The Paintings: Faces of Dynów (to see the entire series which includes additional larger images and adds descriptive context for each painting, go to: www.ninatalbot.com )
Originally published in the Quarterly Research Journal of Gesher Galicia The Galitzaner (Volume 23, Number 1) –March 2016
Published on this JewishGen Kehila site with permission of both the artist, Nina Talbot, in honor of her NEGER family of Dynów & Gesher Galicia
These portraits depict the stories of my ancestors who lived in the Polish historical town of Dynów. The paintings are a product of my trip to Dynów on Rosh Hashanah in 2013. While the initial goal of my trip had been to investigate the emigration of my grandmother Bella from Dynów to New York City, what I encountered was a town living in the shadow of a massacre of Jews that took place there at the hands of the Nazis on the second day of Rosh Hashanah in 1939.
The discovery of the names of my murdered great uncles, aunts and cousins imprinted on the wall of the sanctuary in the newly built Polish Jewry Heritage Center catalyzed a new focus for the trip to the rediscovery of these lost lives. Confronting the loss of so many lives made me realize ‘My grandmother left Dynów, years before the massacre and that’s why I’m here.’
– Nina Talbot (granddaughter of Bella Neger of Dynów, Poland/Brooklyn, NY)
Galicia 1891 Business Directory – 80 Names & Occupations!
1929 Polish Business Directory – Over 250 Names & Occupations!
Miasto Dynów (Official Town Website)
Lwow District, Poland. Jews are first noted in 1552. The court of the Dynów Hasidic dynasty founded by Rabbi Tzevi Elimelekh Shapira (after 1825) propped up the traditional Jewish Economy, while a few wealthy merchants dealt in grain and lumber. A great circular synagogue decorated with oil paintings was built in the 18th century. By 1880 the Jewish population stood at 1,241 (total 2,784). Most of the Jews left Dynów for Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Austria at the outbreak of World War I, returning four years later to find the town virtually destroyed. Pogroms and anti-Semitic incidents followed. Between the World Wars, Jews became active in the light industry, producing soft drinks, jam and pegs that were marketed throughout Poland. In addition to joining Zionist youth groups a number of the young were attracted to the illegal Communist Party. With the approach of the Germans, large numbers of refugees reached the town. On 15 Sept. 1939, an SS unit arrived and rounded up 300 men and shot them in the forest. The Great Synagogue was burned to the ground on the same day. The rest of the Jews were expelled to Soviet-held territory. Some were exiled to Siberia, others found their deaths in Lwow and Przemsyl, and the few who returned to Dynów ended their days in the Brzozow ghetto. Some 200-250 survived the war, most in the Soviet Union.
Source: The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust Shmuel Spector (editor) & Geoffrey Wigoder (Consulting
Editor), Yad Vashem, Jerusalem  0-8147-9356-8
Dynów has two different yizkor books, and although not translated, both are now available online in their totality at the New York Public Library Site!
To view the 1950 yizkor book, go to: http://yizkor.nypl.org/index.php?id=2036
To view the 1979 yizkor book, go to: http://yizkor.nypl.org/index.php?id=2097
Ḥurbn Dinov, Soniḳ-Dibetsk ̣(The Destruction of Dynów, Sanok and Dubieck) by David Moreitz, 1950 – not translated, yet
Sefer Dynów; sefer zikaron le-kedoshei kehilat Dynów she-nispu ba-shoa ha-natsit (The Memorial book of Jewish Dinov) 1979- not translated
Hand-drawn Map of the Region Surrounding Dynów, Poland
Source: Sefer Dynow; sefer zikaron le-kedoshei kehilat Dynow she-nispu ha-shoa ha-natsit(The memorial book of Jewish Dinov) 1979
I US Commission No. POCE000151 - Dynow is located in the province of Przemysl at 49ş49 22ş14, 43 km from Przemysl. This old cemetery is at Jozefa Pitsudskiego Str. 8. The present population of the town is 1000-5000 and there is no Jewish population. There are two cemeteries for the town.
1921 Jewish population was 1273. Buried in this unlandmarked Orthodox cemetery are Chi Elimelech (1785-1841) and David G. Cwi (1804-1874). The isolated urban flat land is reached by turning directly off a public road and open to all. There is a continuous fence with non-locking gate. The approximate size is 1.30 hectares both before and after WWII. There are no stones visible. There are no mass graves. Municipality owns property used for recreation. Properties adjacent are either urban or agricultural. Occasionally, organized Jewish group tours visit. The cemetery was vandalized during WWII. Local/municipal authorities and/or Jewish groups abroad fixed wall. Within the cemetery is an ohel. No threats. - Jan Pawet Woronczak, Warsaw, completed this survey on December 31, 1991 and visited site in August 1990. Documentation was found at Monuments Conservation office in Przemysl.
