably neustettel or some variant thereof. Someone from the town of Nowemiasto, called Nayshtetl in Central Yiddish, (Beider, 2004).
G One who is a dweller in upper or higher places (Smith 1973)
Ostreger (or Austreger)
G,O German Aus meaning out of or from and ost meaning east. Trager means a carrier or porter. Therefore Ostreger may refer to an occupational name of one who carries out of someplace or Ostreger like the name Auslander, may refer to someone who came from the East. (Langenscheidt Editorial Staff, 2000)
D Possibly from Palka or Palco which is Chech slang for one who walked with a cane (Smith,1973). From Polke, a woman from Poland, a geographic name (Beider, 2004)
O Pearl is German for one who makes jewelry of pearls. A binder is German for bookbinder or a barrel hoop maker. Together they may mean one who makes pearl necklaces (Smith, 1973)
G, D A variant of the English Pill, a topgraphic name for someone who lived by a stream or creek. Nickname for a small, round person. Other variants are Piller, Pelman ( Hanks & Hodges, 1998).
P Middle European (Russian, Polish, Hungarian, etc.) form of son of Peter (a rock). Variants are Petrov, Petroski, Petrovitch (Smith, 1988).
Pickholz, Pikholz
O Possibly from German for woodpecker. More than likely a fanciful name. (Beider, 2004)
D Could be Piwonski, Polish for peony. Probably a polite alteration for the word for beer-drinker. One varinat is Pivko. It is not unusual for the V to be changed to a W. (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
F Male hare (Jones, 1973). Meaning as brick, possibly someone who makes bricks or sell bricks. (Beider, 2004)
G, P, O German for one who came from Rath (Counsel). Descendant of Rath, a form of Rado a pet form of names beginning with Rat (Counsel). One who counseled or gave advice (Smith, 1973).
D, G German for an excitable or hurried person, or a dweller near rushes (Smith, 1988).
F In German regens means rain and streif means stripe or streak (Klatt and Golze, 1958) Name as a variant of Regenstreich meaning rain below. (Beider, 2004). Probably a fanciful name.
D, G Low german variant of English name, Rich. I nickname for a wealthy man or in some cases an ironic nickname for a pauper. A short form of Richard or some other name with this beginning. Habitation name for the lost village of Riche in Leics (Hanks & Hodges, 1998).
L A descendant of the poet Ragina, a pet form of names beginning with Ragin (counsel) (Smith, 1973).
G German mountain or one who lives near a giant mountain or a timberside mountain (Jones, 1973)
F From Ringelblume, German for marigold (Beider, 2004).
O Ringle, Ringel, or Goldring are names taken by a goldsmith whose specialty was making wedding rings. Ringelheim is the home (heim) of the goldsmith, probably his shop.(Kaganoff, 1977)
G A German variant of the name Romero which is Spanish or Italian name. It is a regional or ethnic name for a Roman or generally an Italian. A nickname for a pilgrim that was originaly applied to travelers from the western (Roman) empire who had to pass through the eastern (Byzantine) empire on their way to the holy land (Hanks and Hdodges, 1998)
M One who came from Rosenfeld (rose field); The name of four places in Germany (Smith, 1956).
G, M One who came from Rosenkrantz, rose wreath, in Germany (Smith 1988).Ashkenazic-ornamental surname from the word for flower or metronymic from the Yiddish female given name Royze derivedfrom the word for flower (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
O, G, P One who rode a horse, came from Rosna, Rossen or Roessen, Germany, descendant of Rozzo. A pet form of names beginning with Hrod(famous as Hrodmund, Rotharie and Hrotfrid)(Smith, 1973). A carter (Jones).
M One who came from Rothenberg (red fortress); the name of several places in Germany (Smith,1956).
P, F From rot in German word for red. Could be description of someone with a ruddy coloring or a name made up by clerk (Beider, 2004).
Rubinger G, P German from root word Rubin. A Rubinger is someone who came from Rubyn or Ruben (ruby stone), also a descendant of Reuber (behold a son, renewer) (Smith, 1988)
O German for one who made and sold sacks and bags; a pet form of Isaac, one who laughs (Smith 1973)
O From the German for saltpeter, possibly someone who mined or sold saltpeter, (Beider, 2004).
O German for one who chops salt (Smith, 1956; Klatt, 1958).
O Ashkenazic name from the German for salt stone. An occupational name for someone who was involved in the production or sale of salt (Hanks and Hodges).
D Means godfather in the ritual of circumcision. Usually this honor was given to an outstanding individual in the family or community (Kaganoff, 1977).
