also known as: Alsókálinfalva (HU), Kaliny (CZ), Kalini (RU), Kalin (Yid)
48°08' N / 23°53' E
~ Introduction ~
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Kaliny was part of the Kingdom of Hungary (11th century - 1920 and 1938-1944) with the name of Alsókálinfalva in Máramaros megye (county), next part of Czechoslovakia (1920-1938) with the name of Kaliny in Podkarpatská Rus (Sub-Carpathia), then part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1945-1991) with the name of Kalini and, since 1991, known as Kaliny, in the Tiachivskiy rayon (district) of Zakarpats'ka oblast (county) of Ukraine.
In Yiddish, Kaliny was known as Kalin.
Kaliny is located about 19 miles NNE of Tyachiv (Técsõ).
Jews probably settled in Kaliny in the first half of the 18th century.
In 1768, the Jewish population was 25 and by 1880, the Jewish population increased to 191.
By 1910, the Jewish population increased to 439. At the end of WWI, Jews were attacked in a progrom, one was murdered and many were looted.
By 1921, during the Czechoslovakian period, the Jewish population dropped to 359. A number of Jews were engaged in agriculture and commerce.
In 1930, the Jewish population was 394.
With the Hungarian occupation of Kaliny in March, 1939, Jews were persecuted and pushed out of their occupations. In 1940-41, dozens of Jews from Kaliny were drafted into forced labor battalions and others were drafted for service on the Eastern front, where most died.
By 1941, the Jewish population had increased to 497 (of a total population of 2,851) and it was at this time, a few Jewish families without Hungarian citizenship were expelled to Nazi occupied Ukrainian territory, to Kamenets-Podolski, and murdered there. In July, 1941, many Jews from Kaliny were also expelled to the Stanislawow ghetto in Galicia.
The remaining Jews of Kaliny were deported to Auschwitz late May, 1944.
A great many of the Jews from Kaliny were murdered in Auschwitz and any survivors settled elsewhere.
In 2001, Kaliny had about 5,844 inhabitants and no Jews live there today.
Sources (portions): Budapest, c. 1941 The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust, (2001) p. 585
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