DYNOW: II US Commission No. POCE000152 - See Dynow I information about town. This (new) cemetery is located S of the town, W 150 m. from the road to Kamrolowka.
The Orthodox community probably established this cemetery in the 19th century. The isolated suburban hillside has no sign, but has a Jewish symbol on a gate. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open with permission. A continuous fence with a gate that locks surrounds it. It encompasses 0.5 hectares, the same as before WWII. 1-20 gravestones, none in original locations and 50% to 75% of them toppled or broken, date from end of the 19th century to 20th century. The sandstone finely smoothed and inscribed stones with no decorations or portraits have Hebrew inscriptions. There are no known mass graves. Municipality owns property is for Jewish cemetery. Properties adjacent are agricultural. It was vandalized during WWII. The stones have been re-erected and the gate and wall fixed. There is a moderate threat of vandalism and uncontrolled access. - Jan Pawet Woronczak, Warsaw, completed survey on January 7, 1992. Robert Kaskow and Marcin Wodzinski visited the site in August 1990. Interviews were conducted.
(L-R) Reb Yeshaya Naftali Hertz OBM - Reb Dovid OBM - Reb Tzvi Elimelech OBM - Mrs.Chana Mindel OBM.( wife of the "Bnai Yisachar")
[“OBM” = “Of Blessed Memory]
Reb Yehoshua OBM (died 1814)
Above photos were taken on
September 12, 2005 by Neil Schwerd
Rabbi Tzvi Elimelech Shapira was born in the year 5601-1841. His father was Rabbi Dovid of Dinow (passed away on the19th of Adar 5634-1874), the author of “Tzemach David”, who in turn was the son of Rabbi Tzvi Elimelech of Dinow, the author of “Bnai Yissachar”, and many other books, and a student of Rabbi Menachem Mendel of Rymanow and the Chozeh of Lublin. (for more detailed information review the “Miller Family Genealogy” toward the bottom of this site)
Source: Rzeszow, Poland: Kehilat Raysha; sefer zikaron (Rzeszow community; memorial book) 1967 http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/rzeszow/rzeszow.html
Surnames include: Adler, Arem, Arm, Arom, Arum, Bachner, Bader, Baer, Basler, Beck, Beer, Ber, Blankheim, Drenner, Drotve?, Eichner, Einhorn, Ehrlich, Fahre, Farc, Fedmann, Feingold, Feis, Feit, Feldman, Feldmann, Fiebach, Fisch, Fish, Fleischer, Geller, Glasor, Goldschmidt, Goldstein, Grunbaum, Gres, Haber, Hamer, Hauber, Henperling, Hernlicht, Hoch, Jahre, Klauzner, Kolner, Kranz, Lander, Laub, Leizor, Lerner, Lustig, Mann, Mark, Mildworf, Mohrer, Negar, Neger, Neiger, Nusdorf, Ores, Pinsker, Poller, Rabi, Recteathus, Rosenberg, Rubenfeld, Rubinfeld, Salish, Schneck, Scheinbach, Schembach, Schwarz, Selig, Silbermann, Spimirad, Spinrad, Stelzer, Teldinann, Thaler, Unger, Walner, Warscher, Wechsler, Weinig, Wertenteil, Wertentell, Wertheim, Wilk, Wollner, Zohn, Zucker, Zuckerman, and Zuckermann
(to locate someone go to the Steve Morse Website at: http://stevemorse.org/)
Precise instructions issued by the High Command of the Wehrmacht on July 24, 1939, for the internment of civilian prisoners provided for the arrest of Jews and Poles of military age at the outset of the invasion. In practice, however, a wild huntdown of Jews was made, without regard to age. In the campaign of terror that followed, hundreds of civilians, Poles, and Jews (in Czestochowa, Przemysl, Bydgoszcz, and Dynow) were slaughtered outright or imprisoned in buildings which were sealed and then set on fire or blown up, the imprisoned dying a horrible death (in Dynow, Lipsk-Kielecki, Mszczonow). No precise figures are available on the number of victims in this period of terror.
The First Victims in Dynów ~
The sad news reached us that in the city of Dynow, about 50 kilometers east of Korczyn, where there were many Jewish refugees from all across Poland, the German soldiers seized 170 Jews. They were shot and buried in a mass grave. It took a lot of influence and a great deal of money to get the permission of the German military commander to exhume the bodies and bring them to burial at the Jewish cemetery of Dinow. Amongst the victims were Avramtsche Gleicher, and his son, Yudel Gleicher. They were the son and grand son of Mendel Gleicher. They lived lately in Krosno. In the mass grave they found father and son arm in arm. The news created panic amongst all the Jews in town. All the doors were bolted Everybody feared the Germans and everybody made plans to escape if need be.