O English and hebrew for one who carts sand or gravel. One who repairs shoes, a cobbler. (Smith, 1988). Ashkenazic for shoemaker or cobbler.Yiddish sandler from Hebrew, sandelar (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
G One who came from Sandhaus, also could mean a house in a sandy place (Smith, 1973).
To be determined
O Variant of Schachter, Schaechter. German for one who slaughtered cattle and sold meat according to Jewish ritual (Smith, 1956).
Scher, Sher
O German for one who caught moles. A contraction of Scherer (Smith, 1956)
O or D German for the joker, clown, buffoon (Smith, 1956).
O,G Occupational name for a jester or nickname for a facetious person. As a Jewish name; however, it is possibly a habitation name from Scierza in Galicia or an occupational name for someone like a jester who entertains at Jewish weddings (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
F From the German Schaft meaning shaft or stalk. An imaginatively created and artificial name. (Beider, 2004)
Perhaps a shortened name of one that started with Schim, e.g. Schimmel
H or D German or Dutch for dweller at the sign of the gray or white horse; one with gray hair or beard (Smith 1988)
To be determined
O Yiddish shlos is lock. A schlosser is one who makes locks or a locksmith. (Kaganoff, 1977).
O German for tailor. (Klatt, 1958)
F Schnee in German is snow (Jones, 1990); Trepp refers to stairs which makes no real sense. There is a word in German schneetreiblen that means snow storm that could be closer (Cassells, 1978). Nmae is derived from schneetreiblen or schnetrop meaning snow drop in German. (Beider, 2004)
A An artificial German surname meaning shoot; lap, womb (Schooss) (Beider, 2004)
O, D German for the town crier; official who made announcements (Smith, 1956). A noisy trouble maker, one who shouts. (Beider, 2004)
O Based on the name root, Schub, it is a hebrew acronymic name from the word shocker and means slaughterer and examiner (Rottenberg, 1977).
O German or Jewish Ashenazic occupational name for a shoemaker or cobbler (Hanks and Hodges, 1998)
O or G One who gathered or sold mushrooms; dweller near where mushrooms grew (Smith, 1956).
O See Zworn, Zwirn, Zwoisen. Schwartz
D German for one with a dark or swarthy complexion; black (Smith, 1956).
G A black field, dweller on black land without trees, field (Smith 1973).
to be determined
Segenreich, Siegenreich
D German for blessed kingdom (Klatt, 1958).
O One who made and sold beer mugs or tankards, a beekeeper, (Smith, 1973)
G, F Some speculation on this, may be reference to ‘his field’ as a geographic name or a fanciful name (Klatt and Golz, 1958)
F A variation of the German word aennensieb meaning an alpine pasture riddle. (Beider, 2004)
JO Jewish Askenazic anglicized form of German, silber, Yiddish Zilber, silver. A Jewish ornamental name (Hanks & Hodges, 1998)
G The city of Speyer in Rhenish Bavaria, Germany has given us many name forms. The Jews first settled there at the end of the eleventh century and were compelled to leave in the middle of the fourteenth century. Large numbers of these Jews settled in Poland, Bohemia, Hungary, and Russia and their name variants are Shapiro, Spira, Spire, Spiro, Spero, Chapiro, Sprai, Szpir, Saphir and Spear. (Kaganoff, 1977)
F German word meaning pure, found in six shtetls in Galicia, but Kolomea was not among those listed. An imaginatively created and artificial name (Beider, 2004).
L, O Jewish Ashkenazic acronym of the Hebrew phrase Se Gan Levia, Second Rank Levite. (Hanks and Hodges, 1998)
JO, O Jewish Ashkenazic anglicized form of German, silber, Yiddish, zilber, silver. A Jewish ornamental name. (Hodges and Hanks, 1998). A anglicization of German, Silber man, one who made and sold silver articles, a silver smith.(Smith, 1988).
O Yiddish occupational surname for someone who is a singer, a cantor in a synagogue. (Beider, 2004)
G Skret means twisting or turning in Polish. Possibly named for someone who lived on or by a twisting turning road.
O, F Chech: nickname from sokol falcon or metonymic occupational name for falconer. E Ashkenazic name from the Slavic sokol or falcon, one of many Ashkenazic ornametal surnames taken from animal names (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
G German for one who came from Spain; a Spaniard (Smith, 1956)
G, O, H Dweller at or near a watch tower, one who also made and sold tools, dweller at the sign of the mirror (Smith, 1973).
F Found in Galicia and Kolomea. German for splash, a made up name (Beider, 2004).
D Ashkenazic ornamental name from the Polish szczygiel, nickname for someone with bright yellow hair, (Hanks and Hodeges, 1998). German for goldfinch, a bright yellow bird (Beider, 2004).
D German descriptive name for a stammerer common in may towns including Kolomea, (Beider, 2004).