Source: Korczyna; sefer zikaron (Korczyna Memorial Book) 1976 http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/Korczyna/Korczyna.html
Termination of Polish Citizenship
The names below were obtained from a list of almost 1,500 names of Jews who - in order to emigrate - had to renounce their Polish nationality. This took place prior to the year 1939. The original documents contain destination, occupation, comments, and photographs. Those wishing to obtain copies of the original document - and hence ALL of the information - should E-mail the Krakow Archives at: email@example.com To view the all of the names and online information, go to: http://www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org/krakow/Kra_Resign_citizenship.asp
Date & Place of Birth
Eljukin i Sara Zuckerman
(excerpt from writings on Zmigrod Nowy) …Rosh Hashanah [the Jewish New Year] was on September 14 and 15,1939. On the first day of the holiday the Jews assembled at the synagogue and services began. My father, may he rest in peace, in his customary traditional New Year intonation [each holiday has a traditional intonation that is used by cantors in conducting services], led the congregation in reciting the opening prayer of Adon Olam [Master of the World] with great fervor. He barely finished the first lines when a band of German soldiers burst into the place and began to beat mercilessly anyone in their way. The worshipers dispersed in every direction and considered themselves lucky that the incident had ended in such manner, since in other places such as Dynow, a small hamlet near Zmigrod, the Germans shot all the worshippers at the Rosh Hashanah service. Amongst those shot were a few Jews from Zmigrod who sought refuge there and were never permitted to leave the place after the Germans arrived. They were Moshe Shia Tzanger and his son from the village of Fristik and Israel Gross's son, Hozek. Thus we spent the first day of Rosh Hashanah in Zmigrod…
The Second World War and the Holocaust by Itzhok Berglass
(some excerpts)…The path of the refugees from Strzyzow led through Dynow, a crossroads city. Thousands of refugees, families who ran out of means to continue their escape, many who were on foot and run out of energy to go any further, and well-known personalities who had not intended to go any further to begin with, were stuck there. (All they wanted was to leave town and be somewhere that nobody knew them.) … The systematic killing period had not yet begun. But Jewish blood was spilled freely as soon as Hitler's soldiers arrived. In our vicinity, many killings occurred. Six hundred in Przemysl, including Reb Moshe Deutch from Strzyzow. In Dynow – two hundred and thirty people, mostly refugees who were passing through town. The Nazis went from house to house, taking men only.… All the returnees to Strzyzow crossed the border safely and arrived home, except one disastrous, shocking incident involving a young woman, the daughter of Reb Elazar Loos. She lived in Dynow and was expelled to the Russian side with the rest of the Jews soon after the massacre. While returning from a visit to her parents in Strzyzow, she was shot by a border guard as a result of a Polish informer. It was not clear whether it was a Russian or a German border guard.
Source: Sefer Strzyzow ve-ha-seviva (The Book of Strzyzow and Vicinity) 1990 http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/Strzyzow/Str233.html
The Destruction of Dynów, Sanok and Dubiecko by David Moreitz
(some excerpts)…I shall never forget the little town of Dubiecko. When I remind myself of Dynow, I must remember Dubiecko, as it is impossible to remember one twin and not mention the other…From Dynow to Dubiecko is 9 miles (14 kilometers). Moshe Marshalek and his Klezmer band had enough time on a Saturday night after Shabbat had ended, to arrive by foot at a wedding in Dynow. On Purim when the poor people finished their begging in Dynow, they walked into Dubiecko. Young men and girls would walk from one little town to the other. The majority of these little towns were knit together as relatives or relations by marriage… Dubiecko is located on the river San, close to Przemysl …It is impossible to determine when the Jewish settlement dates from… But from the year 1648 there are no traces...The last tombstone found there dates from 1700. The old Pinkas (Book of Records) burned during a fire many years ago. In the Dynow Gmina (Jewish Community) there existed a law dating from old Poland, from the seventeenth century covering the days on which markets might be held. It was specified that the markets in Dubiecko would take place on other days, in order that the Jews from Dynow could participate at the markets in Dubiecko…Dubiecko drew her spiritual nourishment from Torah, and from the Chasidic Masters and teachers. At the author Malei Haruim" (Maltitud of Shepperds) a great number of Dubiecko students were seen who were getting meals at the homes of the Dynow residents. Later they came to the great Tzadik Reb Yahoshua, and to the Rebbe Zvi Elimelech. The great majority of the Dubiecko Chasidim stayed in Dynow day and night.... Poverty in Dubiecko exceeded that of in Dynow; in Dubiecko there were few brick houses, in contrast to Dynow where most houses were of brick… After Shabbat we said goodbye to the friendly residents of Dubiecko, and got on our sleighs for the short journey home… All this is like a dream, from Jewish Dubiecko which no longer exists… The following day, which was a Sunday-Fast of Gedaliah-when the Nazi murderers finished their gruesome work in Dynow, they came to Dubiecko, and started their horrible work, they killed eleven Jews… Then, they burned the Synagogue…A day before Succoth the Jews of Dubiecko received an order from the murderers to leave town and cross the river San where they met with Jews from Dynow in Berch and in Przemysl. This is how the Jews from the little towns wandered down the river San on the other side. The Dubiecko Rabbi Reb Shmuel Aron Flam (descendent of martyrs) perished in Przemysl together with the Rebitzin.
Source: The above excerpts are from the The Destruction of Dynów, Sanok and Dubiecko by David Moreitz. Additional excerpts can be found at: http://www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org/krosno/krosnotowns.htm
. . . . . . . . .
NEGER Family & Wertenteil Family
Shoah Survivor Summaries
List compiled by Nina Talbot (April, 2016)
(related to the NEGER Family & friend of the WERTENTEIL Family)
. . . . . . . . .
Those who Perished at Auschwitz
Ignacy (1903-03-02 ÷ 1942-01-04)
Place of Birth: Dynow, Place of Residence: Lublin,
Dawid (1905-08-24 ÷ 1943-02-10)
Place of Birth: Dynow, Place of Residence: Antwerpen
Juda (1889-01-25 ÷ 1942-04-20)
Place of Birth: Dynow, Place of Residence: Neu-Sandez(Nowy Sacz)
Polish Righteous ~
TITLE BESTOWED BY YAD VASHEM OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL
HRYCKO, Franciszek (1920-) and HRYCKO, Maria, wife - The Hryckos lived on a very small farm at Kazimierowka, commune of Dynow, district of Brzozow. He took into his house Blima Schif, who escaped the massacre of Jews in Dynow and Brzozow in 1941. He also wanted to repay a service she rendered him when he was a boy. Seeing him walking barefoot to school she had bought him shoes. In gratitude for having saved her life, Blima Schif-Dorenbuscht donated Franciszek a piece of land she owned before the war. See: Grynberg, op. cit. see - http://www.savingjews.org/righteous/hv.htm
Surnames: RAFF / SICHERMAN / FISH/FISCH / MEISNER/ KATZ / GRUNSPANN/GREENSPAN / EICHNER / ZWICK / HILLER from Zmigród Nowy / Bukowsko / Dukla / Dynow / Korczyna
Great Grandparents: Yehoshua ‘Osias’ RAFF (watchmaker) and Necha SICHERMAN of Bukowsko. Osias RAFF is listed in the “1891 Galician Business Directory” as a watchmaker. They had at least four children: Jacob Zev ‘Wolf’(watchmaker), Marcus ‘Max’, Esther, and Rusa ‘Rose’. Wolf was my grandfather. Max and Wolf immigrated to the United States. Esther and Rose immigrated to Cuba where they married into the ZWICK family. Esther married Leon ZWICK and Rose married Israel ZWICK. In the 1960’s many of the Cuban RAFF / ZWICK / FRANKEL family moved to the United States.
B.A. Raff (watchmaker) Dynów (“Galicia 1891 Business Directory”) and A. Raff (Watchmaker) Dynów (“1929 Polish Business Directory”) must be relatives. I have yet to determine how.
My grandfather, Wolf (born 21 August 1886/died 17 January 1982) of Bukowsko, married Yittela "Yetta" MEISNER (born 8 September1880/died 20 September1962) of Zmigrod Nowy. They lived in Zmigród Nowy and had 3 children (Ida, Ike, and Israel "James"). James was my father. Wolf immigrated to New York (USA) in 1922 and is followed in 1928 by his wife, "Yetta" and their 3 children. Wolf owned a small jewelry store on the Lower East Side of NY for over 50 years and became an active member of the Brezower Landsmanshaft.
The Raff Family (photo on left): (standing) Ida Raff Frankel (my aunt), Isaac Raff (my uncle), with Yetta Meisner Raff (my grandmother) holding Israel "James" Raff (my wonderful dad!)
Wolf and Yetta’s children are:
At the age of 6 (1928), my dad (James) left Poland with his mother and siblings to reunite with his father in New York. He served in the U.S. Army during WWII; was an active member of the Jewish War Veterans; and a volunteer coordinator for his local police department, until his death in 1999. He practiced his Yiddish by translating some stories from the Sanok Yizkor Book for JewishGen.
For More Information, email: Debbie Raff
Miller Family Genealogy
A complete family tree for the Miller Family can be found at: http://www1.ics.uci.edu/~dan/genealogy/Miller/hometree.htm
R' Hersh Mylech Spira is the gggg uncle of Moishe Miller. For More Information, email: Moishe Miller
Gesher Galicia Homepage http://www.geshergalicia.org or click on logo (above)
About Galicia http://www.geshergalicia.org/about-galicia
Compiled by Deborah Raff
Lovingly Updated 17 April 2016
Copyright © 2003 Deborah Raff
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