O German from the root stempel meaning stamp. (Beider, 2004)
G Dutch for dweller on or near, the pier or boat landing place (Smith, 1956).
G Dutch, German or Swiss for a dweller near a stone or rock, often a boundary mark; one whoc ame from Stein, the name of various villages in Germany and Switzerland; dweller in or near the stone castle (Smith, 1956).
G One who came from Stetten (place of green grain). Nmae of many small places in Germany (Smith, 1989).
D Translation in German is ‘trouble-maker.’ Someone who was known to be a trouble-maker (Langenscheidt Editorial Board, 2000)
P German for a descendant of Streit meaning battle, a short form of names beginning with Streit such as Stridbert, Striter, and Stritmar (Smith, 1988).
G German for dweller near stream water (Smith, 1956; Klatt, 1958).
F, G German for river water. It is an artifical or assigned surname (Beider, 2004). Strom or Strum is Strunwasser German for dweller near a stream (Smith, 1956, and Klatt and Golze, 1958).
D Storm, violent person (Smith, 1973). From sturm, German for storm, assault, attack (Beider, 2004)
P May be a variant of the name Solomon and is therefore patronym (Smith, 1988). From the Yiddish maculine name Sholem-Talmidic peace. Central Yiddish variants are Sulim or Shulim. `Polish spelling Sulim or Scholem (Beider, 2004)
A Found in Galica and Kolomea, German for sweet orf rom the Yiddish name Ziskind for sweet child (Beider, 2004).
D A variant of the English nickname from Middle English-sweete, pleasant, agreeable and sire lord master. The name was probably ironical in tone and given either to someone of condescending manner or to someone who habitually used thisd form of address. (Hanks and Hodges, 1988)
O German and Yiddish, metronymic occupational name for a seller of tabacco from the german tabac, Yiddish tabik. As a surname it is relatively recent since tabacco was not introduced into Europe until the 16th century (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
G Dweller at or near a fir tree, one who came from Tannenbaum, two places in Germay (Smith 1973)
G One who came from low groud (Teish) in Germany (Smith, 1973).
G German for dew or rope (Beider, 2004). Valley. Refers to a person who lives in a valley (Family member).
see Dicker for meaning and origin.
U, G The name is also used by German Christians for whom it is derived from the village of Dillingen or Tullingen. Perhaps this surname was borrowed from the Christians (Beider, 2004).
G English or Scottish for one who came from Tindale (fort in fertile upland region; Tyne Valley), in Cumberland (Smith, 1956).
O Topf in German spelled with an umlaut o means pot or vessel. The name is usually seen as Topfer, one who made metal or eathenware pots and would have the same meaning for the root word topf (Hanks and Hodges).
Trow, Trau
G, D English nickname for a trustworthy person, faithful, steadfast. Name for someone who lives near a depression in the ground. Jewish spelling Treu(e), Ashkenazic. Trow and Trau are probably variants of the original based upon spelling and alphabet differences. (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
Tyndel F, O Found in four places in Galicia including Kolomea. Polish spelling Tindel. In Yiddish iy is tindl meaning keg. Listed as both artificialname as well as an occupational name meaning one who made or sold kegs (Beider, 2004).
To be determined
O German for one who made and sold wax candles (Smith, 1956).
Wachter, Wechter
O Watchman or guard, especially a night watchman (Smith 1973, Jones 1990)
A German for coach + mountain (Beider, 2004)
O One who had charge of the town scales (Smith, 1973). Wagenmann is a wainwright (Jones, 1990).
G From the German wald or forest. Probably referring to one who lived near a forest (Beider, 2004). English for a habitation name from any of the places in Essex, Herts, and North Yorkshire from the Old English wealth meaning foreigner Briton, serf, and denu valley (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
O Ashkenazic name from the German wald or wood (forest). However, since Jews seldom lied near a woood or forest, it usually was an occupational name for someone whose job was connected with wood; a woodcutter or merchant (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
G, O Jewish and German name-topographic name for someone who lived by a vineyard on a hillside or ccupational name for soemoe who worked in one, (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
G,O Topographic name for someone who lived by a vineyard or occupational name for someone who worked in a vineyard (Hanks and Hodges, 1998).
G May be German for wheat field (Klatt, 1958).
G or O The name is a variant of the English name ‘ise’ a nickname for a wise or learned person, or in some cases a nickname for someone suspected of being acquainted with the occult arts, from Middle English wise. It is also an anglicized form of the German and Jewish Weiss and it refers you to White. White is a nickname for someone with unusually white hair pr pale complexion and lists Weisser/Weiser as variants (Hanks and Hodges, 1998). From the German, one who came from Weis in Germany (white), a descendant of Wisheri, (wise, army); a learned man; one who whitewashed walls (Smith, 1956). It may be a meaning as manner or fashion (Beider, 2004.
G or D One who came from Weiss in Germany, or light complexioned or white haired person; variant is Weltz a German word meaning white (Smith 1973)
D The light complexioned or white haired man (Smith, 1973).
Windwehr (Windweher)
Not in source books. The German word wind means wind and wehr means defense or fight and weher means labor or blow. Speculating, it may be a fanciful name that was made up or a name given to soeone prone to be a windbag ( Klatt and Golz, 1958)
G Wiesenberg is German for meadow hill, so it would be someone who lives by a meadow hill. Root words are wiese (meadowland) and berg (hill or mountain) (Smith, 1988 and Hanks & Hodges, 1998).
D, F German for wind blower (Beider, 2004). The German word ‘windweher’ wind means wind and wehr means defense of fight and ‘weher’ means labor or blow (Klatt and Golze, 1958). It can also mean rain path or stroke that occurs when squalls and other local turbulence just lays down a path of rain within a small area (Source: Paul Auster). Speculating it may be a fanciful name that was made up or a name given to someone prone to be a windbag or someone who is a mkover and a shaker and gets things done.
P, H, F Wolk in German a dweler at the sign of the wolf. One with the characteristics of a wolf. Wolkowitz is Polish and in Polish, the ending ‘wicz’ means son of. It becomes a patrronymic, son of Wolk or Wolf. A short form of many longer names (Smith, 1989).
D May have originally been Volk which means a nation or people. Change may have occurred going from a German speaking land to one with no "v" in the alphabet thereby substituting a Y (Jones, 1990).
To be determined
O Teller, payer, debtor (Jones, 1990).
O A German name a varaiant of Zehender, an official responsible for collecting on behalf of the lord of the manor, tithes of agricultural produce owed as rent. The most prosperous had to contribute wine and corn, those with smaller holdings, fruit, vegetables, milk, cheese, beer, and poultry. In Middle High German the term for this offciial was zehendoers tenth part, tithe. The surname was most common in Bavaria, Austria, Switzerland, and Wurttemburg. Among Ashkenazic Jews it is not clear whether this was an occupational name or an adoption of the German surname (Hodges and Hanks, 1988). Possibly a made-up name (Beider, 2004).
O Zeichnen is German for to draw, draft, illustrate. A Zeichner is one who performs this occupation. (Klott and Golze, 1958. From the German for artist (Beider, 2004).
O JO Zucker means sugar in German. A Zuckerman was a confectioner or pastry man. (Kaganoff, 1977) It is possible that it is an ornamental name (Hanks and Hodges, 1998.
O Jewish name that is an occupational name for one deals in or sells sugar (Hanks and Hodges).
German for throng, (Jones, 1990). Popularity (Beider, 2004))
Of unclear etymology (Beider, 2004).
L German for branch.. May have denoted a branch of a family. (Klatt,1958)
Zwirn, Zworn, Zwoisen
O Zwirn is the German word for thread. The name was taken by a tailor. (Kaganoff, Zwoisen 1977)


Beider, A (1993). A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames from the Russian Empire: Avotaynu, Teaneck, NJ.
Beider, A (2004), A Dictioary of Jewish Surnames from Galicia: Avotaynu, Teaneck, NJ
Beider, Alexander, Eider, Alexander, Avotaynu, New York, 1993; A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames.
Betteridge, H. T. (1978). Cassell's German dictionary. New York: MacMillan.
Hanks, P and Hodeges, F (1998). A Dictionary of Surnames:Oxford: Oxford University Press
Hippocrene Books (1993). Polish-English, English-Polish Dictionary:New York: Hippocrene Books
Jones, G. F. (1990). German-American names. Baltimore: Genealogy Publishing Co., Inc.
Kaganoff, B. C. (1977). A dictionary of Jewish names and their history. New York: Schocken Books.
Klatt, E. & Golze, G. (1958). German-English; English-German Dictionary. Berlin: Langenscheid.
Hanks,P. and Hodges, F, A Dictionary of Surnames, 1998, Oxford. Oxford University Press.
Langenscheidt Editorial Staff, Pocket Dictionary, 2000, Berlin.
Rottenberg, D. (1977). Finding our fathers: a guidebook to Jewish genealogy. New York: Random House.
Smith, E. C. (1956)(1973)(1988). New Dictionary of American Family Names. New York: Harper and Row.
Sola’, D. F. (1983). Spanish-English; English-Spanish dictionary. New York: Random house.

(Editors Note: Constructive criticism is invited. Queries, comments, corrections or additions should be submitted to the Author.

Copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003,
2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 Saul Zeichner

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